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Semester 2 Keithley Midterm
Oral Quiz Questions
Terms in this set (93)
Rome takes over Palestine
Roman style of rule that allowed the conquered people to practice their religion, but they had to acknowledge Caesar as God and pay taxes
The First Martyr
St. Peter; The "Rock"
Why were Philosophers attracted to Christianity?
It was less rigid than Stoicism
Where was the term Christianity first used?
What was the Gentile controversy?
Whether Gentile converts had to follow Jewish Law (Kosher and Circumcision)
Where and When was the Gentile Controversy resolved?
At the Councel of Jerusalem in 49 A.D.
Describe the Cult of Mithra and why converts would be attracted to Christianity.
The Cult of Mithra, a sun god, was a soldier cult that was brought back by Alexander the Great from Persia. It was focused on being virtuous and courageous, the essence of manhood. This cult was also centered on purity and virtue in the form of going to war to defend something other than oneself. Constantine seems to have been a follower of this cult, and in Christians images from the period, Christ is depicted with a sun/halo around his head. Converts would be attracted to Christianity because Christians also focused on virtue and ethics.
2 Reasons why crucifixion was effective
1. It was Public
2. It was humiliating as the person was displayed naked before the rest of society
4 marks of the Church
Apostolic (Spread by the Apostles)
The Spread of Greek Culture
What language did Jesus and his apostles speak?
Who was Saul?
Later known as Paul, Saul was a tentmaker and successful businessman from Tarsus, born around 10 AD, who persecuted Christians (he was a Roman citizen and zealous Jew). On his way to Damascus, though, Saul is blinded and hears Jesus who asks Saul why he is persecuting him. Saul then converts in 38 and goes on a series of missionary journeys; he was very qualified for this as he could speak and write Greek.
Who were the Apologists?
People who defended and explained the faith
What is the Canon?
The sacred books of the Bible
Who were the 4 great Latin Doctors of the Church?
Pope St. Gregory the Great
Who translated the Hebrew Bible?
What was Mass originally called?
The Lord's Supper
Breaking of the Bread
What model of Architecture did Christians adopt?
Describe Reconciliation in the Early Church
It was public.
You could only do it once.
What council was convoked to deal with Arian Heresy?
The council of Nicea
Who was Anthony of Egypt?
A desert Father and a white Martyr
What is a White Martyr?
An individual who lived without physical things and pursued a life of dedication to God.
What is a Hagiography and what was the first one?
A biography of a holy person; the first one was about St. Anthony and was written by Athanasius.
What did St. Augustine despise?
A life without pitfalls
Who defended Rome against invaders?
Pope St. Leo the Great
Define active and inactive evil according to St. Augustine
Active evil was an evil done against someone else; it is evil because it takes away something good.
An inactive evil is the punishment for active evil; the justice enacted takes away good (freedom); it is often justifiable. Inactive evil frequently takes the form of guilt or shame.
Name one contribution of Gregory the Great
He contributed liturgical reform, missionary efforts to England, and a clear definition on the role of bishops that is still used to this day.
Monks of what type developed confession as a private practice?
Who officially made Sunday a day which business could not be conducted in Rome?
Constantine; this lasted in the Western world until the last hundred years.
Who rediscovered the relics of Christ's passion?
Describe the Arian notion of the Trinity
The Arian notion of the Trinity was that the Father was the most powerful and that he created the Son (not co-eternal). The Holy Spirit, then, was the love expressed between them. By this definition, both the Holy Spirit and Son were aeviternal.
Describe the vow of CONVERSATIO MORUM
This vow essentially means that the will of the community is more important than that of the individual.
What is the title for the leader in a monastery?
Why was the Rule of St. Benedict appealing?
It was much more moderate than others
Describe the monastic vow of stability
An individual vows to stay in one location for their whole life; they vow to live and die in one place.
How many times do monks pray in the chapel and why?
They pray seven times a day; seven is the number of completion and perfection.
Describe two metaphors used to describe monks in Benedict's Prologue
Children, servants, soldiers, and laborers.
What is the Peace of God?
The papal order that war couldn't be waged on innocents; it detailed who an army could and could not attack; armies couldn't attack women, children, medics, chaplains, or defenseless peasants.
Describe the elements of a monastic habit.
There is a hood (can be used to help monks focus), scapular (an apron that goes down the front and back), belt, and tunic (body of the habit). It is still used because of a connection to the past. The habit was a common form of dress during the time these monastic communities were started. Also, it places less emphasis on the individual as everyone in the community wears the same thing
What is Christendom?
Christian dominated Western Europe of the Middle Ages.
