A&P 1 Study Guide Exam 4A

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Place these steps of the action potential in the correct order.
1.Sodium ions channels return to the resting state and repolarization continues.
2.Voltage-gated sodium ion channels activate, sodium ions enter, and the axon section
3.As potassium ion channels return to resting state, the axolemma may hyperpolarize before
returning to the resting membrane potential.
4.A local potential depolarizes the axolemma of the trigger zone to threshold.
5.Sodium ion channels inactivate, and voltage-gated potassium ion channels activate, so sodium
ions stop entering and potassium ions leave, beginning repolarization.
Neurotransmitters that bind ionotropic receptors control:the movement of ions into or out of the postsynaptic neuron.When a second excitatory postsynaptic potential (EPSP) arrives at a single synapse before the effects of the first have disappeared, what results?Temporal SummationBundles of axons known as tracts are part of the:Central Nervous SystemWhat is the most common type of neuron in the human body?Multipolar neuronWhat part of the neuron is a process that can generate and conduct action potentials?cell bodyWhich of the following would NOT terminate the effects of the neurotransmitter?presence of calcium ions in the presynaptic neuronThe neuron that receives neurotransmitters from another neuron is called:the postsynaptic neuronThe functional unit of the nervous system is theneuronBranches that may occur along an axon are called:collateralsWhich of the following must happen first in the order events at a chemical synapse?Calcium ion channels in the axon terminal open.What specific type of gated channel opens or closes in response to physical distortion of the membrane surface, such as vibrations or pressure?mechanically-gatedThe conduction of an action potential is faster in unmyelinated axons than in myelinated axons.FalseElectrical synapses are faster than chemical synapses due to the presence of gap junctions between cells.TrueDuring the absolute refractory period, production of an additional action potential is not possible no matter how strong the stimulus.TrueThe autonomic nervous system carries signals to cardiac muscle, smooth muscle, and glands.TrueRegeneration of neural tissue in the peripheral nervous system (PNS) is possible only if the neuron's cell body remains intact.TrueDuring depolarization, the membrane potential becomes more positive.TrueWhat membrane potential must generally be met in order to achieve threshold?-55 mVWhich neuroglial cell helps form the blood-brain barrier?AstrocyteWhich of the following moves the membrane potential of the postsynaptic neuron closer to threshold?excitatory postsynaptic potential (EPSP)The influx of positive charges makes the membrane potential more positive and is known as:depolarizationBecause of their ability to rapidly divide during brain injury, which type of neuroglial cell would be more likely to form a brain tumor?astrocyteWhich of the following is the most important excitatory neurotransmitter in the brain?glutamateWhat is more likely to promote an action potential?depolarizationWhat type of ion channel in neurons is always open?leakDuring repolarization of a neuron:potassium ions move out of the cellWhich neuropeptide neurotransmitter is released from fibers transmitting sensory information about pain and temperature?substance PWhat type of synapse must have receptors to transmit signals?chemical SynapseWhat is NOT associated with a chemical synapse?Gap JunctionVoltage-gated sodium channels have both an activation gate and:inactivationAfter acetylcholinesterase (AChE) acts, the presynaptic neuron:reabsorbs the choline.Resting membrane potential is maintained by the sodium-potassium ion pump, or Na+/K+ ATPase, which brings:two potassium ions into the cytosol and three sodium ions into the extracellular fluid.Which of the following is the primary factor in the maintenance of a cell's negative charge during resting membrane potential?leak channelsWhich of the following is an effect of myelination?Myelination increases the speed of conduction of action potentials.Upon entering your house, you noticed the smell of cake baking in the oven. What division of the peripheral nervous system is responsible?Somatic Sensory DivisionCholinergic synapses use the neurotransmitter:acetylcholine.The hole in the spinal cord through which CSF flows is the:Central CanalWhat is housed in the pyramidal tracts of the medulla oblongata?upper motor neurons of the corticospinal tractWhat is NOT a function of the reticular formation?memoryIn what dura mater fold is the superior sagittal sinus located?Falx cerebriWhat is NOT part of the cerebrum?brainstemWhich of the following cells secretes CSF into the ventricles of the brain?ependymal cellsWhat is NOT part of the diencephalon?medulla oblongataThe primary motor cortex of the right cerebral hemisphere:controls the motor activity on the left side of the body.What type of fiber carries information from the frontal lobe of the right cerebral hemisphere to the occipital lobe of the same cerebral hemisphere?association fibersAn epidural, or spinal anesthesia, is administered into the CSF flow around the spinal cord. Into what space is this medication injected?epidural spaceAn injury to the spinal cord is not possible below the:second lumbar vertebraThe cerebellum functions inthe planning and coordination of movement.What brain region is responsible for learning, memory, and personality?cerebrumAt what point in the brain do upper motor neurons of the corticospinal tracts decussate?medullary pyramidsWhat part of the brain is the "boss" of the autonomic nervous system (ANS)?hypothalamusWhat functional brain system participates in memory, learning, emotion, and behavior?limbic systemYou've looked for your keys for the past ten minutes in several different places. The ability to keep track of the places you've already looked is stored in:short-term (working) memory.Sensory information from proprioceptors about joint and muscle positions are carried to the brain by the:spinocerebellar tractsHeidi sustained damage to her spinal cord in a car accident. She has no difficulty moving her arm, but has lost some sensation in her arm. What part of her spinal cord must have been injured?posterior horn of spinal gray