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Pathology Exam II: Neoplasia 1
What is the etymology of neoplasia?
Neo = new, plasia = growth: new growth
What is the definition of neoplasia?
abnormal mass = increased nomal tissure = increased growth witout stimulous
increaed cell number
example of hyperplasia
increased breast tissue due to lactation
change in cell type
disordered cell growth aka preneoplastic
poor cell differentiation
excessive, autonomous growth
study and treatment of tumors
Through which stages is abnormal growth reversible?
Is neoplasia irreversible?
Is metaplasia the same as dysplasia?
No. Metaplasia is a change due to a reaction and may not lead to dysplasia
What characterizes dysplasia?
Disordered, abnormaql arrangement
Can neoplasia be benign?
no cell differentiation when there should be. Not a stage but a descrition
What are the primary characteristics of neoplastic cell growth?
1) Autonomous 2) Excessive 3) Disorganized
Why is neoplastic grown like the DEA?
They are a disorganized autonomous agency that has been known to use excessive force
Characterize the degrees of malignancy
1) Invasion 2) Metastasis
What is local invasion?
Spread of neoplastic cells into adjacent normal tissue, typically cell circumscribed or encapsulated
What is a metastasis?
Invasion of malignant tumor into adjacent (or further) tissues
What caracterizes malignancy?
1) Dissemination of malignant tumor cells away from site of origin usually via the vascular or lymphatic transport systems
What are the two types of malignancy?
1) Benign 2) Malignant
A tumor that is well differentiated and resembles the original tissue is likely to be
A tumor that is poorly differentiated and has spread to adjacent tissue is classified as
What are tye cytological characteristics of a benign tumor?
1) Uniform cell population 2) Regularly shaped nuclei 3) Well developed cytoplasm 4) Regular distribution of chrmatin 5) Normal nucleoli
What are the cytological characteristics of a malignant tumor?
1) Heterogenous cell population w/ pleomorphism 2) Variable nuclei 3) Variable amounts of cytoplasm 3) High nuclear-cytoplasmic ratio 4) Hyperchromatic nuclei 5) Prominent multi nucleoli 6) Numerout mitoses
What is pleomorphism?
Many different shapes
What is a starburst mitosis?
Characteristic of malignancy
Are malignant tumors slow or fast growing compared to benign of the same type?
What is the suffix for a benign tumor?
What is the suffix for a malignant tumor
if epithelial: -carcinoma if mesenchymal: -sarcoma
-carcinomas originate from which cell type?
-sarcomas originate from which cell type?
Malignant neoplasm derived from mesenchymal tissue
Malignant neoplasm of epithelial origin
Malignant neoplasm of hematopoietic cell origin (eg B cells)
What is the prefix for adipose tissue?
What is the prefix for cartilage?
What is the prefix for smooth muscle?
What is the prefix for striated muscle?
What is a benign squamous tumor called?
What is a malignant squamous tumor called?
squamous cell carcinoma
benign adipose tumor
malignant adipose tumor
benign cartilage tumor
malignant cartilage tumor
benign smooth muscle tissue tumor
malignant smooth muscle tissue tumor
benign striated muscle tissue tumor
malignant striated muscle tissue tumor
benign squamous tumor
squamous cell carcinoma
malignant squamous tumor
MALIGNANT melanocarincoma (skin)
MALIGNANT testicular cell carcinoma
MALIGNANT lymphosarcoma (mass forming)
MALIGNANT lymphosarcoma (bone marrow and circulating)
MALIGNANT hepatocellular carcinoma
Why in nomenclature important?
Identification and designation assists in prognosis and treatement
What is the purpose of staging and grading?
Method of classifying the type of neoplasia and provide predictive outcome
Describe tumor staging
TNM: Used to evaluate the extend of tumor spread via standard criteria specific to different neoplasms
TNM: T =
size and local spread of primary tumor
TNM: N =
reginonal lymph node involvement
TNM: M =
distant metastases (YES/NO)
Which is a deeper invasion, T1 or T3?
T3 is a deeper invasion
What are the three terms used in grading (not prostate)?
Well, moderately or poorly differentiated
What are the 5 grades of prostate carcinoma?
1) small, uniform 2) medium 3) marked variation in glandular size w/ infiltration 4) markedly atypical cells with extensive infiltration 5) Sheets of undifferentiated cancer cells
What is the clinical manifestation of neoplasia?
High variable since neoplasia is not a single disease
What affects clinical manifestation of neoplasia?
Type of tumor, location, histological grade, clinical stage, ummune status of host, sensitivity of tumor cells to therapy
What are the local features of neoplasia?
1) Destruction of a vital structure 2) Obstruction 3) Ulceration 4) Bleeding
Can a benign tumor be lethal?
Yes. Ex= pituitary adenoma causes increased intercranial pressure and death
What is a pathologic fracture?
Break in bone through tumor site
What are the systemic features of neoplasia (usually from malignant processes)
1) Anorexia 2) Weight Loss 3) Fever 4) Anemia 5) Decreased resistance to infection 6) Cachexia
What is cachexia
Extreme wasting, malnutrition, malaise, and weakness
What are paraneoplastic syndromes?
Symptom complexes not readily explained by either local or distance spread of the tumor. Ex-production of humoral product by tumor or production of a product not originally made by that tissue type
Explain how small cell carcinoma of the lung can lead to Cushing syndrome
The CA produces ACTH, uncharacteristic of lung tissue, which leads to uncontrolled release of cortisol -> Cushing's