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Nutrition Exam 1 (Ch. 1-5)
Terms in this set (150)
Examples of informal education include
a. attending a workshop on coronary artery disease sponsored by the American Heart Association
b. watching a television show about diabetes
c. learning about good safety techniques in a high school economics course
d. joining a support group to help overcome an eating disorder
B- watching a tv show about diabetes because it is an experience that occurs through a daily activity
A college student exercises regularly and generally eats a healthy variety of foods, is taking a course in general nutrition, buys locally produced food whenever possible, is an active member of an on-campus faith-based organization, and keeps a journal to help process her emotions. What else could be important for her to include in her life in order to develop her overall wellness?
a. growing some food of her own
b. keeping a food record to help evaluate what she eats
c. eating meals with friends throughout the week
d. meeting with a registered dietitian to review her food choices
C- eating with friends because it enhances her social health
For a client who is missing meals because of poor planning or is too busy to eat, emotional health can be affected by _____, which can cause confusion or anxiety.
a. low blood sugar levels
b. high blood sugar levels
c. high blood pressure
d. extremely low blood pressure
D- low blood PRESSURE or sugar?? check in book bc I think this is wrong
The best example of the type of concern that is likely to be addressed by the U.S. Department of Heath and Human Services when target goals for Healthy People 2030 are updated is
a. preference for vegetarian eating patterns among white women
b. low intake of fruits and vegetables by African American children
c. widespread use of bottled water in higher socioeconomic groups
d. common use of protein and vitamin supplements in athletes
B- lower intakes of fruits and veggies for AA people because Healthy People is designed to set targets for health promotion of all people and addresses social and environmental issues so low intake of fruits and veggies is likely to have an adverse effect on heath more than the others
An example of community support for health promotion is
a. teaching a young mother skills in safe food preparation
b. watching a television documentary about industry errors in food processing
c. labeling fresh poultry packages w info about proper food storage
d being aware that salmonella can be transmitted bc of inadequate food preparation
C- bc food packaging is a regulatory measure that supports health-promoting behaviors in a social context
An example of a technique for health promotion is
a. exercising five times a week
b. local supermarkets expanding the availability of fresh fruits and veggies
c. teaching a teenager how to choose healthier foods at fast-food restaurants
d. information about the relationship of dietary intake and diet-related disorders
C- health promotion consists of strategies to improve the health of people and promote behavior change
For the efficient functioning and maintenance of the body, a person needs to consume sufficient amounts of
B- nutrients, the others are types nutrients and supplements aren't necessary
A healthy female middle-aged client asks what she can do to prevent the development of type 2 diabetes. Weight control and nutrition strategies discussed are considered
a. primary treatment.
b. primary prevention.
c. secondary prevention.
d. tertiary prevention.
B- primary prevention.
secondary prevention minimizes the effects and includes early detection and tertiary prevention restores health after the disorder has developed
As a home health care nurse, you are visiting a 70-year-old client who has just returned home from the hospital after being treated for coronary artery disease. The medical nutrition therapy developed for him by the hospital dietitian is considered
a. palliative care.
b. primary prevention.
c. secondary prevention.
d. tertiary prevention.
D- tertiary prevention
A nurse has just been assigned to a community health program for older adults. She should check the document Healthy People 2020 to become familiar with
a. nutrition priorities and goals for older American adults.
b. dietary standards for Americans older than 50 years.
c. dietary guidelines recommended for older adults.
d. MyPlate recommendations for older adults.
A- Healthy People 2020 focuses on targets and goals for improving the health of the nation
A nutrient that can be made by the body is called
A client exercises regularly and wants to make sure he has sufficient energy for his workouts. The type of nutrient that will be most helpful in providing the energy he needs is
A- carbohydrates are the best energy source
A 45-year-old man tells you that he drinks 3 oz of Scotch whiskey most evenings. His alcohol intake is considered
c. higher than is recommended.
d. dangerously high.
B- moderate alcohol intake is two 1.5 ounce servings a day
A dessert contains 4 g of protein, 30 g of carbohydrate, 15 g of fat, and 5 g of alcohol. The nutrient that provides the most kilocalories in the dessert is
C- fat bc 4, 4, 9
A cup of frozen yogurt contains 24 g of carbohydrate, 2 g of fat, and 4 g of protein. The total number of kilocalories in the frozen yogurt is
Combinations of amino acids link together to form
c. dietary fiber.
A bodybuilder tells you that all of his meals and snacks include high-protein foods such as eggs, canned tuna, chicken, milk, and cheese. Most of the extra protein is probably used by his body to form
a. strong bones and joints.
b. body fat stores.
c. healthy brain tissue.
d. increased muscle mass.
B- body fat stores because excess protein is broken down into amino acids and then stored for energy as body fat
When clients have a strong family history of both heart disease and cancer, the nurse should encourage them to reduce their intake of
a. dietary fiber.
c. monounsaturated fat.
d. saturated fat.
