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Unit 3 World Wars Exam, Interwar Period Created 4-3-11, Test 4-5-11

14 Points

Wilson's suggestions of a peace treaty for Ger. after WWI, key points - freedom of seas, agreements b/w nations public and peaceful, neutral trade rights, reduction of mil., self determination, League of Nations; rejected by France and Brit.

Weimar Revolution

Ger. revolt in the Navy, sailors poorly treated, lack of food, supposed to attack Brit. fleet = suicide mission, killed officers; after, Kaiser stepped down, Weimar Republic signed Treaty of Versailles

Treaty of Versailles

Demilitarization of Ger., Ger. forfeit colonial empire, monetary reparations, Article 231, self-determination not applied to Ger.

John Foster Dulles


War Guilt Clause

Article 231, blamed Ger. entirely for WWI, taken harshly by Ger. population

Self Determination in Post WWI World

didn't apply to Ger., didn't work both ways (had to forfeit land but couldn't gain land)


After WWI, Central Powers colonial territories redistributed among Allied nations, each mandate had different levels of sovereignty

Treaty of Sevres

peace agreement w/ Turks in which the Ottoman Empire was split into mandates, Mustafa Kemal

Mustafa Kemal

led Turkish nationalists and overthrew the Sultan, implemented Western changes, modernized

Balfour Declaration

Brit. statement that supported Jews in Palestine, caused Jewish/Palestinian tension

La Femme Moderne

new women's fashion in Europe, trendy for women to look boyish, part of free expression and break from traditional values, Paris hotbed

Dada Movement

Zurich, Switzerland; anti-art movement in which society didn't deserve art after creation of WWI, meant to provoke, spontaneous performances

Marcel Duchamp

Principle Dada engineer/leader

Surrealists - Andre Breton

conscious thought brought war, political art movement to liberate people from constraints of conscious thought

Bloc National

most org. pol. party in France during war, enforced Treaty of V.

Cartel of the Left

opposition parties in France, improve relations w/ Ger.

Locarno Pact

strengthen the League of Nations: b/w Euproean nations, established borders, espcially Germany and France; part of Cartel of the Left

Kellogg-Briand Treaty

US and France outlaw war, 64 other nations involved, part of Cartel of the Left

Aristide Briand

French Foregin Minister, architect of the Cartel of the Left, responsible for Locarno Pact and Kellogg-Briand Treaty

Mukden Incident

explosion in Manchuria on a Japanese railroad, Japan gov. blamed Chinese natioalists but did it themselves, excuse to send in army to begin invasion of Manchuria

Washington Naval Agreement

Japan broke Washington Naval Agreement in 1934, which said Japan was to have a "controlled navy", began buildup of Navy

Anti-Cominterm Pact

Japan 1936, signed by Japan, Germany, Italy and Spain, fighting against Communism internationally (aimed at Soviets)

Nanking Massacre

Japanese invasion of China, bombed civilian targets and raped women, demonstrated Japanese beliefs of superiority and atrocities of the invasion

Benito Mussolini

started Italian fascist movement using intimidation and propaganda, cult of dyamism (blackshirts), Socialist uprising failed in 1920, led Blackshirt on Rome and became Head of State, later Dictator

Lateran Treaty

provides Italy legitimacy being recognized by Vatican City, made Vatican City sovereign nation, recognized Mussolini

Mare Nostrum

"our sea", Mussolini's dream of controlling the Meditteranean Sea and restoring pride to Italy, worked with Hitler

Pact of Steel

Military and Economic alliance b/w Italy and Germany, shared ideals: strong/autocratic leader, anti-communist/democracy, militaristic

Dawes Plan

after WWI, Ger. had reparations to pay but didn't have the money, France neither, US asks for $ but is denied, US loans $ to Ger. for war reparations, which pays France, who pays loans off to US

Beer Hall Putsch

Hitler jailed after an attempt at this revolution, wrote his book in jail, "My Struggle", which dictated Mein Kampf

Nuremberg Laws

laws of Hitler, Deprived Jews of citizenship, restricted rights prohibited marrying non-Jews, attend or teach at Ger. schools, hold gov. jobs, practice law or medicine, publish books; physical violence


"Living Space", Hitler's general plan of expansion for Ger., move Eastward into Russia and Slavs, extermination, Ger. settlers move in


"Night of Broken Glass", retaliation of a Jew shooting a Ger. in Paris, Nazis persecuted Jews in Ger. by destroying and raiding houses, synagogues, stores, etc.

Sturmabteilung (S.A. Brownshirts)

group of militant Nazis who used intimidation and violence against opposition parties to further their pol. agenda, street thugs, Ernest Rohm (leader) suggested to Hitler they should become natl. army, Hitler distrusted -> Night of the Long Knives

Night of the Long Knives

due to Hitler's distrust of Brownshirts, raid by Gestapo, arrested Brownshirts, Rohm and other leaders executed (threat to Hitler's power)


Ger. annexation of Austria, Ger. army occupied, Hitler claims self determination (Ger. ppl in Austria), Allies do nothing

Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact

Ger. and Russia sign non-aggression pact, For Hitler it ended possibility of 2 front war and deter Brit. from honoring commitment to Poland, For Stalin allowed time to rebuild Red Army, Secret Clauses: Ger. and Russia attack Poland and split territory, Ger. get Lituania and Russia get Balkans

Munich Conference (Munich Pact)

Brit. and France meet w/ Ger. to avoid war, Ger. gets Sudetenland and agree to non-aggression pact with Czech., later ignored by Hitler

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