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251 terms

origin, insertion and actions of muscles in the body

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epicranius (frontal belly) origin
galea aponeurotica
epicranius (frontal belly) insertion
skin of eyebrows and root of nose
epicranius (frontal belly) action
raises eyebrows
epicranius (occipital belly) origin
occipital and temporal bones
epicranius (occipital belly) insertion
galea aponeurotica
epicranius (occipital belly) action
fixes aponeurosis and pulls scalp posteriorly
orbicularis oculi origin
frontal and maxillary bones
orbicularis oculi insertion
in tissue of eyelid
orbicularis oculi action
closes eyes, draws eyebrows inferiorly
orbicularis oris origin
maxilla and mandible, fibers blend with other muscles
orbicularis oris insertion
into muscle and skin at angles of mouth
orbicularis oris action
closes lips (kissing muscle)
buccinator origin
molar region of maxilla and mandible
buccinator insertion
orbicularis oris
buccinator action
compresses cheeks
zygomaticus major origin
zygomatic bone
zygomaticus major insertion
skin and muscle at corner of mouth
zygomaticus major action
(smiling muscle) raises lateral corners of mouth upward
levator labii superioris origin
zygomatic bone and infraorbital margin of maxilla
levator labii superioris insertion
skin and muscle of upper lip and border of nostril
levator labii superioris action
opens lips (upper lip)
depressor labii inferioris origin
body of mandible lateral to its midline
depressor labii inferioris insertion
skin and muscle of lower lip
depressor labii inferioris action
draws lower lip inferiorly
temporalis origin
temporal fossa
temporalis insertion
coronoid process of mandible
temporalis action
closes jaw
masseter origin
zygomatic arch and maxilla
masseter insertion
angle and ramus of mandible
masseter action
prime mover of jaw closure
platysma origin
fascia of chest and deltoid
platysma insertion
lower margin of mandible, skin and muscle at corner of mouth
platysma action
tenses skin of neck
sternocleidomastoid origin
manubrium, medial portion of clavicle
sternocleidomastoid insertion
mastoid process, superior nuchal line
sternocleidomastoid action
flexion of neck forward
digastric origin
lower margin of mandible, mastoid process
digastric insertion
connective tissue to hyoid bone
digastric action
open mouth and depress mandible
mylohyoid origin
medial surface of mandible
mylohyoid insertion
hyoid bone
mylohyoid action
elevates hyoid bone and base of tongue
thyrohyoid origin
thyroid cartilage
thyrohyoid insertion
hyoid bone
thyrohyoid action
depresses hyoid bone
omohyoid origin
superior surface of scapula
omohyoid insertion
hyoid bone, inferior border
omohyoid action
depresses larynx and hyoid bone
sternohyoid origin
manubrium and medial end of clavicle
sternohyoid insertion
lower margin of body of hyoid bone
sternohyoid action
depresses larynx and hyoid bone, acts with omohyoid
pectoralis major origin
clavicle
sternum
cartilage of ribs 1-6
aponeurosis of external oblique
pectoralis major insertion
intertubercular sulcus of humerus
pectoralis major action
prime mover of arm flexion, adducts, medially rotates arm
pectoralis minor origin
anterior surface of ribs 3-5 near their costal cartilage
pectoralis minor insertion
coracoid process of scapula
pectoralis minor action
draws scapula forward and inferiorly
serratus anterior origin
lateral aspect of ribs 1-8
serratus anterior insertion
vertebral border of anterior surface of scapula
serratus anterior action
prime mover to protract and hold scapula against chest, rotates scapula
deltoid origin
lateral 1/3 of clavicle, acromium, spine of scapula
deltoid insertion
deltoid tuberosity of humerus
deltoid action
acting as a whole, prime mover of arm abductor
external intercostals origin
inferior border of rib above
external intercostals insertion
superior border of rib below
external intercostals action
pull ribs toward one another to elevate rib cage
internal intercostals origin
superior border of rib below
internal intercostals insertion
inferior border of rib above
internal intercostals action
draws ribs together to depress rib cage
diaphragm origin
inferior border of rib and sternum,
costal cartilages of last 6 ribs and lumbar vertebrae
diaphragm insertion
central tendon
diaphragm action
prime mover of inspiration flattens on contraction
rectus abdominis origin
pubic crest and symphysis
rectus abdominis insertion
xiphoid process and costal cartilages of ribs 5-7
rectus abdominis action
flexes and rotates vertebral column
external oblique origin
anterior surface of last 8 ribs
external oblique insertion
linea alba, pubic crest and tubercle, iliac crest
external oblique action
compresses abdominal wall, trunk rotation and lateral flexion
internal oblique origin
lumbar fascia, iliac crest, inguinal ligament
internal oblique insertion
linea alba, pubic crest, costal cartilages of last 3 ribs
internal oblique action
compresses abdominal wall, trunk rotation, lateral flexion
tranverses abdominis origin
