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Joint ROM

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Shoulder flexion
0-170*
Goni: Axis at humeral head, parallel to trunk
**As the arm moves up, the goni's axis will be on the posterior surface of the shoulder
Shoulder extension
0-60*
Goni: Axis at humeral head, parallel to trunk
Shoulder abduction
0-170*
Goni: Acromion process posteriorly, parallel to trunk
Shoulder internal rotation
0-60*
Shoulder abducted
Goni: Axis is olecranon process of elbow; parallel to forearm
Shoulder external rotation
0-80*
Shoulder abducted
Goni: Axis is olecranon process; parallel to forearm
Horizontal abduction
0-40*
Shoulder abducted 90*, elbow extended
Goni: open w axis over acromion
Horizontal adduction
0-130*
Shoulder abducted 90*, elbow extended
Goni: open w axis over acromion
Elbow extension to flexion
0-135/150*
Humerus adducted an externally rotated
Goni: Axis is lateral epicondyle,
parallel to midline of humerus
movable bar is parallel to radius
Forearm supination
0-80/90*
Use pencil method
Humerus adducted, elbow at 90*, forearm in midposition
Goni: Axis is head of third metacarpal, stationary bar is perpendicular to the floor
Forearm pronation
0-80/90*
Use pencil method
Humerus adducted, elbow at 90*, forearm in midposition
Goni: Axis is head of third metacarpal, stationary bar is perpendicular to the floor
Wrist flexion
0-80*
Forearm in neutral (on ulnar border) resting on table
Goni: axis is lateral (radial) aspect of wrist, distal to radial styloid process in the anatomical snuffbox. Stationary bar is parallel to metacarpal of index finger
Wrist extension
0-90*
Forearm in neutral (on ulnar border) resting on table
Goni: axis is lateral (radial) aspect of wrist, distal to radial styloid process in the anatomical snuffbox. Stationary bar is parallel to metacarpal of index finger
Ulnar deviation
0-30*
Seated with forearm pronated and resting on table
Goni: Axis is dorsum of wrist at base of third metacarpal, over capitate
Radial deviation
0-20*
Seated with forearm pronated and resting on table
Goni: Axis is dorsum of wrist at base of third metacarpal, over capitate
Metacarpophalangeal (MP) flexion of fingers
0-90*
Seated with elbow flexed, forearm and wrist neutral
Goni: Axis is centered on dorsal aspect of MP, Stationary bar is on top of metacarpal, moveable bar is on top of proximal phalanx
Metacarpophalangeal (MP) hyperextension
0-45*
Seated with elbow flexed, forearm and wrist neutral
Goni: Axis is over lateral aspect of MP joint of index finger. Stationary bar is parallel to metacarpal and movable bar is parallel to proximal phalanx
Metacarpophalangeal abduction
0-25*
Forearm is pronated, wrist at 0-degree neutral deviation, fingers straight, hand resting on a firm surface
Goni: Axis is over MP joint being measured. stationary bar is over corresponding metacarpal. Movable bar is over the proximal phalanx
Proximal interphalangeal flexion
0-110*
Wrist and forearm neutral. At table
Goni: Axis is dorsal surface of proximal interphalangeal (PIP) joint being measured. Stationary bar over proximal phalanx, Movable bar over middle phalanx
Distal interphalangeal flexion
0-80*
Wrist and forearm neutral. At table
Goni: Axis is dorsal surface of distal interphalangeal (PIP) joint being measured. Stationary bar over proximal phalanx, Movable bar over middle phalanx
Metacarpophalangeal (MCP) flexion of thumb
0-50*
Forearm 45* supination, MP and interphalangeal joints extended
Goni: Axis is dorsal surface of MP joint. Stationary bar is over thumb metacarpal and movable bar over proximal phalanx
Thumb interphalangeal flexion
0-90*
Forearm 45* supination, MP and interphalangeal joints extended
Goni: Axis is dorsal surface of IP joint. Stationary bar over proximal phalanx, movable bar is over distal phalanx
Thumb radial abduction
0-50*
Palm face down on table
Goni: Axis over CMC joint at base of thumb. Stationary bar is parallel to radiu and movable bar is parallel to thumb metacarpal
Thumb Palmar Abduction
0-50*
Forearm, wrist neutral, resting on ulnar border
Goni: Axis is at junction of thumb and index finger metacarpals. Stationary bar over radius, Movable bar parallel to thumb and index finger metacarpals