D- saturated fat
The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) is able to assess the overall nutritional and health status of Americans because
a. the populations surveyed are representative of the total population.
b. it focuses on ethnic and socioeconomic groups at greatest risk.
c. it collects large volumes of survey data from all over the nation.
d. survey methods and standards are consistent from year to year.
A- NHANES takes fully representative samples
In working with a ethnic minority population, a helpful way to increase health literacy could be to
a. invite members of the community to help identify needs and teaching strategies.
b. encourage acculturation and adoption of healthful American eating patterns.
c. set up a feeding program to provide healthy food for members of the community.
d. use visual aids rather than written materials during health education encounters.
A- members of the population know best about the needs and teaching strategies of that population
A client has heard that nutrients can be converted to other nutrients in the body. He takes high-dose vitamin C supplements because he believes this will supply his bodys need for other vitamins. What would you tell him?
a. He should switch to a multivitamin supplement instead of just vitamin C.
b. Each vitamin has a specific function and needs to be supplied through a variety of foods.
c. Vitamin C can provide only water-soluble vitamins, and he still needs to consume fat-soluble vitamins.
d. Vitamin C supplements should be taken only when he has symptoms of a cold or influenza
B- each vitamin has a specific function
For a mother with two children who works in health care management 60 to 70 hours a week, the biggest barrier to healthy eating is likely to be
a. lack of concern for her own or her childrens health.
b. inadequate income to purchase healthy foods.
c. insufficient time to plan and prepare healthful meals.
d. lack of knowledge about healthy eating.
C- inadequate time in the busy schedule
A class of nutrients that is important in body structure and influences the function of muscles and the central nervous system is
B- minerals are necessary in both the muscles and the nervous system. Protein is just muscles
If mine workers were trapped in a mine and it took several days for a rescue team to reach them, the nutrient that they would need most in order to survive is
The client who would benefit most from an increase in dietary fiber intake is one with
d. coronary heart disease.
B- constipation because fiber alleviates it
To provide adequate amounts of vitamins and minerals, the best course of action is to
a. lose weight to achieve ideal body weight.
b. eat a variety of foods from each food group.
c. follow the same general food pattern each day.
d. consume foods high in fiber and low in saturated fat.
B- variety of food makes for adequate intake of vitamins
If a nurse wants to evaluate whether a clients vitamin or mineral supplement contains too much of a specific nutrient, the nurse should
a. check the manufacturers recommendations about intake for that nutrient.
b. request blood and urine tests to determine the clients body stores of that nutrient.
c. compare the amount in the supplement to the tolerable upper intake level (UL) for that nutrient.
d. compare the amount in the supplement to the Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) for that nutrient.
C- the UL is the maximum intake of a vitamin or mineral
Why is it difficult to specify the number of grams of protein that he or she should eat each day?
a. More research studies are needed to help determine ideal levels of protein intake for various age and gender groups.
b. Health care professionals should not give specific advice to clients, to avoid lawsuits.
c. It is unrealistic to expect clients to meet precise levels of protein intake.
d. Recommended protein intakes are expressed as a range and are based on a percentage of energy intake, which varies between individuals.
D- protein intake levels are a range based on the percentage of what is eaten
If a college student is eating only one small meal per day in an attempt to lose weight and is taking high doses of vitamin and mineral supplements to try to make up for the lack of food, the student would be described as having
b. disordered nutrition.
A- malnutrition is an imbalance of nutrients not just insufficient amounts
An overweight client has been trying to lose weight for years. She tells you that she believes she is genetically designed to be overweight and that the foods available in supermarkets today make weight loss impossible. The clients attitude shows
a. positive self-efficacy.
b. negative self-efficacy.
c. poor environmental health.
d. poor emotional health
B- negative self-efficacy bc self-efficacy is the perception of power over life and behaviors
A client tells you that he cannot eat most green vegetables because they taste too bitter. What is the most likely explanation?
a. He has certain genetic taste markers that make him a super taster.
b. He associates eating green vegetables with unpleasant childhood memories.
c. He needs to train himself to enjoy the acquired taste of bitter vegetables.
d. He is making an excuse to avoid making healthful changes in his eating habits.
A- super tasters experience bitter tastes with some vegetables
A teenaged client is hungry and goes to the refrigerator for a snack. A holiday has just been celebrated at her home, and many of her favorite foods are available. She selects some slices of roast turkey and a cup of her aunts special fruit salad. This is an example of
c. food choice.
d. food preference.
D- food preference
A mother tells you that she does not allow her young children to eat while they watch television, even though her husband often eats high-fat, sugary foods while they watch television as a family. The most important thing to discuss with her is the
a. genetic factor of preference for sweet and salty tastes.
b. influence of ethnicity on preference for sour tastes.
c. childrens weights when they were born and their weights now.
d. environmental effects of parental food choices and television watching.
