90 terms

Foner Chapters 1-4 Unit Test

Georgetown Day School AP U.S. History Paul Bolstad 7th Period 2014
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maize
corn - one of the crops harvested by the Indians in America, helped form the basis of agriculture
Tenochtitlán
capital of the Aztec empire in what is now Mexico
Chaokia
the capital of a large Indian society centered in the Mississippi River Valley
Iroquis
the Indians in present day Pennsylvania and New York who united to form a Great League of Peace
"Christian Liberty"
abandoning the life of sin to embrace the teachings of Christ
Zheng He
leader of the Chinese (first global empire) Navy, leading expeditions exploring the Indian Ocean
Caravel
a Chinese ship suited for long trips on the ocean, which along with the compass and quadrant made it easier for sailors to determine their position when at sea
factories
fortified Portuguese trading posts along the coast of West Africa, named because the merchants who established them were called factors
reconquista
the 1492 recapturing of the Iberian Peninsula from the Moors
Columbian Exchange
the transatlantic flow of goods and people
Peninsulares
people born in Europe, living and governing the colonies in America, stood atop the social hierarchy
encomienda system
authority for Spanish men to take Indian land and extract forced labor from the native peoples
Black Legend
the image of Spain as a brutal and exploitative colonizer
Pueblo Revolt
the uprising led by Popé, which was designed to drive the Spanish from the native lands and restore Indian autonomy
Popé
leader of the Pueblo Revolt and religious leader
Huguenots
French protestants, who after the Verdict of Nantes more than 100,00 fled France but were denied life in New England
Métis
children of marriages between French men and native women - often became guides, traders, or interpreters
patroons
large estates awarded to shareholders who agreed to transport tenants for agricultural labor
wampum
a string of beads used by Indians in religious rituals and as currency - became a symbol of New Netherland and the East Indian Company
"plantations"
name for early English colonies in North America and the West Indies
Roanoke Island
English base set up off the coast of North Carolina to facilitate raids on Spanish shipping
A Discourse Concerning Western Planting
a book written in 1584 at the request of Sir Walter Raleigh which listed 23 reasons Queen Elizabeth I should support the establishment of the colonies
"enclosure" movement
the eviction of small farmers in what was communal land to establish large, fenced off farms
indentured servants
workers who voluntarily surrendered their freedom for a certain amount of time in exchange for their passage to America
John Smith
the first leader of the Jamestown Colony near the Chesapeake Bay
headright system
the award of 50 acres of land to any colonist who paid for their own or someone else's passage to North America
House of Burgesses
the first elected assembly in the colonies (1619) - only land owners could vote and and the governor retained the right to veto any decision
uprising of 1622
a suprise attack led by the Indian Opechancanough which killed one-forth of the settlers living in Virginia - the remaining settlers got together and massacred the Indians - fundamentally shifted the power balance in Virginia
tobacco
the crop responsible for the growth and success of the colony of Virginia, had huge demand in Europe - demand for the crop is also what founded slavery
"dower rights"
a woman's right to keep one-third of her husbands property in the event he died before she did
Puritans
settled in New England, believed that the church of England retained too many ideas attached to Catholicism - believed religious belief was complex and should be contemplated through sermons and the Bible
John Winthrop
explained the Puritan conception of freedom, explaining that "natural" liberty (acting without restraint) was the freedom of bad christianity, said Puritans needed "moral" liberty
"moral" liberty
the "liberty to do only which is good" which also meant restraints on speech, religion, and personal behavior
Pilgrims
the first group of Puritans to emigrate to America
Mayflower Compact
the agreement made by the Pilgrims before making landfall in America, which agreed to "just and equal laws"
The Great Migration
the emigration of more than 21,000 Puritans to America between 1629 and 1642 - established a stable basis for society
"captivity" narratives
novels written to make Indian society look barbaric and to encourage Christian society
The Sovereignty and Goodness of God
the most famous of "captivity" narratives
Pequots
the tribe that caused war in 1637 after killing a french fur trader
English liberty
rights that depended on the Magna Carta, which outlined the rights of people living in America
Magna Carta
attempted to put an end to chronic civil unrest
Half-Way Covenant
addressed the fears that a larger population would cause loss of religious purity - allowed for a half-baptism for grandchildren of people who's grandparents emigrated during the Great Migration
Acts Concerning Religion
adopted in Maryland in 1649, which granted all Christians the right to freedom of religion and belief
Navigation Acts
laws that said the most valuable products such as sugar or tobacco must be transported on English ships and sold in English ports, stimulated the rise of New England's shipbuilding industry
Covenant Chain
an alliance formed by Sir Edmund Andros in which the imperial ambitions of the English and the Indians paralleled each other
Yamasee and Creek
the Indians who in 1715 led raids on settlers and slave traders in retaliation for the trade debts they had accumulated
Society of Friends, or Quakers
the group to which William Penn belonged to which believed in spiritual freedom and where colonists and natives could live in harmony
sugar
created some of the largest plantations powered on slave labor in Brazil - major cash crop
Las Siete Partidas
laws granting certain rights to slaves regarding marriage, property ownership, and access to freedom
Bacon's Rebellion
1676 - accelerated the shift from white slaves to black slaves in Virginia - was a revolt against the corrupt governor granting land he didn't have
new slave code
