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epicranius (frontal belly) origin

galea aponeurotica

epicranius (frontal belly) insertion

skin of eyebrows and root of nose

epicranius (frontal belly) action

raises eyebrows

epicranius (occipital belly) origin

occipital and temporal bones

epicranius (occipital belly) insertion

galea aponeurotica

epicranius (occipital belly) action

fixes aponeurosis and pulls scalp posteriorly

orbicularis oculi origin

frontal and maxillary bones

orbicularis oculi insertion

in tissue of eyelid

orbicularis oculi action

closes eyes, draws eyebrows inferiorly

orbicularis oris origin

maxilla and mandible, fibers blend with other muscles

orbicularis oris insertion

into muscle and skin at angles of mouth

orbicularis oris action

closes lips (kissing muscle)

buccinator origin

molar region of maxilla and mandible

buccinator insertion

orbicularis oris

buccinator action

compresses cheeks

zygomaticus major origin

zygomatic bone

zygomaticus major insertion

skin and muscle at corner of mouth

zygomaticus major action

(smiling muscle) raises lateral corners of mouth upward

levator labii superioris origin

zygomatic bone and infraorbital margin of maxilla

levator labii superioris insertion

skin and muscle of upper lip and border of nostril

levator labii superioris action

opens lips (upper lip)

depressor labii inferioris origin

body of mandible lateral to its midline

depressor labii inferioris insertion

skin and muscle of lower lip

depressor labii inferioris action

draws lower lip inferiorly

temporalis origin

temporal fossa

temporalis insertion

coronoid process of mandible

temporalis action

closes jaw

masseter origin

zygomatic arch and maxilla

masseter insertion

angle and ramus of mandible

masseter action

prime mover of jaw closure

platysma origin

fascia of chest and deltoid

platysma insertion

lower margin of mandible, skin and muscle at corner of mouth

platysma action

tenses skin of neck

sternocleidomastoid origin

manubrium, medial portion of clavicle

sternocleidomastoid insertion

mastoid process, superior nuchal line

sternocleidomastoid action

flexion of neck forward

digastric origin

lower margin of mandible, mastoid process

digastric insertion

connective tissue to hyoid bone

digastric action

open mouth and depress mandible

mylohyoid origin

medial surface of mandible

mylohyoid insertion

hyoid bone

mylohyoid action

elevates hyoid bone and base of tongue

thyrohyoid origin

thyroid cartilage

thyrohyoid insertion

hyoid bone

thyrohyoid action

depresses hyoid bone

omohyoid origin

superior surface of scapula

omohyoid insertion

hyoid bone, inferior border

omohyoid action

depresses larynx and hyoid bone

sternohyoid origin

manubrium and medial end of clavicle

sternohyoid insertion

lower margin of body of hyoid bone

sternohyoid action

depresses larynx and hyoid bone, acts with omohyoid

pectoralis major origin

cartilage of ribs 1-6
aponeurosis of external oblique

pectoralis major insertion

intertubercular sulcus of humerus

pectoralis major action

prime mover of arm flexion, adducts, medially rotates arm

pectoralis minor origin

anterior surface of ribs 3-5 near their costal cartilage

pectoralis minor insertion

coracoid process of scapula

pectoralis minor action

draws scapula forward and inferiorly

serratus anterior origin

lateral aspect of ribs 1-8

serratus anterior insertion

vertebral border of anterior surface of scapula

serratus anterior action

prime mover to protract and hold scapula against chest, rotates scapula

deltoid origin

lateral 1/3 of clavicle, acromium, spine of scapula

deltoid insertion

deltoid tuberosity of humerus

deltoid action

acting as a whole, prime mover of arm abductor

external intercostals origin

inferior border of rib above

external intercostals insertion

superior border of rib below

external intercostals action

pull ribs toward one another to elevate rib cage

internal intercostals origin

superior border of rib below

internal intercostals insertion

inferior border of rib above

internal intercostals action

draws ribs together to depress rib cage

diaphragm origin

inferior border of rib and sternum,
costal cartilages of last 6 ribs and lumbar vertebrae

