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Unit 1: The Global Tapestry 1200-1450
This is for 1.1-1.7 combined, xoxo
Terms in this set (34)
Rise of the Northern Song Dynasty (960-1126)
- Replaced the Tang Dynasty, United N & S China, capital Kaifeng, Arts flourished under this empire
- Song kept old political structure (emperor at the top of central bureaucracy) This represented continuity across centuries and dynasties
- Meritocracy was their bureaucratic system where young men could obtain high ranking positions by their knowledge (scoring well in tests)
The Collapse of the Northern Song Dynasty (1126-1127)
- Keeping peace with nomads had become an issue (like earlier dynasties)
- To defeat Khitan (nomads in modern-day Mongolia), Song allied with Jurchen (nomads from Manchuria). Jurchen had been subject people of Khitan until they declared independence, forming the Jin dynasty.
- Song-Jurchen forces defeat Khitan in 1125. Jurchens then attacked the Song Dynasty and conquered the capital. They used gunpowder weapons and utilized their superior horse riding skills
- By the end of the song Dynasty, the Bureaucracy had grown so large that it contributed to their downfall. By creating so many jobs and by paying the higher officials so much, the Song increased the costs of government to the point that they began drying up China's surplus wealth.
Economic Developments in Postclassical China
- The flourishing Tang Dynasty promoted agricultural development, improved roads and canals, encouraged foreign trade and spread technology, leading to the rapid growth and prosperity in the Song Dynasty.
- Grand Canal : Inexpensive and efficient waterway transportation that was expanded under the Song Dynasty
- Although gunpowder was invented many years before in China, Song Dynasty made the first guns. This technology spread from China to all over Eurasia via the Silk Road.
- Champa Rice greatly expanded agricultural production as it was fast-ripening and drought-resistant. Rice could now grow in more areas
- Agricultural innovations allowed for China's Population to grow extremely fast, going from about 25% of the world population to 40%
- Industrial production soared, although China didn't have the greatest manufacturing capabilities. Used steel to reinforce bridges, gates, and ship anchors. It was also used for religious items and strengthening agricultural equipment, which contributed to the abundance of food production.
- Under Song and earlier than Western Europe, China experienced proto-Industrialization, a set of economic changed in which people in rural areas made more goods than they could sell. Relied more on home based or community based production.
- Artisans (skilled craftworkers) manufactured things like silk and porcelain. Porcelain was highly desired as it was lightweight, yet strong.
- Used compass in maritime navigation and their ability to print paper navigation charts made seafaring possible in open waters (not just coastal
- Became the world's most commercialized society. Economy changed from local consumption to market production.
- Paying people to work instead of requiring people to work changed the amount of money in circulation which promoted economic growth
- Tributary system by other states to the emperor cemented China's economic and political power over foreign countries
Social Structures in China
- Most lived in rural areas
- Social class was scholar gentry, educated in Confucian philosophy and became the most influential class in China
- 3 classes below them: farmers, artisans and merchants.
- Confucian traditions included respect for women but also that they would defer to men. Patriarchy strengthened during Tang and Song.
- Foot binding was common among girls in aristocratic families
Intellectual and Cultural Developments
- Intellectual pursuits such as technology, literature, etc. thrived
- Chinese woodblock printing became prevalent and this meant that people could make multiple copies of art or written texts without copying each by hand.
- paper and printing expanded the availability of books
Religious Diversity in China
- Buddhism came to China from India via the Silk Road
- 3 different types of Buddhism: Theravada, which focused on personal spiritual growth through meditation, strongest in SE Asia. Mahayana, which focused on spiritual growth for all beings, strongest in China and Korea. Tibetan which focused on chanting, strongest in Tibet.
All three include a belief in the Four Noble Truths, which stress the idea that personal suffering can be alleviated by eliminating cravings or worldly desires. They also embrace the Eight-Fold Path that can lead to enlightenment or Nirvana.
- Buddhist doctrines combine with elements of Daoism traditions to create a syncretic faith called Zen Buddhism. Emphasized direct experience and meditation over studying scriptures.
- Tang Dynasty had trouble accepting the foreign religion, whereas Song was more friendly towards it but didn't go out of their way to promote it.
- Song Dynasty benefitted from Confucian ideals of filial piety (respect for one's parents, elders, and ancestors)
- Neo-Confucianism evolved in the 8th-9th century and it was a mixture of Daoism and Buddhism. Emphasized ethics rather than mysteries of God and nature. Popular in Japan, Korea and Vietnam
Comparing Japan, Korea, and Vietnam
- When China was unified, it became the world's most powerful realm. They all had to confront the issue of the assimilation of Chinese traditions and practices.
