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What is the definition of neoplasia?
abnormal mass = increased nomal tissure = increased growth witout stimulous
Is metaplasia the same as dysplasia?
No. Metaplasia is a change due to a reaction and may not lead to dysplasia
What are the primary characteristics of neoplastic cell growth?
1) Autonomous 2) Excessive 3) Disorganized
Why is neoplastic grown like the DEA?
They are a disorganized autonomous agency that has been known to use excessive force
What is local invasion?
Spread of neoplastic cells into adjacent normal tissue, typically cell circumscribed or encapsulated
What caracterizes malignancy?
1) Dissemination of malignant tumor cells away from site of origin usually via the vascular or lymphatic transport systems
What are tye cytological characteristics of a benign tumor?
1) Uniform cell population 2) Regularly shaped nuclei 3) Well developed cytoplasm 4) Regular distribution of chrmatin 5) Normal nucleoli
What are the cytological characteristics of a malignant tumor?
1) Heterogenous cell population w/ pleomorphism 2) Variable nuclei 3) Variable amounts of cytoplasm 3) High nuclear-cytoplasmic ratio 4) Hyperchromatic nuclei 5) Prominent multi nucleoli 6) Numerout mitoses
What is the purpose of staging and grading?
Method of classifying the type of neoplasia and provide predictive outcome
Describe tumor staging
TNM: Used to evaluate the extend of tumor spread via standard criteria specific to different neoplasms
What are the 5 grades of prostate carcinoma?
1) small, uniform 2) medium 3) marked variation in glandular size w/ infiltration 4) markedly atypical cells with extensive infiltration 5) Sheets of undifferentiated cancer cells
What is the clinical manifestation of neoplasia?
High variable since neoplasia is not a single disease
What affects clinical manifestation of neoplasia?
Type of tumor, location, histological grade, clinical stage, ummune status of host, sensitivity of tumor cells to therapy
What are the local features of neoplasia?
1) Destruction of a vital structure 2) Obstruction 3) Ulceration 4) Bleeding
Can a benign tumor be lethal?
Yes. Ex= pituitary adenoma causes increased intercranial pressure and death
What are the systemic features of neoplasia (usually from malignant processes)
1) Anorexia 2) Weight Loss 3) Fever 4) Anemia 5) Decreased resistance to infection 6) Cachexia
What are paraneoplastic syndromes?
Symptom complexes not readily explained by either local or distance spread of the tumor. Ex-production of humoral product by tumor or production of a product not originally made by that tissue type
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