D- environmental effects
If a middle-aged couple with two teenage children has insufficient income to purchase food, the most helpful program for them would be the
a. MyPlate food guidance system.
b. National School Lunch and School Breakfast Programs.
c. federal governments Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP).
d. Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC)
C- SNAP provides financial assistance to buy nutritious foods for low income people
For most Americans, the most significant nutrition concerns are
a. lack of interest in making healthy food choices.
b. poor availability of fruits and vegetables in many areas.
c. excessive intake of saturated fats, cholesterol, sodium, and sugars.
d. inadequate intake of key vitamins, minerals, and phytochemicals.
C- most Americans have a high intake of saturated fats
Excessive intake of high-sodium, high-fat foods can lead to diet-related illnesses such as
a. genetic disorders, hypertension, and diabetes.
b. hypertension and sickle cell anemia.
c. viral infections that necessitate antibiotics.
d. coronary artery disease and hypertension.
D- cardiovascular disease
Of the following, the most important overall dietary modification to help reduce the risk of chronic disease is
a. eating fewer foods that contain preservatives.
b. buying mostly locally grown foods.
c. eating more plant-based foods.
d. eating more animal-based foods.
C- mostly plant-based diets improve overall health
One way to help clients follow the Dietary Guidelines for Americans is to encourage them to use
a. Healthy People 2020.
b. the MyPlate food guidance system.
c. the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP).
d. the Exchange Lists for Meal Planning.
B- MyPlate is an educational tool to help follow the Guidelines
9. For a client who follows a vegan diet, the most helpful meal planning tool would be
a. the Healthy Eating Plate, produced by the Harvard School of Public Health.
b. the Mediterranean Diet Pyramid, from Oldways Preservation and Exchange Trust.
c. the Power Plate, created by the Physicians Committee for Responsible Medicine.
d. Exchange Lists for Meal Planning, from the American Diabetes Association and the American Dietetic Association
C- power plate is a vegan food planning guide that eliminates all sources of animal foods
An indirect benefit of the Fruits & VeggiesMore Matters program is
a. better understanding of fruit and vegetable preparation techniques.
b. increased availability of fruits and vegetables in food deserts.
c. eating more fresh produce in season.
d. decreasing dietary fat intake.
D- increasing fruits and veggies intake decreases fat intake
A meal planning guide that would be helpful for a patient who needs to closely monitor their intake of calories, carbohydrates, protein, and fat is the
a. National Fruit and Vegetable Program.
b. MyPlate food guidance system.
c. Dietary Guidelines for Americans.
d. Exchange Lists for Meal Planning
D- foods are grouped according to their calorie and content
One reason that increasing fruit and vegetable consumption helps decrease dietary fat intake is that fruits and vegetables
a. are natural appetite suppressants.
b. replace high-fat foods in the diet.
c. are rich in antioxidants and phytochemicals.
d. decrease absorption of fat from foods.
B- replace high-fat foods because they are high in fiber and water
Why are health professionals concerned about the trend toward eating more food away from home?
a. Larger portion sizes often contribute to excessive caloric intake.
b. Eating away from home means less social interaction.
c. Eating out tends to decrease the variety of foods eaten.
d. Restaurant meals are associated with more sedentary lifestyles.
A- bigger portions at restaurants
If clients want to use the food label to check the number of kilocalories in a product, they should also check the
a. calories from fat.
b. servings per container.
c. Percent Daily Value.
d. ingredient list.
B- multiply calories per serving by serving per container
The most useful part of the food label for clients who want to make sure they choose foods high in nutrients is the
a. Percent Daily Value.
b. health claims.
c. organic seal.
d. amount of nutrients per serving.
A- shows how a food firs into the overall daily diet
If a client is trying to increase intake of dietary fiber, a useful symbol to look for on the food label would be the
a. MyPlate food guidance graphic.
b. U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) 100% Organic seal.
c. Fruits & VeggiesMore Matters logo.
d. 100% Whole Grain stamp.
D- whole grains are an important source of fiber
The Nutrition Facts panel on a food label is useful for
a. determining the ingredients in a product.
b. determining the ease of preparing a product.
c. comparing the price value of two or more products.
d. comparing the nutritional value of two or more products.
D- lists amounts of specific nutrients and therefore can be used for comparison
A pregnant woman may look for a health claim on food labels that links
a. sodium intake and risk of stroke.
b. calcium intake and risk of osteoporosis.
c. folic acid intake and risk of neural tube defects.
d. fruit and vegetable intake and risk of heart disease.
C- folic acid is better for prenatal care
An eating behavior that is most likely to have a negative long-term effect on health is
a. a monthly meal out at an expensive restaurant.
b. eating French fries with lunch once a week.
c. avoiding a specific fruit or vegetable.
d. drinking one can of sugar-sweetened beverage every day.
D- small practices have a cumulative effect on health
The most helpful general recommendation for making healthy food choices would be to
a. focus on organic and natural foods.
b. learn to use the Nutrition Facts Panel on food labels.
c. eat more food from plant sources and less food from animal sources.
d. replace refined grain products with whole grain foods.