- It could control interactions more than Korea or Vietnam could because Japan was separated by Sea rather than land.
- Japan had a feudal society w/o a centralized government. Similar to European feudalism, featured very little mobility and both were hereditarily hierarchal.
- Three groups were serfs (peasants), knights, and nobles.
- The difference between Japan and European Feudalism is that daimyo (landowning aristocrats) enjoyed more power than European nobility. They ruled lots of land and had more power than emperor or shogun. Monarch was above nobility in Europe.
- Location gave it a direct relationship with China
- China and Korea were close through tributary system. It centralized its government like China and adopted Confucian and Buddhist beliefs.
- Landed aristocracy was more powerful in Korea than in China, they could prevent Chinese reforms from being implemented.
- Korean civil service exam (not open to peasants so it wasn't a merit-based entry into the bureaucracy)
- strong resistance to Chinese power as their culture was so different
- Married Vietnamese Women experienced more independence than Chinese Women in Confucian tradition.
- Preferred Nuclear Families (wife, husband and children), Chinese liked extended families
- Scholar-officials owed more allegiance to the village peasants (not the emperor). They often led revolts against government
- Rejected foot binding and polygyny (having more than one wife at the same time)
- Despite efforts, sinification did occur
- In battles against Chinese, they showed strong capacity for guerilla warfare
Invasions and Shifts in Trade Routes
- Arabs purchased enslaved people, Mamluks, who were ethnic Turks from Central Asia, to serve as soldiers.
- Mamluks seized control of Egypt government, establishing the Mamluk Sultanate (1250-1571). Prospered by facilitating trade in cotton and sugar between the Islamic world and Europe. They declined once Europeans developed new sea routes for trade.
- A challenge for the Abbasids (modern-day Iraq) came from Central Asian Seljuk Turks (also Muslim). They began conquering parts of the Middle East. Seljuk leader was called the Sultan.
- Abbasids allowed Christians to travel to their holy sites, Seljuk Turks limited this travel, thus causing the European Christians to organize Crusaders
- Mongols conquered the remaining Abbasid empire in 1258 and ended the Seljuk rule. They continued westward but were stopped by Mamluks in Egypt.
Cultural and Social Life
- Abbasid Caliphate was lead by Arabs and Persians
- By the 16th century, 3 large Islamic states had their roots in Turkic Cultures: The Ottoman Empire in Turkey, The Safavid Empire in Persia, and the Mughal Empire in India
- Islamic scholars studied mathematics texts from India and transferred this knowledge to the Europeans. They adopted paper-making techniques and through them, Europeans learned to make paper. Translated Greek literary classics to Arabic, preserving works of Aristotle and others.
- "Golden Age"
- Nasir al-Din al-Tusi (1201-1274), an Islamic scholar who contributed to astronomy, law, logic, ethics, math, philosophy and medicine. An observatory was built under his direction and it eas the most advanced in the world. Laid groundwork for trigonometry
- Ibn Khaldun (1332-1406) was well known for his historical accounts and is the founder o historiography and sociology
- Sufi missionaries played an important role in the spread of Islam. They interweaved local religious elements into Islam, often winning them converts.
- Islamic society viewed merchants as more prestigious than did other societies in Europe and Asia at the time. Muhammad was a merchant.
- Because of the Silk Road and a revival in trade (due to Pax Mongolica period), merchants could grow rich
- Islam allowed slavery but a Muslim could not enslave another Muslim. Jews, Christians, and Zoroastrians were also exempt. Slaves were often from Africa, Keivan Rus (Russia area), and Central Asia. Many slaves converted to Islam and then were freed by owners. Slave women were often concubines to Islamic men. Slave women had more independence (could go to the store, run errands etc.), all luxuries that legal wives didn't have
Free Women in Islam
- Women could study but not in the presence of a man related to her
- Hijabs for Women and Turbans for Men popularized
- Muhammad raised the status of women. His wife was educated and had her own business which set a pattern for the recognition of women's abilities
- They had higher status than Christian or Jewish women. They could inherit property or remarry.
Islamic Rule in Spain
- Umayyads briefly ruled in Middle East but kept power longer in Spain. Cordoba was designated as the capital.
- Battle of Tours proved defeat for Islamic armies which limited their expansion into Western Europe.
- Most of Europe was Christian except Muslims held Spain until the 16th century
- Climate of toleration for non-Muslims.
