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34 terms

Chemistry Chapter 13

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Democritus
first thought atom was a solid, indestructible, indivisible mass
solid; indestructible; indivisible
Democritus thought the atom was a ... , ... , ... mass.
J.J. Thomson
said that the atomic model did not take into account electrons and protons
electrons; protons
J.J. Thomson said that the atomic model did not take into account ... and ...
Ernest Rutherford
proposed that electrons surrounded a dense, positively charged nucleus and the rest of the atom was empty space
Niels Bohr
said that electrons were arranged in orbits around the nucleus
Niels Bohr
said that electrons in a particular path have a fixed energy
fixed energy
Niels Bohr said that electrons in a particular path have a ... ...
energy level
region around the nucleus where the electron is likely to be moving
greater
Energy levels are more closely spaced the ... the distance from the nucleus.
more
the higher the energy level, the ... energy the electron has.
quantum
amount of energy required to move an electron from one energy level to the next higher one
quantum leap
an abrupt change of energy levels
quantum mechanical model
the present day atomic model
most probable location
The quantum mechanical model does not show paths, instead it shows the ... ... ... of an electron.
higher
The denser the place in the cloud of the electron cloud model, the ... the probability of finding an electron.
Schrodinger
came up with the mathematical equation showing energy and location of electron
energy; location
Schrodinger came up with a mathematical equation showing the ... and ... of electron
principal quantum number
principal energy level or shell
sublevels
number of ... is the same as the principal quantum number
atomic orbitals
regions within a sublevel where electrons can be found
two
maximum of ... electrons per orbital
ground state
lowest possible energy state
unstable
high energy systems are ...
electron configurations
ways in which electrons are arranged around the nucleus of atoms
Aufbau Principle
electrons enter orbitals of lowest energy first
overlap
energy levels can ...
Pauli Exclusion Principle
for two electrons to occupy the same orbital, they must have opposite spins
orbital pair
two oppositely spinning electrons occupying the same orbital
Hund's Rule
before a second electron can be placed in any orbital, all orbitals of that sublevel must contain at least one electron
electrons
For neutral atoms, the sum of the superscripts is the number of ... in the atom.
valence shell
outermost principal energy level of an atom that includes at least one electron
valence electrons
electrons in the valence shell
excited state
condition of an atom whose electrons are at higher energy levels than the ones they normally occupy