C- plant-based diets are the most generally healthy
A client works at a fast food restaurant and usually orders a cheeseburger and regular soda at lunchtime. What would be the most simple recommendation to make this a healthier choice?
a. Eat the meat patty and cheese without the bun, and drink juice.
b. Do not add ketchup or mustard, and drink cappuccino.
c. Skip this meal and fast until dinner.
d. Omit the cheese from the burger, and drink skim milk.
D- cheese has the most saturated fat and skim milk would replace the calcium without the fat
A male client is 38 years old. He is married with two children, aged 7 and 9 years. Both he and his wife work full time. What other information would be important to know when showing him how to use MyPlate to develop a personalized food plan?
a. His wife enjoys cooking home-made meals.
b. He is currently training to run a marathon.
c. Both his father and mother both have type 2 diabetes.
d. He has an allergy to nuts.
B- MyPlate recommendations are based on sex, age, and activity level
For a busy client who works 50 hours a week, a helpful strategy for making healthy food choices is
a. eating several small meals throughout the day.
b. planning meals and snacks in advance.
c. buying fruits and vegetables in season.
d. using the Dietary Guidelines for Americans as a guide.
B- planning ahead avoids impulsive food choices
A single mother has epilepsy and does not drive. She works full time from home, and her three children take the bus to school. She generally rides her bike or walks wherever she needs to go. What would be your greatest concern related to the familys nutritional well-being?
a. It is not safe for someone with epilepsy to prepare food with sharp knives and a hot stove.
b. She is unlikely to be able to afford healthy food for three children as a single mother.
c. Because she does not drive, she may not have access to affordable and high-quality food.
d. Working full time would not leave her enough time to prepare nutritious food for her family.
C- can't drive to stores with good foods
For someone who is able to shop for food only once a month, the most nutritious fruits and vegetables would be _____ fruits and vegetables.
a. fresh seasonal
B- frozen is the best aside form fresh
In choosing between two types of canned soup with regard to the best source of calcium, what information would you look for?
a. Dairy products in the ingredient list
b. The Percent Daily Value for calcium
c. Health claims related to calcium content
d. A Good source of calcium description
B- Percent Daily Value is best for comparison
In a comparison of food products, the description that means the lowest fat content per serving is
b. very lean.
d. low fat.
D- low fat means no more than 3 g of fat per serving, lean means no more than 10 g
The main reason for choosing organic foods is
a. to support the local economy.
b. concern for the environment.
c. to improve nutrient intake.
d. better taste and quality.
B- better for the environment
An individual would be described as having an external locus of control if he or she
a. writes out a shopping list each week and generally buys only foods on the list.
b. tries to eat mostly foods produced through organic and sustainable farming practices.
c. has decided to eat a turkey sandwich but ends up ordering pizza with friends.
d. tries to influence friends and family to help them make healthier food choices.
C- external locus of control means they do not feel as though they are able to control outside forces that have power over their experiences
In a research study, subjects in one group decrease their intake of saturated fat and cholesterol, and those in a control group maintain their current level of intake for 2 years, with regular monitoring of risk factors for cardiovascular disease. This type of research study is called a(n)
a. case study.
b. epidemiologic study.
c. monitoring study.
d. experimental study.
D- comparison testing using one group that receives the treatment or intervention and one that does not (control)
Peristalsis is necessary to make it possible for people to _____ food.
d. smell and taste
C- peristalsis in involuntary movements of circular and longitudinal muscles
Examples of mechanical digestion include
a. activity of salivary amylase in the mouth.
b. churning and mixing of food in the stomach.
c. action of bile breaking fats into smaller droplets.
d. effects of secretin in stimulating the pancreas to release bicarbonate.
B- mechanical digestion is the physical breakdown of food
An example of a problem caused by a sphincter muscle not operating properly is
b. gallbladder disease.
d. peptic ulcer.
C- acid goes back up the esophagus
The best description of an enzyme is a(n)
a. chemical messenger.
b. acid and alkali buffer.
d. organic catalyst
D- work to change specific nutrients from one form to a more simpler form
Chemicals that act as messengers are called
d. nerve impulses.
B- hormones act as messengers between organs to cause released of needed secretions
The action of salivary amylase in the mouth is an example of
a. chemical digestion.
c. mechanical digestion.
d. peristalsis and segmentation.
A- chemically digests starch in the mouth
Most mechanical breakdown of food occurs in the
a. large intestine.
b. liver and pancreas.
c. mouth and stomach.
d. esophagus and mouth.
C- physical breakdown
The body process over which people have most conscious control is
A- people choose the foods and fluids they ingest
When someone walks by a bakery and smells the fresh bread, his or her mouth starts to water. As the person thinks about eating the fresh bread, another digestive function that starts to occur is
a. peristalsis in the small intestine.
b. stimulation of pancreatic secretions.
c. increased blood flow to the gut and liver.
d. release of the hormone gastrin in the stomach
D- gastrin is released when people think about food
The most important functions of the small intestine are
a. digestion and denaturation.
b. segmentation and excretion.
c. digestion and absorption.
d. peristalsis and mechanical digestion.
