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Major means of control used by neocolonialists to maintain global stratification.

the most industrialized nations entrap the poor nations with a circle of debt

Weber's three variables that define social class

Property Power Prestige


the total value of everything someone owns, minus the debts

Income Distribution of Americans

CEO's of large corporations achieve the most amount of money

The democratic facade

conceals real source of power in the US

The greatest influence on determining social prestige

Status symbols

Status inconsistency

ranking high on some dimensions of social class and low on others

Political view of people who are status inconsistent

claim higher status but are handed a lower one

contradictory class locations

position in the class structure that generates contradictory interests

variables used by Gilbert and Kahl to develop six class model

portray the class structure of the US and other capitalist countries. Capitalists, Upper Middle, Lower Middle, Working, Working Poor, Underclass

Which groups of persons would have the narrowest field of eligible marriage partners based on background expectations

capitalists class

What did kohn suggest was the primary influence upon parents that emphasized how they reared their children

lower class focus more on getting their children to follow the rules and obey authority, middle class focus more on developing their children's creative and leadership skills

Characteristics of people in carious social classes

Capitalist class place strong emphasis on family tradition. Lower social class has a more likelihood of divorce. Education is more important for Capitalist class. Lower class is attracted to more expressive worship services. Higher social class more likely to vote Republican, working class vote Democrat

Relationship between one's social class and one's chances of being a victim of a crime

white collar crimes of more privelaged classes are more likely to be dealt with outside the criminal justice system, police and courts deal with street crimes of lower class.

Inter-generational Mobility

change that family members make in social class from one generation to the next

What is the most common basis for social stratification in every society?

Property Power Prestige

Social Stratification

The division of large numbers of people into layers according to their relative property, power, and prestige


the practice of marrying within one's own group

The most significant difference between the class system and the systems of slavery, caste, and estate

in class system you can change your social class by what you achieve or fail to achieve in life.

Characteristics of the class system

money or material possessions that can be acquired


ability to control others even over their objections

the best predictor of who goes to college


what did Marx predict would have after workers were epolited year after year by the capitalist class?

a workers revolution that would overthrow capitalism

In the global stratification model, which nations would be considered the most industrialized nations, industrializing nations, and least industrialized nations?

Most: United States Canada Great Britain France Germany Switzerland Japan Australia New Zealand
Industrializing: Most of the former Soviet Union
Least: people that live on small farms or in villages, have large families, and barely survive

World System Theory

Economic and political connections that tie the world's countries together

Four Nations/ Core Nations

The countries that industrialized first which grew rich and powerful

Semi periphery

nations that grew dependent on trade with core nations


developed less, sold cash crops to core nations

External Area

left out of the development of capitalism all together

The purpose of colonialism as practiced by the major European powers during the 18th 19th and 20th centuries

to establish economic colonies to exploit the nation's people and resources for the benefit of the mother country

Globalization of Capitalism

capitalism becoming the globe's dominant economic system

Culture of poverty

the assumptions that the values and behavior of the poor make them fundamentally different from other people, that these factors are largely responsible for their poverty and that parents perpetuate poverty across generations by passing these characteristics to their children

Gender tracking

college degrees tend to follow gender, which reinforces male-female distinctions

where does the greatest pay gap exist between men and women over their lifetime?

women that choose lower paying jobs such as teachers

child penalty

women missing out on work experience and opportunities while they care for children

testosterone bonus

employers start males out at a higher salary than women

glass ceiling

mostly invisible barrier that keeps women from advancing to the top levels at work

how do feminists view sexual harassment

as part of a structural problem

what two careers are most associated with being successful in politics

house of reps and the president


a group whose inherited physical characteristics distinguish it from other groups


having distinctive cultural characteristics


the systematic annihilation or attempted annihilation of a people because their presumed race or ethnicity

two myths of race

the idea that any race is superior to others, "pure" race exists

minority group

people who are singled out for unequal treatment and who regard themselves as objects of collection discrimination

ethnic work

activities designed to discover, enhance, or maintain ethnic and racial identity

positive prejudice

exaggerates virtues of a group, as when people think that some group is more capable than others


an attitude or prejudging usually in a negative way


an act of unfair treatment directed against an individual or a group

What did ezekiel suggest as the reason why some people are attracted to racist hate groups?

the world is made of distinct racial groups; life is a war between these groups. Events have secret causes, are never what they seem superficially


an individual or group unfairly blamed for someone else's troubles

exchange mobility

occurs when large numbers of people move up and down the social class ladder, but on balance the proportions of the social class remain about the same

structural mobility

movement up or down the social class ladder that is due to changes in the structure of society not to individual efforts

numerically, what is the race of the majority of the poor in the US

10% Asian Americans and Whites
21% Latinos
24% African Americans
27% Native Americans

Feminization of poverty

the situation that most poor families in the US are headed by women

relationship between births to single mothers and their level of education

less education a single woman has, the most likely she is to bear children

length of time most people spend in poverty

5 years or longer

social structure explanation of poverty

features of society deny some people access to education or the learning of job skills. They emphasize racial-ethnic, age, and gender discrimination as well as changes in the job market

reserve labor force

it is designed to keep the unemployed alive during economic downturns until their labor is needed during the next economic boom

relationship between social class and the likelihood of embracing deferred gratification

doing something int he present in the hope of achieving great gains in the future

gender stratification

males and females unequal access to property, power and prestige

how do behavioral gender differences develop between men and women?

men are more aggressive, women are more nurturing

why are females classified as a minority group

males became more dominant in history when it came to their jobs that they had to do such as hunting

goals of the radical and conservative branches of the first wave of feminism

the right for women to vote

four waves of feminism

right to vote, working conditions, criticism of the values that dominate work society, problems of women in the least industrialized nations

cause of sex typing of college majors

gender equality in education

authoritarian personality

people who are prejudiced and rank high on scales of conformity intolerance insecurity respect for authority and submissiveness to superiors

selective perception

seeing certain features of an object or situation but remaining blind to others

indirect transfer

achieved by making life so miserable for members of minority that they leave voluntarily

direct transfer

occurs when a dominant group expels a minority

internal colonialism

the policy of exploiting minority groups for economical gain

forced assimilation

the dominant group refuses to allow the minority to practice its religion, to speak its language or to follow its customs


a philosophy or political policy that permits or encourages ethnic differences

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