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BISC220 Exam 3 SI Sheet 1
Terms in this set (36)
maintaining constancy in the internal environment
What is an example of homeostasis?
negative feedback regulation of plasma glucose
Describe negative feedback regulation of plasma glucose.
blood glucose level rises after eating, beta cells in pancreas release insulin which performs glucose uptake and glycogen synthesis
hormone that is released when there is a low level of blood sugar present in the bloodstream in order to restore blood glucose levels
insulin or glucagon? stimulation of glycogenesis
insulin or glucagon? stimulation of protein synthesis
insulin or glucagon? stimulation of gluconeogenesis
insulin or glucagon? stimulation of lipogenesis
insulin or glucagon? stimulation of glycogenolysis
Outline how blood flows throughout the circulatory system.
heart, aorta, arteries, arterioles, capillaries, venules, veins, vena cava
What region has the lowest pressure?
What region of the heart has the greatest area?
What region of the heart has the lowest velocity?
Explain the flow of blood through the circulatory system.
fluids flow down pressure gradients, flow rate inversely proportional to cross sectional area
Describe the four stages of the ECG.
AP is generated at SA node, AP spreads across atria and excites the AV node but not the ventricles, AP spreads through Purkinjie fibers and bundle branches to the apex, AP spreads to the ventricles
heart contracts without a brain signal
What happens if the communication between SA node and AV nodebecomes blocked?
ventricles will contract at a slower rate
sympathetic nerve activity
fight or flight
parasympathetic nerve activity
release of acetylcholine to decrease heart rate
extent to which vessel bend in repsonse to pressure changes
Which blood vessel is more compliant?
Composition of blood
erythrocytes, gleukocytes, platelets
What effect does increasing skeletal muscle activity have on venous return to the heart?
What effect does decreasing activity in sympathetic nerves to veins have on venous return to the heart?
What effect does increasing rate and depth of breathing have on venous return to the heart?
endothelium of vessel is damaged exposing connective tissue to which platelets adhere, platelets release chemicals that make other platelets sticky forming platelet plug, fibrin reinforces the seal
What are the three stages to the cardiac cycle?
atrial and ventricular diastole "filling", atrial systole and ventricular diastole, atrial diastole and ventricular systole
What happen in the right heart during the first stage of the cardiac cycle?
blood enters heart through inferior and superior vena cava, emptying oxygen-poor blood from body into the right atrium
What happens in the right heart during the second stage of the cardiac cycle?
blood flows from right atrium to right ventricle through open tricuspid valve
What happens in the right heart during the third stage of the cardiac cycle?
blood leaves heart through pulmonary valve into pulmonary artery into the lungs
What happens in the left heart during the first stage of the cardiac cycle?
pulmonary vein empties oxygenated blood from lungs into left atrium
What happens in the left heart during the second stage of the cardiac cycle?
blood flows from left atrium into left ventricle through open mitral valve
What happens in the left heart during the third stage of the cardiac cycle?
blood leaves through aortic valve into aorta going to the body
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