C- digestion and absorption happen in the small intestine
The most important function of the villi of the small intestine is to
a. increase the secretion of enzymes for digestion.
b. increase the surface area for absorption of nutrients.
c. excrete waste into the intestines.
d. secrete hormones in response to nutrients in the gut
B- villi increase surface area
The layer of the gastrointestinal tract that contributes most to mechanical digestion of food is the
C- muscluaris is a layer of muscle tissue that causes churning, peristalsis, and segmentation of food
If pancreatic secretions were absent,
a. there would be no bicarbonate to buffer the acid in chyme entering the duodenum.
b. mechanical digestion in the stomach would be inhibited.
c. the hormone secretin would not be secreted by the small intestine.
d. the gallbladder would not contract to release bile into the small intestine
A- pancreatic secretions contain bicarbonate
Release of digestive secretions into the small intestine is caused by _____ that are released when _____.
a. enzymes; food enters the stomach
b. enzymes; food enters the small intestine
c. hormones; food enters the stomach
d. hormones; enters the small intestine
D- hormones are released when chyme enters the small intestine
If the large intestine did not carry out its main function, feces would be
d. very dry.
C- large intestine absorbs water
If the speed of peristalsis were to increase, the result would be
C- food would move without adequate water absorption
The part of the digestive system that is easiest to live without is the
a. taste buds.
c. large intestine.
D- appendix- has no known human function
What is the main difference between passive diffusion and active transport?
a. In active transport, the villi membrane surrounds the substance.
b. Active transport requires energy; passive diffusion does not.
c. Passive diffusion is involuntary; active transport is voluntary.
d. Active transport requires enzymes; passive diffusion does not
B- active transport requires energy to absorb nutrients against a concentration gradient
Nutrients are considered to have become part of the body only once they have
a. been placed inside the mouth.
b. been swallowed.
c. passed through the microvilli cells.
d. been stored throughout the body.
C- microvilli cells absorb nutrients in the intestines
People tend to feel full for longer after eating a high-fat meal rather than a low-fat meal because
a. ingestion of fat causes release of hormones that signal a feeling of fullness to the brain.
b. food stays in the stomach for longer to allow emulsification by bile and digestion by gastric enzymes.
c. fat in the duodenum causes release of gastric inhibitory polypeptide, which decreases peristalsis of the stomach.
d. metabolism of the products of fat metabolism by the liver takes longer than metabolism of other nutrients
C- fat enters the duodenum and causes the release of gastric inhibitory polypeptide which decreases peristalsis so food stays in the stomach longer
The bloodstream carries nutrients to the liver soon after absorption because the liver
a. produces hormones that regulate blood glucose level.
b. is an important site of metabolism and production of vital substances.
c. is able to determine which substances should be stored and eliminated.
d. has functions similar to those of the stomach in relation to the digestive process.
B- liver has many important functions in the body so its nutrient needs take priority
An example of catabolism is the
a. building of new muscle tissue during growth.
b. breakdown of glucose to provide energy.
c. synthesis of protein from amino acids.
d. use of enzymes to digest protein and release amino acids.
B- catabolism is the breakdown of molecules
Healing of a broken bone is an example of
A- anabolism builds up new tissue
A busy and stressed person who eats very few fruits and vegetables and does not take time to exercise is likely to experience
d. lactose intolerance
C- stress and lack of exercise causes loss of tone in gastrointestinal muscles
Dehydration may occur after
a. vomiting and diarrhea.
b. constipation and heartburn.
c. esophagitis and anemia.
d. gastroesophageal reflux and hiatal hernia.
A- both cause abnormal fluid loss
A person who complains of problems with gas, bloating, and diarrhea if he or she eats breakfast cereal with milk, but not if he or she eats pancakes or waffles, may have
a. milk allergy.
b. gluten intolerance.
c. irritable bowel syndrome.
d. lactose intolerance.
D- cannot digest the sugar in milk so it ferments in the intestines causing gas
The adjectives mechanical and chemical describe two
a. actions needed to cook food.
b. ways to move substances in the body.
c. types of action that result in digestion.
d. ways in which molecules are transported into and out of cells.
C- types of digestion
If a meal is eaten at noon, by 8 PM that evening, the food would probably be in the
b. small intestine.
c. large intestine.
B- food is in the stomach for 2-6 hours and it takes 5 hours to pass through the small intestine and another 9-16 for large
If the small intestine did not release secretin, the result would be that
a. the stomach would not release gastric juices to moisten and begin digestion of swallowed food.
b. the gallbladder would not release bile to help the process of fat breakdown.
c. peristalsis would slow down, and food would move very slowly through the intestines.
d. the chyme entering the small intestine would be too acidic for digestive enzymes to work
D- secretin causes the pancreas to release bicarbonate into the small intestine to reduce the acidity
If peristalsis were to reverse direction, the result would be
d. intestinal failure.
A- food would flow out of the mouth rather than towards the stomach
The primary function of carbohydrates in the body is to provide
d. dietary fiber.
C- most important function of carbs is to provide energy
Fructose, galactose, and glucose are examples of
d. complex carbohydrates.
