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"salt-retaining hormone" which promotes the retention of Na+ by the kidneys. Na+ retention promotes water retention, which promotes a higher blood volume and pressure


A small, very toxic molecule (NH3) produced by nitrogen fixation or as a metabolic waste product of protein and nucleic acid metabolism.

antidiuretic hormone

hormone secreted by the posterior pituitary gland and also by nerve endings in the hypothalamus

atrial natriuretic hormone (ANH)

Secreted from the atrial wall of the heart--stimulates kidney tubles to secrete more sodium

collecting duct

The portion of the nephron where water reabsorption is regulated via antidiuretic hormone (ADH). Several nephrons empty into each collecting duct, and this is the final region through which urine must passon its way to the ureter.

distil convoluted tubule

final portion of a nephron that joins with a collecting duct; associated with tubular secretion


process of getting rid of wastes

flame cell

in flat worms, a cilia-lined, bulblike cell that moves water and certain substances into excrestory tubules for elimination outside the body

glomerular capsule

a double-walled globe at the proximal end of a nephron that encloses the glomerular capillaries. aka Bowman's capsule

glomerular filtration

the first step of urine production, water and most solutes in blood plasma move across the wall of glomerular capillaries into the glomerular capsule and then into the renal tubule.


small network of capillaries encased in the upper end of a nephron; where the filtration of blood takes place


two structures located on each side of the lumbar region that filter blood and secrete impurities, forming urine

loop of the nephron

Portion of the nephron lying between the proximal convoluted tubule and the distal convoluted tubule that functions in water re-absorption aka Loop of Henle

Malpighian tubule

saclike organ in most insects and certain terrestrial arthropods that extracts wastes from the blood, adding them to feces that move through the gut, the excretory tube opens into the back part of the intestine


tiny tubular organ of excretion that filters cellular wastes from the coelom of certain invertebrates


blood-filtering unit in the renal cortex of the kidney, the functional unit of the kidney

proximal convuluted tubule

portion of a nephron following the glomerular capsule where tubular re-absorption of filtrate occurs

renal cortex

the cortex of the kidney containing the glomeruli and the convoluted tubules

renal medulla

the inner portion of the vertebrate kidney, beneath the renal cortex, contains the remainder of the renal tubules , the loops of henle , and collecting tubules

renal pelvis

a structure shaped like a funnel in the outlet of the kidney into which urine is discharged before passing into the ureter


This hormone is produced by the kidneys and regulates aldosterone secretion.

tubular reabsorption

water, other substances body needs (nutrients, ions) pass into the nephron as part of filtrate that move from the tubule into the blood

tubular secretion

wastes are removed from the blood and secreted into urine


major nitrogenous waste product formed in the liver, filtered out of the blood by the kidneys, and excreted in urine


either of a pair of thick-walled tubes that carry urine from the kidney to the urinary bladder

uric acid

natural waste product of metabolism that is excreted in urine, increases with gout, uremia, acidosis

urinary bladder

saclike organ in which urine is stored before being excreted


a fluid produced by the kidneys that contains water, urea and other waste materials

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