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72 terms

Sociology Test 3

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Major means of control used by neocolonialists to maintain global stratification.
the most industrialized nations entrap the poor nations with a circle of debt
Weber's three variables that define social class
Property Power Prestige
Wealth
the total value of everything someone owns, minus the debts
Income Distribution of Americans
CEO's of large corporations achieve the most amount of money
The democratic facade
conceals real source of power in the US
The greatest influence on determining social prestige
Status symbols
Status inconsistency
ranking high on some dimensions of social class and low on others
Political view of people who are status inconsistent
claim higher status but are handed a lower one
contradictory class locations
position in the class structure that generates contradictory interests
variables used by Gilbert and Kahl to develop six class model
portray the class structure of the US and other capitalist countries. Capitalists, Upper Middle, Lower Middle, Working, Working Poor, Underclass
Which groups of persons would have the narrowest field of eligible marriage partners based on background expectations
capitalists class
What did kohn suggest was the primary influence upon parents that emphasized how they reared their children
lower class focus more on getting their children to follow the rules and obey authority, middle class focus more on developing their children's creative and leadership skills
Characteristics of people in carious social classes
Capitalist class place strong emphasis on family tradition. Lower social class has a more likelihood of divorce. Education is more important for Capitalist class. Lower class is attracted to more expressive worship services. Higher social class more likely to vote Republican, working class vote Democrat
Relationship between one's social class and one's chances of being a victim of a crime
white collar crimes of more privelaged classes are more likely to be dealt with outside the criminal justice system, police and courts deal with street crimes of lower class.
Inter-generational Mobility
change that family members make in social class from one generation to the next
What is the most common basis for social stratification in every society?
Property Power Prestige
Social Stratification
The division of large numbers of people into layers according to their relative property, power, and prestige
Endogamy
the practice of marrying within one's own group
The most significant difference between the class system and the systems of slavery, caste, and estate
in class system you can change your social class by what you achieve or fail to achieve in life.
Characteristics of the class system
money or material possessions that can be acquired
power
ability to control others even over their objections
the best predictor of who goes to college
men
what did Marx predict would have after workers were epolited year after year by the capitalist class?
a workers revolution that would overthrow capitalism
In the global stratification model, which nations would be considered the most industrialized nations, industrializing nations, and least industrialized nations?
Most: United States Canada Great Britain France Germany Switzerland Japan Australia New Zealand
Industrializing: Most of the former Soviet Union
Least: people that live on small farms or in villages, have large families, and barely survive
World System Theory
Economic and political connections that tie the world's countries together
Four Nations/ Core Nations
The countries that industrialized first which grew rich and powerful
Semi periphery
nations that grew dependent on trade with core nations
Periphery
developed less, sold cash crops to core nations
External Area
left out of the development of capitalism all together
The purpose of colonialism as practiced by the major European powers during the 18th 19th and 20th centuries
to establish economic colonies to exploit the nation's people and resources for the benefit of the mother country
Globalization of Capitalism
capitalism becoming the globe's dominant economic system
Culture of poverty
the assumptions that the values and behavior of the poor make them fundamentally different from other people, that these factors are largely responsible for their poverty and that parents perpetuate poverty across generations by passing these characteristics to their children
Gender tracking
college degrees tend to follow gender, which reinforces male-female distinctions
where does the greatest pay gap exist between men and women over their lifetime?
women that choose lower paying jobs such as teachers
child penalty
women missing out on work experience and opportunities while they care for children
testosterone bonus
employers start males out at a higher salary than women
glass ceiling
mostly invisible barrier that keeps women from advancing to the top levels at work
how do feminists view sexual harassment
as part of a structural problem
what two careers are most associated with being successful in politics
house of reps and the president
race
a group whose inherited physical characteristics distinguish it from other groups
ethnicity
having distinctive cultural characteristics
genocide
the systematic annihilation or attempted annihilation of a people because their presumed race or ethnicity
two myths of race
the idea that any race is superior to others, "pure" race exists
minority group
people who are singled out for unequal treatment and who regard themselves as objects of collection discrimination
ethnic work
activities designed to discover, enhance, or maintain ethnic and racial identity
positive prejudice
exaggerates virtues of a group, as when people think that some group is more capable than others
prejudice
an attitude or prejudging usually in a negative way
discrimination
an act of unfair treatment directed against an individual or a group
What did ezekiel suggest as the reason why some people are attracted to racist hate groups?
the world is made of distinct racial groups; life is a war between these groups. Events have secret causes, are never what they seem superficially
Scapegoat
an individual or group unfairly blamed for someone else's troubles
exchange mobility
occurs when large numbers of people move up and down the social class ladder, but on balance the proportions of the social class remain about the same
structural mobility
movement up or down the social class ladder that is due to changes in the structure of society not to individual efforts
numerically, what is the race of the majority of the poor in the US
10% Asian Americans and Whites
21% Latinos
24% African Americans
27% Native Americans
Feminization of poverty
the situation that most poor families in the US are headed by women
relationship between births to single mothers and their level of education
less education a single woman has, the most likely she is to bear children
length of time most people spend in poverty
5 years or longer
social structure explanation of poverty
features of society deny some people access to education or the learning of job skills. They emphasize racial-ethnic, age, and gender discrimination as well as changes in the job market
reserve labor force
it is designed to keep the unemployed alive during economic downturns until their labor is needed during the next economic boom
relationship between social class and the likelihood of embracing deferred gratification
doing something int he present in the hope of achieving great gains in the future
gender stratification
males and females unequal access to property, power and prestige
how do behavioral gender differences develop between men and women?
men are more aggressive, women are more nurturing
why are females classified as a minority group
males became more dominant in history when it came to their jobs that they had to do such as hunting
goals of the radical and conservative branches of the first wave of feminism
the right for women to vote
four waves of feminism
right to vote, working conditions, criticism of the values that dominate work society, problems of women in the least industrialized nations
cause of sex typing of college majors
gender equality in education
authoritarian personality
people who are prejudiced and rank high on scales of conformity intolerance insecurity respect for authority and submissiveness to superiors
selective perception
seeing certain features of an object or situation but remaining blind to others
indirect transfer
achieved by making life so miserable for members of minority that they leave voluntarily
direct transfer
occurs when a dominant group expels a minority
internal colonialism
the policy of exploiting minority groups for economical gain
forced assimilation
the dominant group refuses to allow the minority to practice its religion, to speak its language or to follow its customs
multiculturalism
a philosophy or political policy that permits or encourages ethnic differences