C- Great Friends Giggle- giggle sounds like a moan.. monosaccharides
The sweetness in a banana comes mostly from
a. fructose and sucrose.
b. fructose and glucose.
c. glucose and maltose.
d. maltose and sucrose.
A- fructose and sucrose are the most common sugars in fruits
A blood glucose level of 60 mg/dL is considered to be
b. representative of hypoglycemia.
c. representative of normoglycemia.
d. representative of hyperglycemia
B- normal glucose lever is 70-100 mg/dL therefore 60 is low which is hypoglycemia
. In comparison with table sugar (sucrose), honey tastes _____ because it contains _____.
a. sweeter; fructose
b. sweeter; maltose
c. less sweet; fructose
d. less sweet; maltose
A- fructose is the sweetest of all sugars
Someone who follows a strict vegetarian (vegan) diet and eats very few refined foods is likely to have _____ intake of _____ carbohydrates and dietary fiber.
a. low; complex
b. high; complex
c. low; simple
d. high; simple
B- plant foods and unrefined have high levels of complex carbs
A person would be most likely to produce excessive ketones if his or her food intake that day consisted only of
a. green salad with oil and vinegar dressing.
b. refried pinto beans and rice.
c. cheeseburgers and French fries.
d. fried eggs with bacon and hash brown potatoes
A- ketones are produced when insufficient carbs are available
Since the 1970s, consumption of refined white sugar has decreased, mostly because
a. health-conscious consumers are using less of it.
b. use of high-fructose corn syrup has increased.
c. use of artificial sweeteners has increased.
d. use of honey and other natural sweeteners has increased.
B- high fructose corn syrup is cheaper to produce and sweeter than table sugar
The person who is most likely to develop dental caries is one who
a. eats dessert after each meal.
b. drinks two or three regular soft drinks every day.
c. snacks on candy bars between meals.
d. chews gum throughout the day.
C- candy bars are sweet and sticky
The most significant effect of bacteria in the mouth is fermentation of
a. dietary fiber, which promotes formation of beneficial short-chain fatty acids.
b. dietary fiber, which increases intestinal gas production.
c. simple carbohydrates, which promotes production of sugar alcohols and causes halitosis.
d. simple carbohydrates, which promotes formation of plaque and tooth decay.
D- bacteria causes fermentation of sugars in the mouth which promotes formation of plaque and tooth decay
The primary reason for chewing sugar-free gum instead of sugar-sweetened gum is that sugar-free gum
a. is calorie-free and helps with weight control.
b. contains sugar alcohols that do not promote dental caries.
c. contains gums that provide soluble dietary fiber.
d. is sweeter than sugar-sweetened gum because it contains artificial sweeteners
B- sugar alcohols are not fermented by bacteria
Aspartame should not be consumed by
a. infants and school-aged children.
b. individuals who suffer from arthritis.
c. individuals who have phenylketonuria (PKU).
d. anyone who is underweight or trying to gain weight.
C- aspartame contains phenylalanine
John wants to increase his dietary fiber intake. The best breakfast choice to help him achieve this goal would be
a. pancakes and orange juice.
b. oatmeal with raisins.
c. scrambled egg and toast.
d. blueberry muffin and jam
B- whole grains, fruits, and veggies are the best sources of fiber
Colon cancer runs in Janes family. She may be able to decrease her risk of developing this cancer if she increases her intake of
a. fish and bran.
b. apples, strawberries and citrus fruit.
c. oatmeal, barley and legumes.
d. whole grains and vegetables.
D- high intake of insoluble fiber decreases risk of colon cancer
Eating a bowl of oatmeal for breakfast every day may help prevent
a. heart disease because it contains soluble fiber.
b. high blood pressure because it contains potassium.
c. hypoglycemia because it contains complex carbohydrate.
d. osteoporosis because it contains calcium and vitamin D.
A- soluble fiber decreases blood cholesterol levels
Athletes use physical training and dietary manipulation to increase their body stores of energy in the form of
c. amino acids.
d. short-chain fatty acids.
B- glycogen is the storage form of glucose
After a high-carbohydrate meal, the dominant process would be
d. glucagon production.
A- glycogenesis is converting glucose to glycogen. Glycogenolysis is when glycogen is converted back to glucose.
A dietary fiber intake of 18 g daily is considered
a. the minimum recommended.
b. below the optimal range of intake.
c. within the optimal range of intake.
d. above the optimal range of intake
B- recommended range is 25 to 38 grams of fiber per day
A beneficial effect of bacterial fermentation of dietary fiber in the colon is
a. production of intestinal gas.
b. providing monosaccharides for energy.
c. production of short-chain fatty acids.
d. production of long-chain fatty acids.
C- bacteria cause fermentation of fiber in the colon to produce short-chain fatty acids which provide energy for mucosal cells and inhibit tumor formation
Increased consumption of fruits and vegetables would be most beneficial to someone with
C- fiber in fruits and veggies helps relieve constipation
Peter has been very ill and has not eaten for 3 days. In order to provide carbohydrate for his brain and other cells, his body will break down
a. body fat.
b. liver glycogen.
c. blood glucose.
d. muscle protein.