inguinal ligament, iliac crest, cartilages of last 6 ribs, lumbar fascia
tranverses abdominis insertion
linae alba and pubic crest
tranverses abdominis action
compresses abdominal contents
trapezius origin
occipital bone, spine of C7 and all thoracic vertebrae
trapezius insertion
acromium, spinous process of scapula, lateral 3rd of clavicle
trapezius action
raises, rotates, retracts scapula and stabalizes it
latissimus dorsi origin
last 3 or 4 ribs, iliac crest, indirectly to spinous process of lower 6 thoracic vertebrae
latissimus dorsi insertion
floor of intertubercular sulcus of humerus
latissimus dorsi action
prime mover of arm extension, adducts and medially rotates arm
levator scapulae origin
transverse processes of C1-C4
levator scapulae insertion
medial border of scapula superior to spine
levator scapulae action
elevates and adducts scapula
rhomboid group origin
spinous processes of C7 and T1-T3
rhomboid group insertion
medial border of scapula
rhomboid group action
stabalize scapula
teres major origin
posterior surface at inferior angle of scapula
teres major insertion
intertubercular sulcus of humerus
teres major action
extends, medially rotates, adducts humerus
infraspinatus origin
infraspinous fossa of scapula
infraspinatus insertion
greater tubercle of humerus
infraspinatus action
lateral rotation of humerus
teres minor origin
lateral margin of scapula
teres minor insertion
greater tubercle of humerus
teres minor action
lateral rotation of humerus
supraspinatus origin
supraspinous fossa of scapula
supraspinatus insertion
greater tubercle of humerus
supraspinatus action
initiates abduction of the humerus
subscapularis origin
scapula
subscapularis insertion
humerus
subscapularis action
internally rotates humerus
triceps brachii origin
long head- glenoid cavity
lateral head- posterior cavity
medial head- distal radial groove on posterior humerus
triceps brachii insertion
olecranon process of ulna
triceps brachii action
forearm extensor
biceps brachii origin
short head- coracoid process, shoulder joint
biceps brachii insertion
radial tuberosity
biceps brachii action
flexion of elbow and supination of forearm
brachioradialis origin
lateral ridge of distal end of humerus
brachioradialis insertion
base of styloid process of radius
brachioradialis action
synergist in forearm flexion
brachialis origin
distal portion of anterior humerus
brachialis insertion
coronoid process of ulna
brachialis action
major flexor of forearm
pronator teres origin
medial epicondyle of humerus and coronoid process of ulna
pronator teres insertion
midshaft of radius
pronator teres action
pronate forearm
flexor carpii radialis origin
medial epicondyle of humerus
flexor carpii radialis insertion
base of metacarpal 2 and 3
flexor carpii radialis action
flexor of wrist abducts hand
palmaris longus origin
medial epicondyle of humerus
palmaris longus insertion
palmar aponeurosis, skin, fascia of palm
palmaris longus action
tenses skin and fascia of palm
flexor carpii ulnaris origin
medial epicondyle of humerus, olecranon process, posterior surface of ulna
flexor carpii ulnaris insertion
base of metacarpal 5, pisiform, hamate
flexor carpii ulnaris action
flexor of wrist, adducts hand
flexor digitorum superficialis origin
medial epicondyle of humerus, olecranon process, posterior surface of ulna
flexor digitorum superficialis insertion
middle phalanges of fingers 2-5
flexor digitorum superficialis action
flexes wrist and middle phalanges
flexor pollicis longus
anterior surface of radius, interosseous membrane
flexor pollicis longus
distal phalanx of thumb
flexor pollicis longus
flexes thumb
extensor carpii radialis origin
lateral supracondylar ridge of humerus/ lateral epicondyle of of humerus
extensor carpii radialis insertion
base of metacarpal 2/3
extensor carpii radialis action
extends and abducts wrist
extensor digitorum origin
lateral epicondyle of humerus
extensor digitorum insertion
distal phalanges of fingers 2-5
extensor digitorum action
prime mover of finger extension
extensor carpii ulnaris origin
lateral epicondyle of humerus, posterior border of ulna
extensor carpii ulnaris insertion
base metacarpal 5
extensor carpii ulnaris action
extends and adducts wrist
extensor pollicis longus origin
dorsal shaft of ulna and radius, interosseous membrane
extensor pollicis longus insertion
base of thumb, proximal phalanx of thumb
extensor pollicis longus action
extend thumb
abductor pollicis longus origin
posterior surface of radius and ulna, interosseous membrane
abductor pollicis longus insertion
metacarpal 1 and trapezium
abductor pollicis longus action
abducts and extends thumb
supinator origin
lateral epicondyle of humerus, proximal ulna
supinator insertion
proximal end of radius
supinator action
supinates forearms
erector spinae group origin
transverse processes of cervical, thoracic, lumbar vertebrae, iliac crest,
erector spinae group insertion
transverse processes of vertebrae about 6 segments above origin, mastoid process
erector spinae group action
extend and bend the vertebral collumn laterally
