29 terms

exercise phys final

individual adaptations to training
A person's rate of adaptation and response to training is genetically limited and cannot be forced beyond his or her body's capacity for development. Each individual responds differently to the same training stress.
optimizing training
Principle of progressive overload
-All well-designed training programs incorporate this principle

Balance between: volume and intensity

Must determine optimal training stimulus
Principle of periodization
type of training an athlete would undertake between competitive seasons or during active rest
acute overload
the athlete is stressing the body to the extent necessary to improve physiological function and performance
brief period of heavy overload without adequate recovery
point at which an athlete experiences physiological maladaptations and chronic performance decrements
Leads to overtraining syndrome
excessive training
Training that is well above what is needed for peak performance, but does not strictly meet the criteria for either overreaching or overtraining
Volume and/or intensity of training are increased to extreme levels
"more is better" philosophy
High-intensity training can have negative effects on adaptation (e.g., depletion of muscle glycogen)
Principle of specificity
Athletes may exhibit signs of chronic fatigue or overtraining

Research: swimmers
3-4 hrs/day, 5-6 days/week
No greater benefits than 1-1.5 hrs/day
muscular strength
sprint swimming performance

Training intensity
Relative force of muscle action
resistance training
Relative stress placed on metabolic & cardiovascular systems
anaerobic & aerobic training
training intensity
High-intensity, low-volume
increase muscular strength
Resistance training
increase total body speed & anaerobic capacity
High-intensity interval training

Low-intensity, high-volume
improves oxygen transport & oxidative metabolic systems
increase aerobic capacity
training models key points
Optimal training involves following a model that incorporates the principles of periodization
Excessive training is training that is done with an unnecessarily high volume or intensity with little or no additional improvements in conditioning or performance
Training volume can be increased through increases in both the duration and/or frequency of training bouts
Training intensity determines the specific adaptations that occur in response to the training stimulus (training intensity increases, training volume must be reduced)
overreaching 2
Systematic attempt to intentionally overstress the body
Brief decrements in performance occur, followed by increased physiological function and improved performance
Critical phase of training
Leading to:
1. improved physiological function and performance
2. overtraining

Full recovery from training
1. Several days to several weeks
2. Many months, maybe years
overtraining 2
Unexplained decline in performance and physiological function
Can occur with each of the major forms of training (resistance, anaerobic, aerobic)
Cannot be remedied by a few days of reduced training, rest, or dietary manipulation
symptoms of overtraining syndrome
1. Decline in physical performance
2. Sense of a loss in muscular strength, coordination, and work capacity
Change in appetite
Body weight loss
Sleep disturbances
Irritability, restlessness, excitability, anxiousness
Loss of motivation and vigor
Lack of mental concentration
Feelings of depression
Lack of appreciation for things normally enjoyable
possible causes of overtraining
Symptoms similar to clinical depression
Complex combination of emotional & physiological factors
Sudden ↑ in anxiety
Emotional demands of competition
Desire to win
Fear of failure
Unrealistically high goals
Not fully understood
Abnormal responses
Nervous system
Endocrine system
Immune system
Periods of excessive training or emotional stress
sympathetic overtraining
Increased resting heart rate
Increased blood pressure
Loss of appetite
Decreased body mass
Sleep disturbances
Emotional instability
Elevated basal metabolic rate

high intensity overload
parasympathetic overtraining
Early onset of fatigue
Decreased resting heart rate
Rapid heart rate recovery after exercise
Decreased resting blood pressure

high volume overload
hormonal responses to intensified training
Testosterone/cortisol ratio
Regulates anabolic processes in recovery
↓ testosterone / ↑ cortisol
May lead to more protein catabolism than anabolism
Most research in endurance athletes
Intensity-related overtraining does not appear to alter resting hormonal concentrations
predicting overtraining
No preliminary symptoms warn athletes that they are on the verge of becoming overtrained