D- after the body uses all of the glycogen only muscle protein can be converted to glucose
An example of a food with a low glycemic index is
a. lentil soup.
b. a bagel.
c. a sports drink.
d. cornflakes cereal.
A- lentils have high amounts of fiber which decreases glycemic index
If someones stomach is removed, his or her ability to digest carbohydrate would be
a. limited to only disaccharides and monosaccharides.
b. limited to only polysaccharides.
c. largely unaffected.
d. lost completely
C- most carbohydrate digestion occurs in the small intestine
If someone chewed a piece of bread for a long time, its taste would become
C- salivary amylase would break down the starch to produce monosaccharides and disaccharides which taste sweet
If a healthy persons blood glucose level is 120 mg/dL, his or her body would respond by releasing
C- normal range is 70 - 100 so the body would release insulin to promote storage of glucose to remove excess from the blood
The main concern with increasing intake of high-fructose corn syrup is that it
a. provides mostly fructose, which is poorly metabolized.
b. provides energy but no nutrients.
c. promotes storage of body fat.
d. cultivates an increased desire for sweet foods and beverages.
B- energy without nutrients
The best way to ensure adequate nutrient intake is to eat plenty of
a. refined grains.
b. enriched grains.
c. whole grains.
d. fiber supplements.
C- whole grains supply the most nutrients
For someone with diabetes mellitus, high blood glucose levels may be caused by high intakes of
a. refined carbohydrates.
b. any type of food.
c. any type of sugar.
d. any type of carbohydrate
D- carbs increase blood glucose in people with diabetes
A client experiences bloating, gas, and diarrhea after eating ice cream or drinking milk. These symptoms are probably related to
b. lactose intolerance.
c. inadequate fiber intake.
B- dont have the ability to produce lactase to digest lactose
The end product of starch digestion in the body is
D- starch is broken down into individual monosaccharide glucose unites
Of the following, the food that would provide the most energy per ounce is
d. hard candy
A- fat is the densest energy source
The most beneficial function of cholesterol in the body is
a. formation of sex hormones, bile, and vitamin D.
b. depositing plaques in arteries.
c. being part of cell membrane structure.
d. solubility in both water and fat
A- body uses sterols to make cholesterol to make those
If a patient receiving parenteral nutrition develops eczema, the patient probably has
a. vitamin C deficiency.
b. essential fatty acid deficiency.
c. protein-energy malnutrition.
d. phospholipid and sterol deficiency.
B- eczema can be a sign of essential fatty acid deficiency
If a food that is usually made with hydrogenated oil is made with vegetable oil instead, one potential concern is that the
a. flavor will be significantly different.
b. food will feel oily to the touch.
c. food will contribute more to cardiovascular risk.
d. food will have a shorter shelf life.
D- the double bonds are removed which renders the fatty acids less vulnerable to oxidation
A triglyceride is a compound composed of
a. glycerol with two fatty acids attached.
b. glycerol with three amino acids attached.
c. glycerol with three fatty acids attached.
d. organic molecules formed in triangular chains
C- glycerol and three fatty acids
To decrease intake of saturated fatty acids and increase intake of polyunsaturated fatty acid, one dietary change would be from using _____ to using _____ oil.
a. shortening; coconut
b. margarine; olive
c. soybean oil; canola
d. butter; sunflower
D- sunflower oil is rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids while butter is rich in saturated fatty acids
If a client wants to lose 1 lb of body fat each week, he or she would need to make sure that the daily calorie intake was lower than the daily energy needs by _____ kcal/day.
B- one pound of body fat contains 3500 kcal
Of the following fats, the one that is most likely to be liquid is
a. milk fat.
b. beef drippings.
c. coconut oil.
d. peanut oil.
D- peanut oil is plant based and has high amounts of unsaturated fatty acids
The number of double bonds present in the fatty acid chain determines the
a. number of fatty acids attached to the glycerol molecule.
b. number of glycerol molecules attached to a fatty acid.
c. degree of saturation or unsaturation of a fatty acid.
d. degree of saturation or unsaturation of the glycerol molecule
C- number of double bonds in a fatty acid chain determines the degree of saturation or unsaturation of a fatty acid
A client who wishes to avoid blood clots may benefit from regular intake of
a. fish oil capsules.
d. olives and olive oil
B- omega-3 fatty acids found ins salmon help decrease the risk of blood clots
Overall energy intake can be greatly affected by relatively small changes in intake of
C- fat contains more calories per gram than any other nutrient
The number of kilocalories provided by 23 g of fat is
C- 23 x 9
If dietary analysis shows that fat provides 31% of an individuals energy intake, their fat intake would be
a. considered below the recommended range.
b. considered within the recommended range.
c. considered above the recommended range.
d. generally recognized as safe
B- acceptable range for fat is 20%- 35% therefore 31% is within normal range
Sources of invisible fat include
a. pastries and pies.
b. bacon and chicken with skin.
c. butter and sour cream.
d. oil and vinegar salad dressing.