iliocostalis lumborum origin
posterior aspect of sacrum
iliocostalis lumborum insertion
lower border of ribs 6-12
iliocostalis lumborum action
extends, abducts, rotates lumbar vertebrae
iliacus origin
iliac fossa, iliac crest, lateral sacrum
iliacus insertion
on and just below the lesser trochanter of femur
iliacus action
flex trunk on thigh, flex thigh, lateral flexion of vertebral column
psoas origin
transverse process, body of disc of T12, lumbar vertebae
psoas insertion
on and just below the lesser trochanter of femur
psoas action
flex trunk on thigh, flex thigh, lateral flexion of vertebral column
sartorius origin
anterior superior iliac spine
sartorius insertion
medial aspect of proximal tibia
sartorius action
flexes, abducts, laterally rotates thigh, flexes knee
adductor femoris group origin
ischial and pubic rami
adductor femoris group insertion
linea aspera, adductor tubercle of femur
adductor femoris group action
adducts and medially rotate and flex thigh
pectineus origin
pectineal line of pubis
pectineus insertion
inferior from lesser trochanter to linea aspera of femur
pectineus action
adducts, flexes, medially rotates thigh
gracilis origin
inferior ramus, body of pubis
gracilis insertion
medial surface of tiba
gracilis action
adducts thigh, medially rotates
tensor fascia latae origin
anterior iliac crest, anterior superior iliac spine
tensor fascia latae insertion
lateral portion of fascia lata
tensor fascia latae action
steadies trunk
rectus femoris origin
anterior inferior iliac spine
rectus femoris insertion
tibial tuberosity and patella
rectus femoris action
extends knee and flexes thigh at hip
vastus lateralis origin
greater trochanter, intertrochanteric line, linea aspera
vastus lateralis insertion
tibial tuberosity and patella
vastus lateralis action
extends and stabalizes knee
vastus medialis origin
linea aspera and intertrochanteris line
vastus medialis insertion
tibial tuberosity and patella
vastus medialis action
extends knee
vastus intermedius origin
anterior and lateral surface of femur
vastus intermedius insertion
tibial tuberosity and patella
gluteus maximus origin
dorsal ilium, sacrum, coccyx
gluteus maximus insertion
gluteal tuberosity of femur, iliotibial tract
gluteus maximus action
powerful thigh extensor
gluteus medius origin
upper lateral surface of ilium
gluteus medius insertion
greater trochanter of femur
gluteus medius action
abducts and medially rotates thigh
gluteus minimus origin
external inferior surface of ilium
gluteus minimus insertion
greater trochanter of femur
gluteus minimus action
abducts and medially rotates thigh
piriformis origin
anterior surface of sacrum
piriformis insertion
greater trochanter of femur
piriformis action
lateral rotation of hip
biceps femoris origin
ischial tuberosity, linea aspera, distal femur
biceps femoris insertion
head of fibula, lateral condyle of tibia
biceps femoris action
extends thigh, flexes knee
semitendinosis origin
ischial tuberosity
semitendinosis insertion
medial upper tibial shaft
semitendinosis action
medial condyle of tibia, lateral condyle of femur
semimembranosus origin
ischial tuberosity
semimembranosus insertion
medial condyle of tibia, lateral condyle of femur
semimembranosus action
extends thigh, flexes knee
fibularis longus origin
head and upper portion of fibula
fibularis longus insertion
metatarsal 1 and medial cuneform
fibularis longus action
plantar flexes, everts foot
fibularis brevis origin
distal portion of fibula
fibularis brevis insertion
proximal end of metatarsal 5
fibularis brevis action
plantar flexes, everts foot
tibialis anterior origin
lateral condyle
tibialis anterior insertion
inferior surface of 1st cuneiform, metatarsal 1
tibialis anterior action
prime mover of dorsiflexion
tibialis posterior origin
superior portion of tibia and fibula
tibialis posterior insertion
several tarsals and meta tarsals 2-4
tibialis posterior action
prime mover of foot inversion
extensor digitorum longus origin
lateral condyle of tibia, proximal 3/4 of fibula
extensor digitorum longus insertion
middle and distal phalanges 2-5
extensor digitorum longus action
prime mover of toe extension
flexor digitorum longus origin
posterior surface of tibia
flexor digitorum longus insertion
distal phalanges of toes 2-5
flexor digitorum longus action
flexes toes
extensor hallucis longus origin
anteromedial shaft of fibula, interosseus membrane
extensor hallucis longus insertion
distal phalanx of big toe
extensor hallucis longus action
extends big toe
flexor hallucis longus origin
medial portion of fibula shaft
flexor hallucis longus insertion
distal phalange of big toe
flexor hallucis longus action
flexes big toe
gastrocnemius origin
medial lateral condyles of femur
gastrocnemius insertion
calcaneus
gastrocnemius action
plantar flexes foot
soleus origin
proximal portion of tibia and fibula
soleus insertion
calcaneus
soleus action
plantar flexion
popliteus origin
lateral condyle of femur and lateral meniscus
popliteus insertion
proximal tibia
popliteus action
flexes and rotates leg medially