diaphragm insertion

central tendon

diaphragm action

prime mover of inspiration flattens on contraction

rectus abdominis origin

pubic crest and symphysis

rectus abdominis insertion

xiphoid process and costal cartilages of ribs 5-7

rectus abdominis action

flexes and rotates vertebral column

external oblique origin

anterior surface of last 8 ribs

external oblique insertion

linea alba, pubic crest and tubercle, iliac crest

external oblique action

compresses abdominal wall, trunk rotation and lateral flexion

internal oblique origin

lumbar fascia, iliac crest, inguinal ligament

internal oblique insertion

linea alba, pubic crest, costal cartilages of last 3 ribs

internal oblique action

compresses abdominal wall, trunk rotation, lateral flexion

tranverses abdominis origin

inguinal ligament, iliac crest, cartilages of last 6 ribs, lumbar fascia

tranverses abdominis insertion

linae alba and pubic crest

tranverses abdominis action

compresses abdominal contents

trapezius origin

occipital bone, spine of C7 and all thoracic vertebrae

trapezius insertion

acromium, spinous process of scapula, lateral 3rd of clavicle

trapezius action

raises, rotates, retracts scapula and stabalizes it

latissimus dorsi origin

last 3 or 4 ribs, iliac crest, indirectly to spinous process of lower 6 thoracic vertebrae

latissimus dorsi insertion

floor of intertubercular sulcus of humerus

latissimus dorsi action

prime mover of arm extension, adducts and medially rotates arm

levator scapulae origin

transverse processes of C1-C4

levator scapulae insertion

medial border of scapula superior to spine

levator scapulae action

elevates and adducts scapula

rhomboid group origin

spinous processes of C7 and T1-T3

rhomboid group insertion

medial border of scapula

rhomboid group action

stabalize scapula

teres major origin

posterior surface at inferior angle of scapula

teres major insertion

intertubercular sulcus of humerus

teres major action

extends, medially rotates, adducts humerus

infraspinatus origin

infraspinous fossa of scapula

infraspinatus insertion

greater tubercle of humerus

infraspinatus action

lateral rotation of humerus

teres minor origin

lateral margin of scapula

teres minor insertion

greater tubercle of humerus

teres minor action

lateral rotation of humerus

supraspinatus origin

supraspinous fossa of scapula

supraspinatus insertion

greater tubercle of humerus

supraspinatus action

initiates abduction of the humerus

subscapularis origin


subscapularis insertion


subscapularis action

internally rotates humerus

triceps brachii origin

long head- glenoid cavity
lateral head- posterior cavity
medial head- distal radial groove on posterior humerus

triceps brachii insertion

olecranon process of ulna

triceps brachii action

forearm extensor

biceps brachii origin

short head- coracoid process, shoulder joint

biceps brachii insertion

radial tuberosity

biceps brachii action

flexion of elbow and supination of forearm

brachioradialis origin

lateral ridge of distal end of humerus

brachioradialis insertion

base of styloid process of radius

brachioradialis action

synergist in forearm flexion

brachialis origin

distal portion of anterior humerus

brachialis insertion

coronoid process of ulna

brachialis action

major flexor of forearm

pronator teres origin

medial epicondyle of humerus and coronoid process of ulna

pronator teres insertion

midshaft of radius

pronator teres action

pronate forearm

flexor carpii radialis origin

medial epicondyle of humerus

flexor carpii radialis insertion

base of metacarpal 2 and 3

flexor carpii radialis action

flexor of wrist abducts hand

palmaris longus origin

medial epicondyle of humerus

palmaris longus insertion

palmar aponeurosis, skin, fascia of palm

palmaris longus action

tenses skin and fascia of palm

flexor carpii ulnaris origin

medial epicondyle of humerus, olecranon process, posterior surface of ulna

flexor carpii ulnaris insertion

base of metacarpal 5, pisiform, hamate

flexor carpii ulnaris action

flexor of wrist, adducts hand

flexor digitorum superficialis origin

medial epicondyle of humerus, olecranon process, posterior surface of ulna

flexor digitorum superficialis insertion

middle phalanges of fingers 2-5

flexor digitorum superficialis action

flexes wrist and middle phalanges

flexor pollicis longus

anterior surface of radius, interosseous membrane

flexor pollicis longus

distal phalanx of thumb

flexor pollicis longus

flexes thumb

extensor carpii radialis origin

lateral supracondylar ridge of humerus/ lateral epicondyle of of humerus

extensor carpii radialis insertion

base of metacarpal 2/3

extensor carpii radialis action

extends and abducts wrist

extensor digitorum origin

lateral epicondyle of humerus

extensor digitorum insertion

distal phalanges of fingers 2-5

extensor digitorum action

prime mover of finger extension

extensor carpii ulnaris origin

lateral epicondyle of humerus, posterior border of ulna

extensor carpii ulnaris insertion

base metacarpal 5

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