Increase in oxygen consumption (though impractical for coach to measure)

heart rate response to standard bout of work
Declines in performance
treatment of overtraining
Marked reduction in training intensity or complete rest
prevention of overtraining
Follow periodization training procedures
Alternating easy, moderate, & hard periods of training
As a rule:
1 or 2 days of intense training should be followed by equal number of easy training days
1 0r 2 weeks of hard training should be followed by a week of reduced effort with little or no emphasis on anaerobic exercise
Pay attention to carb intake
overtraining key points
Overtraining stresses the body beyond its capacity to adapt, decreasing performance and physiological capacity
Symptoms of overtraining can vary; many can accompany regular training, which makes prevention or diagnosis difficult
Possible explanations for overtraining include changes in the function of the autonomic nervous system, altered endocrine responses, suppressed immune function, and altered brain neurotransmitters
heart rate response to a fixed-pace exercise bout appears to be the easiest and most accurate technique to diagnose overtraining in its early stages
Overtraining syndrome is treated by a marked reduction in training intensity or complete rest for weeks or months
Prevention of overtraining syndrome can be accomplished through use of periodization training procedures
For endurance athletes, it is important to ensure adequate carbohydrate intake to meet energy needs
Tapering for competition involves a reduction in training intensity and volume. This reduction allows your body to repair itself and restore its energy reserves to prepare you for your best performance.
effects of tapering
Muscular strength
Allows time for muscle repair
Energy reserves are
No loss of VO2max occurs
May increase economy
Lower VO2submax
Performance increases (especially in swimmers)
tapering for peak performance
decreasing training intensity and volume before a competition increasing strength, power, and performance capacity
Optimal duration of the taper is 4 - 28 days or longer and is dependent on the sport, event, and the athlete's needs
Muscular strength increases significantly during tapering
Allows time for muscles to be repaired from damage incurred during intense training and for energy stores to be restored
less training is needed to maintain previous gains than was originally needed to attain them, so tapering does not decrease conditioning
Performance improves by an average of 3% with proper tapering
Partial or complete loss of training-induced adaptations in response to cessation of training or a substantial decrease in training load
loss of muscle strength and power
decrease in muscular endurance
loss of speed, agility, and flexibility
decrease in cardiorespiratory endurance
loss of muscular strength
Muscle atrophy caused by a decrease in muscle mass and water content
Changes in the rate of muscle protein synthesis ( ) and degradation ( increase )
Decreased neurological stimulation with a disruption in normal fiber recruitment
Inability to activate some muscle fibers

isometric contractions
Intensity can be graded
Do not require joint movement
loss of muscular endurance
Decreased performance may be related to losses in cardiorespiratory endurance
Decreased oxidative enzyme activity
glycolytic enzymes remain unchanged with up to 4 weeks of detraining
Decreased muscle glycogen content
Disturbed acid-base balance
increased blood lactate
decreased bicarbonate
loss of cardiorespiratory endurance
20 days of bed rest led to:
increase in submaximal heart rate
25% decrease in submaximal stroke volume
25% decrease in maximal cardiac output
27% decrease in VO2max
Changes are likely associated with a decrease plasma volume
preventing losses in cardiorespiratory endurance
Losses are significant only when frequency and duration are reduced by two-thirds of the regular training load

Training intensity plays more crucial role in maintaining aerobic power during periods of reduced training

You can prevent rapid losses in cardiorespiratory endurance with a minimum of three training sessions per week at an intensity of at least 70% VO2max.
detraining key points
Detraining is the partial or complete reversal of training-induced adaptations in response to cessation of training or a substantial decrease in the training load
Detraining causes muscle atrophy and losses in muscle strength and power
Muscular endurance decreases after 2 weeks of inactivity
Detraining losses in speed and agility are small but flexibility is lost quickly
Losses in cardiorespiratory endurance are much greater than losses in muscle strength, power, and endurance over the same time period
Detraining effects can be minimized by training three times a week at 70% VO2max