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30 terms

Endocrine System and Reproduction

Prentice Hall Science Explore Human Biology and Health
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endocrine gland
A structure of the endocrine system which produces and releases its chemical products directly into the bloodstream.
hormone
the chemical product of an endocrine gland
target cell
A cell in the body that recognizes a hormone's chemical structure.
hypothalamus
a part of the brain that links the nervous system and the endocrine system
pituitary gland
An endocrine gland that controls many body activities
negative feedback
A process in which the endocrine system is turned off by the condition it produces
egg
Female sex cell
sperm
Male sex cell
fertilization
the joining of a sperm cell and an egg cell
zygote
a fertilized egg, produced by the joining of a sperm and an egg
testes
male reproductive organ that produces sperm and testosterone
testosterone
A hormone produced by the testes that controls the development of physical characteristics in mature men
scrotum
the external pouch that contains the testes
semen
a mixture of sperm and fluids
penis
the organ through which both semen and urine leave the male body
ovary
organ of the female reproductive system in which eggs and estrogen are produced
estrogen
a hormone produced by the ovaries that controls the development of eggs and adult female characteristics
fallopian tube
a passageway for eggs from an ovary to the uterus
uterus
the hollow muscular organ of the female reproductive system in which a fertilized egg develops
vagina
a muscular passageway leading to the outside of the body; also called the birth canal
menstrual cycle
the cycle of changes that occurs in the female reproductive system, during which an egg develops and the uterus prepares for the arrival of a fertilized egg
ovulation
The process by which a mature egg is released from the ovaries into the fallopian tubes.
menstruation
Process in which the thickend lining of the uterus breaks down and blood and tissue exit the female body through the vagina.
embryo
A developing human during the first eight weeks after fertilization has occurred.
fetus
a developing human from the ninth week of development until birth
amniotic sac
a fluid-filled sac that cushions and protects a developing embryo and fetus in the uterus
placenta
a membrane that becomes the link between the developing embryo or fetus and the mother
umbilical cord
a ropelike structure that forms between the embryo or fetus and the placenta
adolescence
the stage of development between childhood and adulthood when children become adults physically and mentally
puberty
the period of sexual development in which the body becomes able to reproduce