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archduke of Austria-Hungary, Ferdinand

the spark for world war I was provided when Gavrilo Princip assassinated?

the Great War

the first total war in world history was?

15 million

approximately how many combatants died in World War I?


the term for the idea that people with the same ethnic origins, language, and political ideals had the right to form sovereign states was?

ottoman empire

the nationalistic aspirations of subject minorities was most threatening to a state such as?


Pan-Slavism was actively promoted by?


in 1914, England's share of the world's industrial output stood at?

oceans (naval race), east/southwest Africa

which of the following was not an important area of competition and conflict between England and Germany in the years leading up to World War I?


the desire to ensure its "Place in the sun" was a common complaint of?

Austria-Hungary, Germany, Italy

the members of the Triple Alliance were?

Italys policy of aggrandizement at the expense of the Ottoman empire/Italy's rivalry with Austria-Hungary in the Balkans

the Triple Alliance as threatened from the very beginning by?

the Franco-Prussian War

the French were deeply suspicious of German expansion because of?

amounted to a veritable celebration of offensive maneuvers- "attack" undertaken always and everywhere

Plan XVII was?

Schlieffen plan

the military plan that called for an invasion of France through Belgium was called the?

Black Hand

Gavriol Princip was a member of a secret Serbian society known as the?

Nicholas II

the last tsar of Russia was?

declaration of war on Serbia

the decision of Nicholas II to mobilize Russia's armed forces following the Austro-Hungarian?

young men

the soldiers who marched off in 1914 to fight in World War I were mostly?


"the make the world safe for democracy" was the motto of the?

the river marne (western front)

the German offensive of 1914 was halted at?


the western front in World War I was?

barbed wire, new weapons-poisonous gas (mustard gas), machine gun, tanks, airplanes, submarine, no-mans-land

which of the following was not a characteristic of the new total war of World War I?

Wilfred Owen

the World War I poet who considered Horace's line that, "It is sweet and proper to die for one's country," to be an "old Lie" was?

the took the mens work during the war- gained voting rights in some countries after war, discouraged patriarchal family system in Russia/China

what effect did World War I have on the status of women?

gov'ts censored bad news and vilified the enemy through propaganda campaigns

the experience of Joseph Caillaux during World War I demonstrated that?

IS NOT: The German invasion of neutral Belgium was such a profound breech of international law

which of the following is not an explanation of the expansion of World War I to Asia, Africa, and the Pacific?

from Japan to China on 18 January 1915

the Twenty-One Demands were issued?

determination to dominate east Asia

the Japanese fought in World War I due to their?

Togoland, the Cameroons, German Southwest Africa, German East Africa

which of the following was a German African colony conquered by the Allies in World War I?

was a disaster-Allied soldiers were pinned on the beaches by the Turkish.

led to a weakening of imperial ties and paved the way for emerging national identities

the battle of Gallipoli?

British intelligence services as a military advisor among the Arabs in revolt against Turkish rule

to lead the bedouins of Arabia against Ottoman rule, T.E. Lawrence worked with?

was an unplanned and incomplete affair-Russia ceased to be a monarchy

the February Revolution of 1917?

soviets of Workers' and Soldiers' Deputies surfaced all over Russia- failed to satisfy popular demands for an end to war/for land reform

the main reason for the failure of the provisional government in Russia in 1917 was?

Lenin viewed the industrial working class as incapable of developing the proper revolutionary consciousness that would lead to effective political action

the main difference between the philosophies of Marx and Lenin was?

"Peace, Land, and Bread"

the most famous motto of the Russian Revolution was?

ended Russia's involvement in the Great War- gave Germans possession of 1/3 Russia's territory and 1/4 population

the Treaty of Brest Litovsk?

Germany's resumption of unrestricted submarine warfare in February 1917

the key factor in the United State's decision to enter World War I was?

left more than 20 million dead and was helped spread by wartime traffic on land/sea

the Influenza Pandemic of 1918?

the Allies didnt permit representatives of the Central Powers to participate

one of the major problems of the Paris peace negotiations that led to the Treaty of Versailles was?

in return for the creation of the League of Nations

Woodrow Wilson agreed to many harsh stipulations to the Treaty of Versailles?

