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Spanish Wine and Geography Questions - Level 2
Terms in this set (50)
What are four quality standards set by the Consejo Regulador to become a DO?
Use of authorized grape varieties, production levels, winemaking methods, and aging times.
What are Spain's top three populated cities?
Madrid, Barcelona, Valencia
Which three autonomous regions in Spain produce approximately 60% of the wine?
Castilla-La Mancha, Cataluña, and Rioja
What is Spain's highest peak?
Pico del Teide in Las Islas Canarias
How many years must a Vino de Calidad con Indicación Geográfica (VC) exist before applying for promotion to DO status?
Name the clay jars that historically were used to ferment grape must.
What is the highest peak in the Pirineos?
Aneto in Aragón
To be considered for a promotion to DOCa/DOQ, how many years must the region be a DO?
Who started Vega Sicilia in 1864, with cuttings of Cabernet Sauvignon, Malbec, and Merlot?
What vine planting method is used in the warmest parts of the country?
How many autonomous communities are there in Spain?
What is the time before release for a traditional Reserva rosado?
Which major river flows into the Mediterranean Sea rather than westward into the Atlantic?
What is the climatic type of Las Islas Canarias?
Name the three primary vine training systems used in Spain.
Parral/Pergola, En vaso/Gobelet, and Espaldera/Vertical Shoot Positioning
Where in Spain is the largest expanse of Malvasía vineyards in Europe?
Island of Lanzarote
Where was the use of drip irrigation pioneered in the 1970s?
Estate of Marqués de Griñón in Toledo
Under Vino de Pago (VP), a Pago has the ability to set its own production rules and standards. True or False?
What are the two primary grapes used for vinos rosados?
Garnacha Tinta, Tempranillo
When was the Spanish Denominación de Origen system established by the Wine Statute?
Name the DO exclusively dedicated to vinos dulces.
What is the Spanish name for the mixture of yeast and sugar used to initiate a second fermentation in a vino espumoso?
Licor de tiraje
What are the two significant lowland areas in Spain?
Ebro Basin, Andalusian Plain
What is the longest river in the Iberian Peninsula?
What are the top five most planted varieties, which represent 65% of Spain's vineyard area?
Airén, Tempranillo, Bobal, Garnacha Tinta, Macabeo/Viura
What organization does each Consejo Regulador report to?
Instituto Nacional de Denominaciones de Origen (National Institute)
What additional piece of information must be present on a label for a Sparkling wine over a still wine?
Which method of trellising allows drip irrigation to be installed?
What are the three main climate types on mainland Spain?
Maritime, Continental, Mediterranean
Grape Varieties - Airén
Most planted variety in Spain
High yields, neutral, moderately acidic
Grape Varieties - Macabeo/Viura
Synonym = Viura
Resists oxidation - good for barrel aging
Used in Cava
Grape Varieties - Garnachas
Peluda: "hairy Grenache" has a downy underside. Lower alcohol and higher acidity than Tinta
Tinta: drought and wind tolerant, high alcohol wines with low tannin and moderate acidity
Blanca: color mutation, high alcohol and moderately low acid
Grape Varieties - Mazuelo
Viti: late budding, late ripening - needs long growing season
Deeply colored wines, high acidity and tannins (can be aggressive)
Grape Varieties - Monastrell
Late ripening - needs significant heat to ripen
Grape Varieties - Tempranillo
Spain's most widely planted red grape
Early budding & early ripening
What are the biggest grapes in terms of area planted?
1. Airén: 536k acres
2. Tempranillo: 501k acres
3. Bobal: 153k acres
4. Garnacha Tinta: 153k acres
5. Macabeo/Viura: 114k acres
6. Monastrell: 106k acres
Where are the international grape varities usually planted?
Irrigation has helped intl varieties be able to succeed in Spain's climate
Mostly found in:
Castilla y León
Some viticulture production stats :)
Most land under vine - 2.4 million acres
14.7% of world's total wine production
Top 3 regions account for 65% of production:
Red Wines - General Aging Terms
Traditional: (time in oak)
Noble - 18 months
Añejo - 24 months
Viejo - 36 months
Joven - 1st year following harvest/no barrel aging required
Crianza - 24 months/6 in barrel
Reserva - 36 months/12 in barrel
Gran Reserva - 60 months/18 in barrel
General info about Rosé Winemaking in Spain
Direct Press - more popular today due to shift in style during the 1990s
Saignée - other method of bleeding the tank
Varieties: mostly Garnacha and Tempranillo
General info about Sparkling Winemaking
1872: first Spanish sparkler created by Raventos
Macabeo, Xarel.lo and Parellada
Rosé: Garnacha Tinta and Trepat
"Cava" must come from Cava DO
9 months lees aging
Girasol = gyropalette 504 bottles riddled in 3-4 days
General info about Sweet Winemaking
Málaga DO - exclusively Vino dulce
Fondillón - in Alicante, overripe Monastrell, aged minimum 10 years in solera
Lanzarote - made from Malvasia, air dried to concentrate sugars
What are the 6 possible wine categories in Spain?
VC - Vino de Calidad con Indicación Geográfica
VP - Vino de Pago
IGP/VT - Vino de la Tierra
Which are the DOCa/DOQ in Spain and the requirements?
Rioja (1991) and Priorat (2009)
Must have had DOC status for 10 years
Wine produced and bottled in the region
Wine must cost at least double that of the national average for DO wines
What are the requirements for Denominación de Origen - DO
Only authorized grape varieties
Area must have been recognized as a quality wine area for at least 5 years
What are the requirements for Vino de Indicación Geográfica Protegida/Vino de la Tierra
Production takes place exclusively within the area
At least 85% of the grapes must be sourced from the area
What are the requirements for Vino/Wine and why does some winemakers intentionally classify their wines as just "Vino"?
No specific geographic indication!
Permitted to mention country of origin, grape variety and vintage
Some winemakers intentionally classify their wines as Vino de España in order to increase their blending options or to use non traditional winemaking techniques
Wine Label Requirements
Quality designation (DOCa, DO)
Region or Appellation
Country of origin
Name of bottler/producer
Give us a little history about Galicia :)
Celtic Spain - Celts occupied starting around 600 BC
Muslims did NOT gain control over this region!
Camino de Santiago - Way of St. James became a pilgrimage route
Ribeiro - became known for Vino tostado (sweet wine). Led to planting craze, when consumer tastes changed the wine trade and economy slumped
Post phylloxera identity crisis with replanting of low quality hybrids. After joining EU - focus shifted to quality winemaking and native varieties
What are the 5 subzones of Rias Baixas DO?
Ribeira do Ulla - Northernmost, produces some reds
Val do Salnés - oldest and largest, "birthplace of Albariño"
Soutomaior - smallest, only subzone with production 100% Albariño
Condado do Tea - furthest inland and warmest
O Rosal - right bank of Miño river
White = 99% of production
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