enacted by the House of Burgesses in 1705 which created universal laws that further asserted white dominance
Glorious Revolution
the 1688 fight in the English government between the crown and Parliament which established parliamentary supremacy and a Protestant crown
Bill of Rights
used to justify the outing by Parliament of James II in 1689, which also gave Parliament control over taxation, individual rights and introduced trial by jury
Lords of Trade
established by England in 1675 to oversee colonial affairs - in 1678 it became that the acts created by this group didn't count unless approved by the Massachusetts General Court
Dominion of New England
when all the colonies were combined by James II hoping to raise money and reduce dependence on Parliament
English Toleration Act
created in 1690 which allowed all Protestants to practice freely, created stress within the Puritan communities
"redemptioners"
= "indentured families" - German families received passage to America with a promise to work of their debts for the English or Dutch
backcountry
country previously unsettled by Europeans in which Scottish-Irish settlers took over and created conflict with the Indians despite their peaceful relations established with William Penn
Walking Purchase
an agreement made in 1737 in which the Lenni Lanape Indians agreed to give up as much land as the settlers could travel in 36 hours - amazingly trained runners ran much further and took much more land than expected
artisans
craftsmen, who with the consumer revolution were able to afford many commodities once only available to the social elite
"cousinocracy"
the name given to the upperclass in Virginia because they were so closely knit
Metacom
leader of the Wampanoag, known to the settlers as King Philip, famous for leading uprisings against the settlers
King Philip's War
created more widespread freedom for New Englander's because they had greater access to land
Mercantilist System
the attempt by the British to take over as much trade as they possibly could - was based on the idea that there was only some much wealth that could be accessed
The Interesting Narrative of the Life of Olaudah Equiano
published in 1789 by Equiano in which he condemned the idea that Africans were inferior to whites
Atlantic Slave Trade
when an estimated 7.7 million Africans were transported to America between 1492 and 1820
Middle Passage
given it's name because it was the second of three legs connecting Europe, Africa and America - when women, children and men were crammed into boats and transported across the Atlantic to be sold in America - many slaves died on the way over
"task" system
developed in eighteenth-century South Carolina, where slaves were given daily tasks and when they completed them, they were given the freedom to grow their own crops or to enjoy leisure time
Creoles
slaves born in America, which were always outnumbered by new slaves being imported
Gullah
a language that developed between slaves in the Americas that was unable to be understood by most whites
Stono Rebellion
when a group of South Carolina slaves seized control of a large number of weapons in the town of Stono - they killed roughly 24 whites and 200 slaves - led to a much stricter slave code in South Carolina
runaways
slaves who ran away from their plantations - caused whites to reassert the idea that slaves had "no notion of liberty"
"republicanism"
"government without a king" - celebrated participation in public life by economically independent citizens as the essence of liberty
"virtue"
the willingness to put one's devotion to the common good over personal interest - believed to only be possessed by property-owning citizens
"liberalism"
individual and private - political philosophy that emphasized the protection of liberty by limiting the power of government to interfere with the natural rights of citizens
Two Treatises of Government
written by John Locke which said that inequality was natural and power always emanated from the top
"deference"
the right that instead of voting, wealth, education, and social prominence carried the right to hold public office
"salutary neglect"
when European countries were preoccupied and left the colonies to govern themselves - highly ranked members of society began to assert their dominance in local government
circulating libraries
made it possible for a wide spread of knowledge at a time when books were still expensive
freedom of the press
viewed by governments on both sides of the Atlantic as dangerous - people demanded an Agreement of the People which guaranteed religious freedom and freedom of the press - this was not granted until 1695
seditious libel
the accusation in the 1735 trial of John Peter Zenger, which meant he was being tried for publishing offensive material - found not guilty
Enlightenment
Revolution in thought in the eighteenth century that emphasized reason and science over the authority of traditional religion
Great Awakening
Fervent religious revival movement in the 1720s through the 1740s that was spread throughout the colonies by ministers like New England Congregationalist Jonathan Edwards and English revivalist George Whitefield. - trying to once again reunite people under one religion
presidios
Spanish military outposts
Father Junípero Serra
founded the first mission in California, converted thousands of Indians to Christianity and was widely controversial
"middle ground"
ground between where the Indians and settlers inhabited, when over time villages emerged in which Indians and settlers lived side-by-side without conflict
Arcadians
more than 5,000 french residents living in Nova Scotia who's land was confiscated before being kicked out by the British
Pontiac's Rebellion
revolts launched by the Indians of the Ohio Valley and Great Lakes against the British in 1763 after French defeat
Neolin
a Delaware religious prophet who preached that Indians should reject European technology and free themselves from ties with the Europeans by forcing them to leave
The Albany Plan of Union
drafted in 1754 by Benjamin Franklin at the outbreak of the Seven Years' War which imagined a Grand Council of representatives from each state with the power to levy taxes and deal with Indian relations
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