Republic of Turkey

in the wake of World War I, Mustapha Kemal became president of?


the mandate system?

unsuccessful because they didnt make it past the French troops at the fortress of Verdun; French counted 315k dead& German counted 280K

the massive German assault on the western front in 1916 was?

a battle fought to relieve the pressure on Verdun by the British and by November they had gained a few thousand yards at the cost of 420,000 casualties
-a English assault in 1916 that gained a few thousand yards. (from bolins test)

the Somme was?

ultimately a spectacular German success

in World War I, the eastern front was?

Gertrude Stein

the term "lost generation" was coined by?

Oswald Spengler

the writer whose "Decline of the West" proposed that European society had entered the final stage of its existence was?

attacked liberal Christian theology that embraced the idea of progress

in Karl Barth's "Epistle to the ROmans", he?

Erich Maria Remarque's

The author of All Quiet on the Western Front was?

Niokolai Berdiaev

Who wrote, "Man's historical experience has been one of steady failure, and there are no grounds for supposing it will be ever anything else"?

came under attack, especially science and technology.

in the years after World War I, the idea of progress?

the masses were destined to destroy the highest achievements of Western Society

in Jose Ortega y Gaset's "Revolt of the Masses", he points out that?

the most influential economist of the 20th century- fundamental cause of depression was not excessive supply, but inadequate demand

John Maynard Keynes?

Einstein's theory of special relativity

the notion that space and time are relative to the person measuring them was first articulated in?

it is impossible to specify simultaneously the position and velocity of a subatomic particle

in a purely scientific sense, the uncertainty principle proposes that?

it carried broader philosophical ramifications-called into question established notions of truth/violated law of cause and effect

Discoveries in physics added to the anxiety of the 1920s and 1930s because?

Sigmund Freud

the father of psychoanalysis was?

sexual drives and fantasies

According to Freud, the root of neurotic behavior was?

heightened the aversion to visual realism- painters began to think of canvas not as a reproduction of reality, but as an end in itself

the spread of photography?

was: expressionists, cubists, abstractionists, dadaists, surrealists

which of the following groups was not one of the new artistic movements of the 20th century?

Paul Gauguin

the painter who was influenced by the "primitive" art of Tahiti was?

European artists to take similar liberties with realism

the deliberate violation of perspective by Japanese artists influenced?

Picasso-African art forms, Gauguin-Tahiti, Ludwig Mies von der Rohe-modern architecture

which of the following was not an accurate match between artist/ artistic influence?

all artists were acknowledged to have a right to their own reality, and accepted standards of "good/bad" art disappeared

one of the biggest results of the artistic experimentation of the 1920s and 1930s was that?

featured simplicity of shape/extensive use of glass and always embodied that form must follow function

the work of Walter Gropius?

an institution that brought together architects, designers, and painters from several countries

the term Bauhaus is associated with?

overproduction and falling prices

a troubling economic problem in the 1920s was the depressed state of agriculture caused by?

at its lowest level in 400 years

by 1929, the price of a bushel of wheat was?

a wave of panic selling on the New York Stock Exchange caused stock prices to plummet

on Black Thursday, 24 October 1929?


at the lowest point of the Great Depression, what percentage of US banks were out of business?

experienced some economic difficulties- especially the ones who relied on imports from the US

During the Great Depression, most nations?

urged governments to play an active role and stimulate the economy by increasing the money supply

in response to the Great Depression, economist John Maynard Keynes?

was: legislation to prevent the collapse of banking system, provide jobs, give workers their rights to organize/bargain, guarantee minimum wages, provide social security at an old age

which of the following was not one of the chief actions of Roosevelt's New Deal?

Bolsheviks and Whites (Red and whites)

the Russian Civil War that broke out after the revolution was between?

a policy of hasty and unplanned nationalization that the new Russian rulers embarked on- annulled private property, assumed control of banks, etc.

