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Chapter 1 NSCS
Terms in this set (100)
corresponds with the alignment of the myosin
Arrival of the action potential at the nerve terminal causes release of a neurotransmitter, acetylcholine, which diffuses across the neuromuscular junction, causing excitation of the sarcolemma. Once a sufficient amount of acetylcholine is released, an action potential is generated along the sarcolemma
A globular protein that links into chains, two of which twist helically about each other, forming microfilaments in muscle and other contractile elements in cells.
an electrical nerve impulse
The all-or-none principle states that
when a muscle cell is stimulated, it responds with a complete cycle of contraction and relaxation
Pleural pressure is the pressure in the narrow space between the lung pleura and the chest wall pleura
alveoli, where gases are exchanged in respiration (13).
prevent backflow from the aorta and pulmonary arteries into the ventricles during ventricular relaxation
carries blood away from the heart
atrioventricular (AV) bundle
Bundle of specialized fibers that conduct impulses from the AV node to the right and left ventricles; also called bundle of His.
the smallest kind of artery
atrioventricular (AV) node
neurological tissue in the center of the heart that receives and amplifies the conduction of impulses from the SA node to the bundle of His
atrioventricular (AV) valves
separate each atrium and ventricle
upper chamber of the heart
Portion of the skeletal system that consists of the skull, rib cage, and vertebral column
allow motion around two axes
a specialized connective tissue covering all bones
slow heart rate
The passages that direct air into the lungs
smallest branches of the bronchi
A tiny blood vessel where substances are exchanged between the blood and the body cells.
allow only slight movement and consist of bones connected entirely by cartilage
this forms when the myosin heads attach to actin during muscle contraction
is the reversal of the membrane electrical potential, whereby the normally negative potential inside the membrane becomes slightly positive and the outside becomes slightly negative
relaxation phase of the heartbeat
Movement of molecules from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration.
farther from the origin of a body part or the point of attachment of a limb to the body trunk
recording of the electrical changes that occur in the myocardium during a cardiac cycle
Surrounds individual muscle fibers
surrounds entire muscle
Contractile skeletal muscle fibers outside of the muscle spindle.
bundles of muscle fibers
A muscle fiber used for rapid, powerful contractions.
Golgi tendon organ (GTO)
a sensory organ with a tendon that, when stimulated, causes an inhibition of the entire muscle group to protect against too much force
Oxygen carrying pigment in red blood cells
Most common type of cartilage; it is found on the ends of long bones, ribs, and nose
The region at the center of an A band of a sarcomere that is made up of myosin only. The H zone gets shorter (and may disappear) during muscle contraction.
the muscle fibers found within a muscle spindle
left bundle branch
carries electricity through left ventricle 20 - 40 bpm
valve between the left atrium and the left ventricle; bicuspid valve
neurons that carry outgoing information from the brain and spinal cord to the muscles and glands
a motor neuron and all the muscle cells it stimulates
allow motion around three axes
a single muscle cell
a sensory receptor located in a muscle that senses its tension
tightly packed filament bundles found within skeletal muscle fibers
Actin or myosin containing structure
A protein present in muscle fibers that aids in contraction and makes up the majority of muscle fiber
point of contact between a motor neuron and a skeletal muscle cell
parasympathetic nervous system
the division of the autonomic nervous system that calms the body, conserving its energy
The connective tissue that surrounds fascicles.
Membrane surrounding the lungs
the pressure in the narrow space between the lung pleura and the chest wall pleura
action of myosin pulling actin inward (toward the M line)
a receptor that responds to changes in the body position such as stretch on a tendon, or contraction of a muscle; the receptors allow us to be consciously aware of the position of our body parts
Closer to the point of attachment
valve positioned between the right ventricle and the pulmonary artery
fibers that carry stimulation throughout the ventricles
ventricular depolarization and atrial repolarization
red blood cells
Blood cells that carry oxygen from the lungs to the body cells.
T-wave is caused by the electrical potential generated as the ventricles recover from the state of depolarization; this process, called repolarization, occurs in ventricular muscle shortly after depolarization
right bundle branch
carry electricity through right ventricle 20 - 40 bpm
muscle cell membrane
Contractile unit of muscle
cytoplasm of a muscle fiber
Organelle of the muscle fiber that stores calcium.
pulmonary and aortic valves located between the right ventricle and the pulmonary artery and between the left ventricle and the aorta
sinoatrial (SA) node
A specialized area of cardiac tissue, located in the right atrium of the heart, which initiates the electrical impulses that determine the heart rate; often termed the pacemaker for the heart.
theory that actin filaments slide toward each other during muscle contraction, while the myosin filaments are still
A muscle fiber that can sustain long contractions.
Higher on the body, nearer to the head
sympathetic nervous system
Stimulation of the sympathetic nerves accelerates depolarization of the SA node (the chronotropic effect), which causes the heart to beat faster.
joint-lubricating fluid secreted by the synovial membrane
freely movable joints
fast heart rate
Connects muscle to bone
a sustained muscular contraction resulting from a rapid series of nerve impulses
valve between the right atrium and the right ventricle
A protein of muscle that forms a complex with troponin regulating the interaction of actin and myosin in muscular contraction
A protein of muscle that together with tropomyosin forms a regulatory protein complex controlling the interaction of actin and myosin and that when combined with calcium ions permits muscular contraction
narrow tubes that are continuous with the sarcolemma and extend into the sarcoplasm
a quick cycle of contraction and relaxation when stimulus is at threshold or higher
Type I fiber
slow twitch fibers
Type IIa fiber
intermediate fast twitch, oxidative-glycolytic
Type IIx fiber
Fast Twitch Muscle Fiber
allow motion around only one axis
A blood vessel that carries blood back to the heart.
returns blood toward the heart
Bottom portion of the heart, thicker walled and larger
the smallest kind of vein
A dark thin protein band to which actin filaments are attached in a striated muscle fiber, marking the boundaries between adjacent sarcomeres.
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