- They promoted trade
- Islamic state in Spain (al-Andalus) became center of learning. Cordoba had the largest library in the world
- Islamic scholarship and scientific innovations (as well as knowledge from China and India) laid the groundwork for the Renaissance and Scientific Revolution in Europe. Paper (developed in China) was vital to spreading ideas in Europe.
Political Structures in South Asia
- Northern and Southern India developed separate political structures. Hinduism provided some cultural unity
- S was more stable than N India
- Islamic forces conquered Dheli and formed and formed the Dheli Sultanate (they were vulnerable to Muslim attacks because they never formed a centralized government) It reigned from the 13th-16th century
- Some Hindus converted to Islam, while many resented them as they were seen as foreigners
Religion in South Asia
- Hindus prayed to many gods, Islam is monotheistic
- Hindu temples are full of artwork and deities while Muslims disapprove of any visual representation of Allah
- Hinduism had a hierarchical caste system (born into a caste and if you behave well in your life, you will move up). Islam called for equality among all believers
- Hindus had several sacred texts, Muslims only used Quran
- Islam entered India forcefully but eventually took on a more peaceful approach. Most converts came willingly
- Islam attracted low-caste Hindus as the religion focused on equality
- Most converts to Islam were Buddhists because monasteries were raided and there was a lot of corruption, which made the religion very disorganized.
Social Structures in South Asia
- India's Caste System is its strongest historical continuity
- Most converts to Islam didn't find a way to improve their social status because they still needed education and skills to escape their low status.
- Islam didn't alter gender relations
- In SE Asia, Women enjoyed more independence before the arrival of Islam.
Cultural Interactions in South Asia
- Indian developments in algebra and geometry were translated into Arabic and spread throughout Dar al-Islam
- Numeral system referred to in the west as Arabic Numerals actually originated in India.
- Religious structures often showed syncretism. Towers common in Hindu temples were often combines with domes common in Islamic Mosques
- Bhakti Movement, which was when some Hindus began to draw up upon traditional teachings about the importance of emotion. Focused on developing a strong attachment to a particular deity. Didn't discriminate against gender or class. This was similar to Sufi Muslims in that it was a spiritual movement.
- Sea based and land based kingdoms
- Islam movements paralleled its expansion elsewhere. Today, Indonesia includes more Muslims than any other country.
- Sufis did missionary work in SE Asia. Bc of their tolerance, people felt comfortable converting.
The Mississippian Culture
- First large scale civilization in North America
- Built enormous mounds instead of monumental building
- Large rigid class structure.
- Women farmed and men hunted. Matrilineal society (ex. when great sun chief died, title wasn't passed to his son, but his sisters son)
- They declined in the 1600s and abandoned their civilizations. Historians guess its either from disease or they fled due to the weather and crop failure.
The Maya City-States
- City-State govt., each was ruled by a king and most rulers were men however women could rule if a make heir wasn't old enough (this is good info for ap test as it can connect and compare social and political structure to other societies)
- Wars between city states were common
- Human sacrifices
- No armies so when war erupted, it was the citizens jobs to provide military service
- Science and religion linked through astronomy
- Offerings to gods were important (similar to the Aztecs, but human sacrifices was more prevalent in Aztec society)
- Also known as Mexicas, they were originally hunter-gatherers
- Capital was Tenochtitlan (Mexico City)
- Built floating gardens called chinampas to increase the amount of space for production
- Built pyramids and aqueducts
- They used a tribute system and developed city-states
- Government was a theocracy
- Human sacrifice was a way of atonement for sin. (so many ppl were killed that the number is unknown)
- they were in decline by the 15th century due to their low level of technology. Spaniards were able to come in and take over due to their almost backwards state.
- Mit'a system, mandatory public service for men aged 15-50
- Sun god was important
- Priests were consulted before important actions.
- Religion included Animism, the belief that elements of the physical world could have supernatural powers
- Built sophisticated terrace systems for cultivation of crops like potato and maize
- Empire was in the midst of a civil war when Francisco Pizarro arrived in 1532. Civil war weakened army, making Pizarro's forces easier to prevail as well as European Diseases.
Political Structures in Inland Africa
- In contrast to most Asian or European societies, those in Sub-Saharan Africa did not centralize power under one leader or govt.