War Communism?

temporarily restored the market economy and some private enterprise to Russia

Lenin's New Economic Policy of 1921?


This individual believed in a philosophy of promoting communism primarily in the Soviet Union rather than trying to export the revolution to other nations?

replaced the NEP with a plan for rapid economic development- aims were to transform the USSR from a predominantly agricultural country to a leading industrial power

the First Five-Year Plan?

Benito Mussolini

the term fascism was first used by?

deprived German Jews of their citizenship and prohibited marriage between Jews and other Germans

the 1935, Nuremberg Laws?


the official goal of the Nazi regime toward Jews in the period before World War II was?

the "night of broken glass"-the Nazi's arranged for the destruction of Jewish stores, synagogues, etc

the Kristallnacht was?

India and China

in the decades following World War I, nationalism was most powerful in Asia in the regions of?

Indian National Congress

the most influential organization dedicated to the end of British rule in India was?

passive resistance developed by ghandi (truth and firmness)

Satyagraha was?


which of the following was not one of the foundations of Gandhi's philosophy?

gave India the institutions of a self-governing state. allowed for the establishment of autonomous legislative bodies in the provinces of British India

the India Act of 1937?


Muhammad Ali Jinnah called for the creation of?

Muslims constituted the majority of indebted tenant farmers, who found themselves increasingly unable to pay rents/debts. Landlords=mainly Hindus

the Great Depression aggravated the tense situation between Muslims and Hindus in India in part because..?

a fiery Indian nationalist who galvanized public support for India's independence movement

Bal Gangadhar Tilak was?

all classes of Chinese protested against foreign, especially Japanese, interference

the May Fourth Movement?

Mao Zedong

the former teacher and librarian that became the leader of the Chinese communist movement was?

DID: elimination of special privileges for foreigners, national reunification, economic development, democratic republic government based on universal suffrage
DID NOT:. the establishment of a communist, totalitarian government.

Sun Yatsen's plan for China included all of the following except?

Jiang Jieshi

Mao Zedong's main rival after 1925 was?

was: nationalists controlled only part of china-warlords took remainder, early 1930s communist revolution was still major threat, Guomindang faced increasing japanese aggression

the nationalist government of China was challenged by all of the following except?

troops and personnel of the Red Army and CCP walked 10,000 kilometers to a remote area of Shaanxi province and established headquarters at Yan'an

the Long March?

a form of Marxist-Leninism grounded in the conviction that peasants rather than urban proletarians were the foundation of a successful revolution

Maoism was?

a giant economic slump- economic contraction set the stage for social unrest and radical politics

the Great Depression led Japan to?

(Japanese blew up some rail and accused the Chinese of doing it)- became the pretext for war between Japanese and Chinese troops

the Mukden incident?

puppet state that Japan created-but really they had absorbed Manchuria into its empire

Manchukuo was the?

many belligerents were colonial powers who ruled over africa

Africans were participants in World War I because?

Spanish-controlled territories

All of the following African colonies were compelled by European colonial powers to participate in World War I except?

1. wanted to make sure that the colonized paid for the institutions (bureaucracies, judiciary, police, etc) that kept them in subjugation 2. developed export-oriented economies characterized by the exchange of unprocessed raw materials for manufactured goods from abroad

the two economic goals pursued by European colonial powers in Africa following World War I were?

the unification of all people of African descent into a single African state

Pan-Africanism is an idea that advocated?

Marcus Garvey

one of the greatest proponents of Pan-Africanism was?

was a young Marxist intellectual who felt concern for the poor and Indias who were 50% of Peru's populations. Established the Socialist Party of Peru

Jose Carlos Mariategui?

Dollar Diplomacy- "dollars for bullets", Good Neighbor Policy

which of the following are US policies towards Latin America?

Lazaro Cardenas

This Mexican president nationalized his country's oil industry, thus posing a challenge to the United States policy of non-intervention in Latin American affairs?

Japan's attacks on China in the 1930s

World War II began with?


the height of Japanese atrocity in China was reached at the rape of ?

kept alive by moving inland to Chongquin; Chinese communists carried on guerrilla operations against the Japanese invaders

the Guomindang during World War II was?