A- fat can't be seen in baked goods
An example of emulsification is
a. chewing of food in the mouth.
b. use of egg yolk to make mayonnaise.
c. commercial hydrogenation of liquid oils.
d. digestion of fat in the small intestine.
B- lecithin in egg yolk acts as an emulsifier in the making of mayo
For someone with coronary heart disease, what would be the most helpful piece of information on a food label?
a. Total calories per serving
b. Milligrams of cholesterol per serving
c. Grams of saturated fat per serving
d. Grams of total fat per serving
C- saturated fat intake has the greatest influence on blood cholesterol levels
If a salad dressing is made with olive oil, it would contain mostly _____ fatty acids.
D- olive oil is rich in monounsaturated fats. Trans fatty acids are found in hydrogenated fats and polyunsaturated fatty acids are bound in other liquid vegetable oils.
The best description of a fat with high amounts of trans fatty acids is that it is
a. liquid at room temperature.
b. found naturally in tropical oils.
c. easily transformed from one state to another.
d. produced by hydrogenation of plant oils
D- trans fatty acids are formed when liquid plant oils are hydrogenated to form hard fat
An alternative to hydrogenation to increase the shelf life of polyunsaturated fat is the addition of
a. vitamin E.
b. vitamin D.
A- antioxidants provide a way to preserve unsaturated fats without hydrogenation.
The most important property of phospholipids that makes them valuable both in foods and in the body is that they
a. carry fat-soluble vitamins.
b. are useful as low-energy fat substitutes.
c. are soluble in water and fat at the same time.
d. function as natural antioxidants
C- phospholipids are soluble in water and fat at the same time making them useful emulsifiers and important components of cell membranes.
Most fat enters the lymphatic system after
A- fat is absorbed into the lymphatic system from the small intestine and then passes into the circulation.
Jacob usually eats a sandwich with salami, mayonnaise, lettuce, and tomato on wheat bread for lunch. What change would be most helpful in decreasing his risk of cardiovascular disease?
a. Add sprouts instead of tomato.
b. Switch to whole-wheat bread.
c. Omit the mayonnaise.
d. Replace the salami with turkey.
D- salami has high amounts of saturated fatty acids which increase blood cholesterol levels
High levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDLc) are associated with an increased risk of
a. diabetes mellitus.
b. high levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDLc).
c. coronary artery disease.
d. high blood pressure and stroke.
C-low-density lipoprotein cholesterol is associated with increased risk of coronary artery disease.
A client who is trying to follow a low-fat eating pattern tells you that he or she has experienced diarrhea. You may want to find out whether he or she has
a. eaten foods made with the fat substitute carrageenan.
b. eaten foods made with the fat substitute olestra.
c. greatly increased intake of fish and seafood.
d. developed essential fatty acid deficiency
B- olestra is a fat substitute that is not digested or absorbed
The client most likely to benefit from use of medium-chain triglycerides is one who
a. has essential fatty acid deficiency.
b. has malabsorption because of removal of part of the small intestine.
c. needs to gain weight after surgery and chemotherapy to treat bowel cancer.
d. has high levels of both serum total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol.
B- medium chain triglycerides are beneficial for patients with malabsorption because they are relatively easily absorbed.
A good lunch choice for someone who wants to increase intake of omega-3 fatty acids would be
a. peanut butter and jelly sandwich.
b. lentil soup.
c. salad with olive oil dressing.
d. grilled tuna sandwich.
D- fatty fish are a good source of omega-3 fatty acids
If a person did not produce bile,
a. fats would pass through the intestines undigested.
b. fats would be digested and absorbed too quickly.
c. fat digestion may occur more slowly.
d. digestion of fat would be unaffected.
C- bile emulsifies dietary fats to increase their surface area for action of digestive enzymes
A client who is a bodybuilder eats large quantities of tuna, chicken, and lean meats every day. Any extra energy from these foods that the clients body does not need will be stored as
a. adipose tissue.
b. essential body fat.
c. muscle tissue.
A- extra energy from any source is stored as fat in adipose tissue
A healthy daily fat intake for someone who eats 3000 kcal per day is _____ g.
b. 33 to 83
c. 67 to 117
d. 600 to 1050
C- 20-35% of 3000 = 750
750/9 = 83
83 falls in the range of 67-117
A client grew up on a farm and learned to prepare foods with butter and lard produced by the farm animals. She is now in her 60s and has just learned that she has coronary artery disease. To best meet her physical needs, as well as psychological needs, the health practitioner should
a. suggest that she adopt a low-fat vegetarian dietary pattern.
b. ask how she usually prepares foods and suggest ways to reduce the use of animal fat.
c. advise her to eat more fruits and vegetables and to replace some of the animal fat with palm and coconut oil.
d. advise her to avoid adding fat to foods and eat only very lean poultry and fish.
C- make changes without being dramatic or arbitrary
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