- Kin-based networks where families governed themselves. This became increasingly difficult as populations grew
Political Structures of West and East Africa
- Exchange of goods and trade benefited kingdoms on the west and east sides. it brought wealth, power, and cultural diversity
- Spread of Islam brought religious diversity
- Ghana, Mali, Zimbabwe and Ethiopia
- In E Africa, traders blended bantu and arabic to develop swahili
Social Structures of Sub-Saharan Africa
- Strong central governments were uncommon, kinship was still more popular
- Men dominated activities that required a special skill (blacksmiths, leather tanners, etc.)
- Women engaged in agriculture and food gathering. Responsible for chores and the children
- Owning a large number of slaves increased ones social status
- Demand for workers in Middle East resulted in Indian Ocean slave trade between East Africa and Middle East
Cultural Life in Sub-Saharan Africa
- Music, arts and stories were important
- Literature was oral, this helped preserve history (griots and griottes were the story tellers of society, when one died, it was as if a library burned. Griottes provided women with a sense of empowerment in a patriarchal society)
Feudalism: Political and Social Systems
- European civilization in the Middle Ages was characterized by a decentralized political organization based on system of exchanges of land for loyalty called feudalism
- Feudalism provided security for peasants, equipment for warriors and land to those who served a lord. Wealth based on land rather than cash.
- Code of Chivalry, unwritten rules of conduct focusing on honor, courtesy, and bravery. It put women on a pedastal without giving them any rights.
- Manorial system provided economic self-sufficiency and defense.
- Serfs, while not slaves, were tied to the land. Children of serfs became serfs
- Three-field system came into use
- Technological developments like plows and windmills promoted population growth
Political Trends in the Later Middle Ages
- Holy Roman Empire was vibrant until the Thirty Years' War (1618-1648). Came to a formal end when Napoleon of France invaded Central Europe in 1806
- Magna Carta, which required the King to respect certain rights such as jury trial
- English Parliament in 1265. It increased the rights of nobles but not the general population.
- Hundred Years' War (1337-1453) rival monarchies of England and France fought a series of battles. This war demonstrated the spreading use of gunpowder weapons which spread west due to the Mongols
- Muslims conquered Spain in the 8th century. Christians sought to reconquer it, this was called the reconquista and it was finally completed in 1492.
Roman Catholic Church During the Middle Ages
- Christian Church split in 1054 called the Great Schism. Roman Catholic Church continued to dominate most of Europe, while the Orthodox church was powerful in Greece and Russia.
- Most art focused on religious themes and images helped illiterate serfs understand the Bible
- Corruption and theological disagreements led reformers like Martin Luther to take stands and shatter the unity of the Roman Catholic Church in the 16th century
- Europeans wanted to regain the Holy Land, the region in Palestine that contains sites of spiritual significance to Jews, Christians, and Muslims
- Rule of primogeniture left a generation of younger sons with little access to land or wealth. A military campaign was a way to divert the ambitions of these restless nobles who often pillaged the lands of neighboring lords.
- Merchants also wanted access to trade routes through the Middle East. All of these ended up helping cause the Crusades from 1095- the 1200s
- Crusades promoted cultural exchange
- First crusade was a clear victory for Christians as they conquered Jerusalem.
Economic and Social Change
- Economic success became to rival religious vocation or military service in winning status.
- Middle class grew
- Three-field system and other innovations led to population growth as agricultural surplus encouraged the growth of towns
- Urban growth was hampered by the Little Ice Age. Lower temps reduced agricultural productivity. People had less to trade and cities grew slowly. Led to increase in disease and unemployment
- Antisemitism was widespread among Christians, they thought they were outsiders and untrustworthy. They ere expelled from England, France, Spain, and Portugal
- 1492, Spain expelled all Muslims who had not converted to Christianity (this shows similarity between Jews and Muslims of the time, they were heavily discriminated against)
- Fewer Women then Men received an education. Women in Islamic societies tended to enjoy higher levels of equality, particularly in Africa and SE Asia.
- A period characterized by a revival in interest in classical Greek and Roman literature, art, culture and civic virtue.
- the printing press developed in 1439 by Johannes Gutenberg initiated a revolution in printing technology. Ideas and such could be mass produced/printed at low cost.
- Interest in Humanism, focus on individuals rather than god. they sought education and reform
- Cultural changes in the Renaissance propelled the rise of powerful monarchies, the centralization of governments, and the birth of nationalism
Origins of Russia
- Extensive trade of furs, fish and grain connected people from Scandinavia to the Mediterranean to Central Asia. Kievan Rus (Kiev, Ukraine) was the center of this trade.
- Mongols overtook this region in the 13th century so it developed separately from the rest of Europe.
- 15th century they became independent
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