Japan, Germany, Italy

the Tripartite Pact brought together?

spanish war

the German and Italian fascists used which war as an excuse to intervene and gain valuable military experience?


the weakness of the League of Nations was revealed in its inability to take any substantial action in response to the Italian invasion of?

signing of the 1918 armistice

Adolf Hitler always spoke of the "November crime", which was the?


in 1938, Germany sent troops into what country and forced its leaders to accept the "Anschluss"?

the Munich Conference

the high point of appeasement was?

Neville Chamberlain-Britains prime minister

in the wake of the Munich Conference, what leader proposed that the meeting had ensured "peace in our time"?

German control of western Poland and Lithuania while the Soviet Union gained a free hand in the territories of eastern Poland, etc

while the Nazi-Soviet Pact was on the surface a nonaggression treaty, it had secret stipulations that spelled out?

German invasion of Poland unannounced on 1 September 1939

the European part of World War II began with the?

"lightning war"

the German blitzkrieg referred to?


after the fall of France in 1940, the only country left to fight Germany was?

solely through air attacks- "The Blitz"

in the Battle of Britain the Germans hoped to defeat the English?

the code name for the June invasion of the Soviet Union- took Red Army by surprise. By Dec. 1941- Germans had captured Russian heartland

Operation Barbarossa was?

Soviet Union

Hitler's comment "You only have to kick in the door, and the whole rotten structure will come down" was a reference to which of the following powers?

the United States

by December 1941, the Soviets gained two new allies in their struggle to defeat the German invasion of their country: "General Winter" and?

to destroy American naval capacity in the Pacific and clear the way for the conquest of southeast Asia and the creation of a defensive Japanese perimeter that could defend the homeland

the Japanese goal in the bombing of Pearl Harbor was?


"Asia for Asians" was the slogan of the?


the Greater East Asian Co-Prosperity Sphere was designed by?

the entry of the Soviet Union and the United States into the war

the key to the Allied victories in Europe and Asia was?

when the Soviets won the battle for Stalingrad; pushed the German invaders out of Russian territory

the first large-scaled defeat for Germans forces in World War II was?

on 6 June 1944 (d-day) overwhelmed the Germans & changed the war towards Allies winning

the Normandy invasion?

the battle at Midway

the US victory in the Pacific that turned the tide against the Japanese was?

a code-breaking operation known as Magic, which enabled a cryptographer monitoring Japanese radio frequencies to discover the plan to attack Midway

the US secret weapon in the Pacific campaign was?

kamikaze-pilots who volunteered to be suicide pilots

in the Battle of Okinawa the Japanese introduced?

the Japanese flew 1900 kamikaze missions and killed more than 5000 US soldiers

During the Battle of Okinawa..?

when the US used the atomic bomb against Hiroshima and Nagasaki and the Soviet Union declared war on Japan

the Japanese finally surrendered in August 1945?

was a puppet government in France

the Vichy government?

the Nazis eliminated the entire village of Lidice as punishment

after the assassination of Reinhard Heydrich?

15 leading Nazi bureaucrats gathered to discuss the final solution-agreed to evacuate all Jews from europe to camps in Poland

at the Wannsee Conference?

Raphael Lemkin- a refugee Polish-JEwish lawyer living in the US

the main who coined the term "genocide" was?

a national, ethnic, racial or religious group

the term "genocide" was coined to refer to the systematic killings of which of the following?


the largest of the Nazi death camps was?


around how many people perished during World War II?

that the US/Britain was letting the Soviets get beat by the Germans on purpose and not grabbing the "nose" of the alligator fast enough

one of the biggest arguments among the Allies in World War II was?

Truman Doctrine

the US interventionist plan for containing communism was known as the?

the Marshall Plan was?

proposed to rebuild European economies through cooperation and capitalism to forestall communist influence in devastated nations

the Soviet Union counterpart to the Marshall plan that offered an alternative by offering increased trade. "Council for Mutual Economic Assistance"


maintain peace in postwar Europe through collective defense

NATO was designed to?

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