matterThe majority of the cerebral cortex is:neocortexThe stretch of a full urinary bladder is detected by a(n):interoreceptorThe geniculate ganglion is one of several ganglia that house cell bodies of the sensory root of the:facial nerve (VII)A network of nerves is known as a:plexusLoss of balance and equilibrium can indicate damage to the:vestibulocochlear nerve (VIII).A simple reflex with only a single synapse between the sensory and motor neurons is known as a:monosynaptic reflex.What is the outermost connective tissue covering of a nerve?epineuriumYour wrap your hands around a warm cup of hot chocolate. This sensation is detected by a:thermoreceptorWhich mechanoreceptor detects deep pressure?lamellated corpuscleWhich of the following complements the flexion (withdrawal) reflex?crossed-extension reflexPotentially damaging stimuli that result in pain are selectively detected by:nociceptorsThe cranial nerves that have neural connections with the tongue include all of the following EXCEPT:trochlear nerveSensory receptors that adapt to stimuli after a certain period of time are:rapidly adapting receptorsWhich cranial nerve is generally thought of as a mixed nerve?glossopharyngeal nerve (IX)Mechanoreceptors might detect which of the following sensations?pressureRegions of skin supplied by a spinal nerve for somatic sensation are known as:dermatomesVisceral pain may be perceived as cutaneous pain, a phenomenon known as:referred painSensory transduction occurs in:PNS sensory neuronsWhat is the name of cranial nerve VIII?vestibulocochlear nerveWhich of the following does NOT characterize a reflex?Neural integration of a reflex usually occurs in the PNS.A typical somatic sensory neuron is classified as a:first-order neuronThe central nervous system (CNS) processes sensory input and transmits the impulses through the peripheral nervous system (PNS) to effectors for motor output.TrueCranial nerves and spinal nerves are the two types of nerves found in the peripheral nervous system (PNS).TrueMotor control is initiated by lower motor neurons and transmitted to upper motor neurons by interneurons situated within the CNS.FalseThe anterior root and posterior root fuse to form a(n):spinal nerveMs. Carroll went to her doctor's office with pain in her right shoulder blade and learned she was having a gallbladder attack. You're not surprised to hear about the unusual location of her pain since it is known as:referred painWhat connects the upper motor neurons to lower motor neurons?interneuronsWhich of the following houses motor neurons?anterior root of the spinal nerveWhich plexus provides motor and sensory innervation to the upper limb?brachial plexusWhich of the following parts of a spinal nerve carries sensory information only?posterior root (dorsal root)The phrenic nerve is a member of the:cervical plexusA test known as two-point discrimination threshold measures:the relative size of receptive fieldsBundles of axons within a nerve are known as:fasciclesThe inability to produce a gag reflex could indicate a problem with the:glossopharyngeal nerve (IX) or vagus nerve (X).What type of sensory receptors are muscle spindles and Golgi tendon organs?mechanoreceptorWhich cranial nerve detects smell?olfactory nerveWhat specific spinal nerve branch controls the movement of rectus abdominis, a skeletal muscle on the anterior surface of the body?anterior ramusIn the crossed-extension reflex, if the right leg flexes, then the left leg:extendsDuring a boxing match, Sammy was hit on the side of the neck. He stopped breathing temporarily due to damage to the:cervical plexusWhich cranial nerve is NOT involved in eye movement?vestibulocochlear nerve (VIII)Olfactory receptors depolarize in response to an odorant, turning a stimulus into an electrical signal. This conversion is known as:sensory transduction.What type of neuron contacts a muscle fiber and initiates a muscle contraction?Lower motor neuronThe vagus nerve is represented by Roman numeral:XWhat is NOT true of muscle spindles?Muscle spindles are found within tendons.Polysynaptic reflexes involve multiple synapses while monosynaptic reflexes only involve a single synapse.TrueAuditory stimuli are sent first to the midbrain where some processing occurs. The remainder of stimuli are routed to the thalamus and then on to the primary auditory cortex in the superior occipital lobe.FalseBroca's area is responsible for the ability to produce speech while Wernicke's area is responsible for the ability to understand language.TrueThe reticular formation is a collection of nuclei in the diencephalon.FalseWhich meninx touches the brain?Pia MaterWhat results when the corpus callosum is cut?Communication between the right and left cerebral hemispheres would be impaired.What part of the spinal cord carries motor information from the brain?corticospinal tractWhat is the correct pathway of development of the cerebellum?neural tube, hindbrain, metencephalon, cerebellumCerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in the third ventricle will drain into the:fourth ventricleWhat information is received by the primary vestibular cortex?equilibriumWhat best describes the Broca's area?Broca's area is a premotor area for speech sounds.Which meningeal layer is closest to the brain?dura materCognition is best described as:encoding and storing learned information in our neural circuitry.Where are color, object movement, and depth processed?visual association areasAn elevated ridge on the surface of the cerebrum is known as a:gyrusWhere is the sensation of touch processed?primary somatosensory cortex, or S1Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) circulates through the:subarachnoid spaceThe hypothalamus functions in:regulating the autonomic nervous system.In contrast to the nervous system, the endocrine system accomplishes homeostasis by:releasing hormones into the blood that regulate the functions of other cells.What part of the brain modifies the activity of upper motor neurons to produce voluntary movements and inhibit involuntary ones?basal nucleiBundles of white matter in the cerebrum are known as:tractsthe limbic systemis associated with emotions and memory.What do you expect to see if the activity of the reticular formation is decreased?decreased level of consciousnessThe spinal cord lacks a portion of the dura mater known as the:periosteal layer.