Who was Justinian?
The Emperor of the Eastern Empire who tried to regain the lands of the Roman Empire.
What is lay investiture?
The practice of lay appointing clergy members
Who initiated the First Crusade in 1095?
Pope Urban II
Who was the first barbarian king to convert to Christianity?
Who was Charles the Hammer Martel?
The King of the Franks who was responsible for keeping the Muslims out.
What did the Crusades bring back?
Architecture, medicine, law, philosophy
What is the Hagia Sophia?
The Church of Holy Wisdom built by Justinian in Constantinople. It was a mosque and is now a museum. The Hagia Sophia is important because it was large and used as a model for other churches like it.
Who was Theodora?
Justinian's wife (he changed the laws to marry her; she used to be a burlesque dancer) and the Empress; she convinced him not to go into exile (instead he slaughtered 30, 000 dissenters at a free chariot race). Theodora was regarded as an equal shareholder in sovereignty.
Describe the bubonic plague (Black Death).
An epidemic that killed 25-30% of urban areas; the symptoms were fever, chills, groin pain, tumors, and muscle spasms; the lucky ones would fall into a coma. It arrived in Constantinople on ships carried by the fleas on rats. The plague causes civilization to stagnate and economies to collapse. People couldn't defend their cities or bury the dead. It so depopulated Europe that towns were small and empty through the sixth and seventh centuries
Who was Bede?
An English monk (the best educated of his time) who wrote a five volume account of the history of England; he is the premier historian of the Middle Ages.
What important event occurred on Christmas Day, 800?
Charlemagne was crowned Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire.
What is the Truce of God?
A document that details the times when armies could not wage war; armies couldn't attack on Sundays, holy days, or in penitential seasons like Lent and Advent on the threat of excommunication.
What about Charlemagne's leadership was revolutionary?
He provided education for poor and wealthy and redeveloped currency which helped commerce and expanded the empire.
Describe the Viking invasions?
The Vikings attached England, particularly the monasteries; they weren't Catholic so attacking monks was acceptable. There was no opposition to them. The Vikings attacked Europe because there was overpopulation in their homelands, so they left for land and adventure. The Vikings had ships that could sail on rivers and ocean water which gave them the maneuverability to make their strikes unpredictable.
What is the refectory?
The place in a monastery where the monks eat.
What is a conclave?
A meeting of bishops to elect the pope
What is the scriptorium?
The study or library; in the scriptorium, manuscripts were copied by monastic scribes.
What is the bedroom of a monk called?
What does the cloister garden represent?
It represents Paradise and the Garden of Eden; in it, there is a fountain and tree. The tree represents the Tree of Life, while the fountain reminds monks of the waters of life (the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers).
What is the East-West Schism?
The official separation of the Eastern and Western Church, known as the Great Schism
What is simony?
The selling of Church Offices
What was the Iconoclast (icons) Controversy?
The conflict caused by the Eastern Emperor's decision to condemn the use of icons in worship; the Eastern Church destroyed icons because they were considered idolatrous
Who was sent to evangelize the Germans in the 700s?
Who was Augustine of Canterbury?
The missionary to England
Who gave the Pope the Papal States?
Pepin gave Pope Stephen II the land that became the Papal States; this became known as the Donation of Pepin.
Who was Alfred the Great?
A king in Southern England who successfully repelled the Vikings; he realized that the Vikings made lightening strikes, so he built fortresses of wood that the people could go into, then, when the Vikings attacked, the enemy would wear themselves out trying to get in and the defenders could go out and defeat them.
Describe the Cluny Order
This was a Benedictine monastery that became the center of a vast network of monasteries (around 2000).
Who were the Cistercians?
An order who wanted to follow St. Benedict's Rule word for word.
Who are the Friars Minor?
Essentially the Franciscans; the Order of Friars Minor was founded by St. Francis of Assisi and was the first mendicant order. After being drawn to the Gospel, Francis gave up his possessions and preached repentance and a message of trust in God. For his disciples, he drew up a rule (drawn from passages in the Gospel about poverty and love) which was given verbal sanction by Pope Innocent III.
Who are the Dominicans?
The Dominicans are a mendicant (they begged for alms to support themselves) order of friars (men who pursue renunciation, poverty, and self-sacrifice while still living in the world, in order to convert by example and preaching) started by the Castilian noble Dominic. Dominic's rule was based on St. Augustine's, but it stressed intellectual training to insure the success of the friar's preaching. Dominicans tend to be scholars, orthodox preachers, and writers.
What is Summa Theologica?
