Similar to adult healthy population, with special attention to symptoms and contraindications. (Box 8.1)
They include: Relative- severe anemia, unevaluated maternal cardiac dysrhythmia, chronic bronchitis, type 1 diabetes, morbid obesity, extreme underweight, extreme sedentary lifestyle, intrauterine growth restriction, hypertension, orthopedic limitations, seizure disorder, hyperthyroidism, heavy smoker.
At least 5 d/wk - mod intensity 40 to 60%VO2R- aerobic, weight bearing, flexibility
At least 3 d/wk vigorous intensity > 60% VO2R- aerobic, weight bearing, flexibility
3-5 d/wk - combination of mod to vigorous, aerobic, weight bearing, flexibility
2-3 d/wk muscular strength and endurance, resistance, calisthenics, balance and agility
Endurance - For all adults
Walking, leisure cycle, aqua aerobic, slow dance
Vigorous - Adults with regular Jog, run, row, aerobics, spin, elliptical exercise, step, dance
exercise program or avg Fitness
Endurance - Adults with acquired skill, avg fitness
Swim cross country ski, skating
Recreational Sports-Adults, avg Fitness. Racquet sports, basketball soccer, down hill skiing, hiking
Frequency - each major muscle group 2-3 d/wk. (chest, shoulders, upper & lower back, abdomen, hips, legs)
48 hours separating training sessions for the same muscle group.
Split sessions are options
Intensity - 60-80% of 1 - RM, where 1 - RM is the greatest amount of weight that can be lifted in a single repetition.
Volume - 2 -4 sets of 8 - 12 repetitions. There should be a 2-3 minute rest between sets. Older adults 1or more sets of 10-15 reps at 60-70% 1 - RM
Types of Resistance exercises - multi joint or compound. Examples: leg press, dips, bench press. Exercises that affect more than one muscle group.
Also, single joint such as biceps, triceps, quad extensions, calf raises.
Train opposing muscle groups
Aim to determine HR response to one or more sub maximal workloads and use results to predict VO2max.
Also need to obtain additional indices of client's responses to exercise
Should also measure HR, BP, RPE and workloads.
Subjects with diabetes may have blunted HR response to exercise and may not have age-normal max HR.
Valid and reliable when done in lab setting
Cycle most preferred due to ability to reproduce work output
Accurate assessment of HR is key. Typically palpate radial artery. May vary with experience and technique of fitness professional.
Could use HR monitor, ECG, or stethoscope
Can be affected by humidity, heat, caffeine, smoking, previous activity, time since last meal, anxiety.
General procedures box 4.4