St. Thomas Aquinas' comprehensive, systematic examination of Christian theology.
What did the warming of the Earth have to do with the Dark Ages?
It meant that the land could be cultivated and as a result the population could grow.
Who were the Moors?
Spanish Muslims who attacked France to expand their lands.
Describe the life of a person in the Dark Ages.
Life during the Dark Ages was nasty, brutish and short- to be brief. In the Dark Ages, trade and industry came to a standstill. People were dependent on agriculture and those in isolated communities had it the hardest. There was not a critical mass for new ideas. Also, a fear of witches spread, though the Church condemned them. People worked all the time during the harvest and spring. Half of children died before adolescence, and one-fourth of newborns died during their first year of life. Most children lost one or both parents. The life of the common person was filled with violence, as nobles waged almost constant war. The Gothic Wars and Spread of Islam resulted in frequent warfare and death. Outbursts of the bubonic plague also contributed to the hardships of this period. However, monasteries offered hope during these dark times and were centers of learning, commerce, and authority
What is Summum Silencium?
It is a period of silence in a monastery that begins after compline (evening prayer) and ends after breakfast when a bell rings; it comes from Benedict's belief that we speak more evil than we do.
Describe the impact of monasteries on medieval life.
Monasteries became the only places of stability and progress. They had many agricultural contributions and developed husbandry (the breeding of animals to produce stronger offspring), crop rotation, and bee keeping (used them for candles and the honey as a preservative). In relation to medicine, monasteries begin to understand anatomy and physiology. An abbess, Hildegaard von Brogin, becomes a prominent physician. Also, monasteries contribute to education. Because they had the scriptorium and literate monks, wealthy people would send their children to learn religion, medicine, law, philosophy, and science.
What was Opus Dei?
In his Rule, St. Benedict affirms the importance of prayer in monastic life and spirituality. He refers to prayer as the Opus Dei or Work of God. While he recognizes individual prayer and how some will be more inclined to participate in through the grace of God, he asserts that the community prayer of Opus Dei is the most vital because it binds everyone (the Church and all of mankind) together in Christ.
What is Lectio Divina?
Lectio Divina is the primary source of Benedictine spirituality. It is the daily reading of the sacred scripture with meditation and prayer.
Describe the obedience of a monastic?
One of the vows of the solemnly professed is obedience, meaning that they will follow the abbot's instructions absolutely.
What are the phases of monastic life?
a. Postulant: They have a lot of freedom and are beginning to follow the schedule; they can come and go; no real requirements.
b. Novice: The period of time that is difficult as one is being initiated into the monastic life; a novice gets a habit and religious name.
c. Simply professed: The simply professed can still leave but have vows (that last for less time) of obedience, stability, and conversatio morum.
d. Solemnly professed.
How does the abbot govern?
The abbot is elected by the solemnly professed monks. He has absolute authority, though there are rules that govern him. The abbot's leadership is not like that of a slave master but more like a parent.
How was Paul martyred?
Paul was beheaded because he was a Roman citizen.
What are heretics?
A heretic is a baptized Christian who takes an element of truth and runs with it, making it untrue.
Who were presbyters?
Another name for elders or priests; in the early Church, presbyters were closely associated with bishops in exercising leadership in some faith communities.
A doctrine, belief, attitude, or teaching that is consistent with revealed truth and with the Church's doctrine of faith.
What is the Edict of Milan?
A declaration allowing religious freedom in the Roman Empire; the doctrine of religious tolerance, proclaimed by Constantine in 313, that allowed Christians to practice their religion.
What is the title of the first known biography?
What stage of life did Augustine regard himself as a "runaway slave"?
Augustine regards himself as a "runaway slave" when he discovers the ideas of Cicero or philosophy. He is driven by a pursuit of wisdom, and his reason is engaged. However, while reason is less fleeting than emotions, it still ends when you die; in effect, he is not yet free but more so than before.
What is natural evil?
Natural evils are natural events such as a tidal waves that take away something good; they are morally neutral.
Gnosticism was the most widespread heresy and comes from the Greek for "to know". Gnostics thought that salvation comes through knowledge (whereas the Catholic Church says that salvation comes from faith and good works) and that everything can be known which left no room for mystery.
Describe Augustine's sense of love at the beginning of book three.
At the beginning of book three, Augustine says, "I was not yet in love, but I was in love with love". He was more attached to loving things than the things themselves. Early on, Augustine lived a life of dissolution as he stole, drank, and was sexually indiscreet. During this time, he loves going to the theater to see tragedies. These shows represent a finite happiness that comes through comparison and sympathizing.
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