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French Revolution Area of Study 2 2020
Terms in this set (262)
The Declaration of Rights of Man and Citizen was passed in _________ 1789
According to Declaration of Rights, it was 'inviolable and sacred'
'Men are born free and equal in _________'
Regiment who provoked October Days
'Fundamental source of all sovereignty' according to Declaration of Rights
Chief demand of the Parisian women in the 'October Days'
He led the National Guardsmen to Versailles in October 1789
October Days began on __ October
Headquarters of the Commune: Hotel de _______
King's palace in Paris
The Constituent Assembly divided France into ___ departments, at the suggestion of Sieyes
Constituent Assembly divided population into active and _______ citizens
Church property was _______ in November 1789
government bonds and paper money issued from 1790
Church lands sold by the Constituent Assembly: __________nationaux
Social group that dominated purchase of church lands
Economic philosophy of most National Assembly deputies
A national market was promoted by abolition of internal______
In 1791 guilds were____________
Le ___________ law abolished trade unions and employers' organisations
Year nobility was abolished (on 19 June)
New 'humane' means of execution
Religious group given civil rights in December 1789
Civil Constitution of the Clergy passed in _________ 1790
July 1790 Civil Constitution of the _________
Under the Civil Constitution of the Clergy, clergy were no longer appointed but _________
In November 1790 priests were required to take one
'Refractory' priests were 'non-_________'
Deputies from Brittany formed the nucleus of which club
Early leader of radical Jacobin deputies
Radical club that appealed to working-class
Early revolutionary writer and failed doctor
Marat's newspaper: ami du _________
There were no parties, but there were_________
Urban workers in trousers
Popular or _________ societies
Great orator for the Third Estate
Year of Mirabeau's death
Louis attempted to flee from Paris in ______ 1791
Town Louis aimed for in the flight from Paris
King was halted here in June 1791
After the flight to Varennes the assembly decided to ________ the king
Club formed as breakaway from Jacobins
Bastille anniversary celebration: Feast of the _________
Blamed for the Champ de Mars massacre: Lafayette and________
Champ de Mars massacre: 17 ________ 1791
Year first constitution was passed
Who said no National Assembly member could be in Legislative Assembly
Assembly that followed the Constituent
Club with most members elected to Legislative Assembly
Percentage of army officers who had emigrated by end 1791
Under first constitution king had suspensive________
August 1791 Austria and Prussia issued Declaration of________
Only man in the family: Artois, Antoinette or Provence?
Headquarters of the émigrés
Leader of the Girondins
Alternative name of Brissotins
Robespierre warned that no one welcomed armed: ________
France declared war in ________ 1792
France declared war on ________ in early 1792
Louis dismissed his Girondin ministers in ________ 1792
Number of Sections into which Paris was divided by 1792
The king was forced to drink wine and wear a liberty cap on 20________ 1792
July 1792: La patrie en________
Austro-Prussian commander: Duke of _______
National Guardsmen who came to Paris in 1792?
Song by Rouget de Lisle: La________________
Threatening document: Brunswick ________________
Established 9 Aug 92: _______________ Commune
Guards massacred on 10 August 1792
Assembly that followed the Legislative
Membership of National Guard was open to passive citizens from_________ 1792
Robespierre won most votes here in 1792
Uncommitted deputies in National Convention
Name for Jacobins in Convention
Club of the Girondins
French term for members of the Mountain
Lafayette defected to enemy in ___________ 1792
His public appeal inspired September Massacres
Year of September Massacres
Buveurs de Sang: Drinkers of ________________
20 September 1792 battle that saved Paris
They lost at Valmy
_____________nominal required each deputy to announce his verdict on king
Date of Louis XVI's execution 21____________ 1793
Pyrenees, Rhine, Alps: natural____________
Battle lost by France in March 1793, to the ruin of Dumouriez
General who defected in 1793
It led to revolt in the Vendee
Area of major revolt in March 1793
Court created March 93: Revolutionary___________
He said 'Let us embody Terror'
Representatives on ____________
Committees who looked for traitors from 93
Armed rebels faced ____________ execution
Those who fled the country
Committee for accelerating work of government ministers (abbreviation)
May 93 maximum fixed for____________
Day of crowd action
Girondins were expelled from Convention on 2____________ 1793
Number of men on the CPS from July 93
Sole noble in CPS was _________ de Sechelles
'Organiser of victory'
Paralysed member of the CPS
Robespierre, Couthon, Saint-Just
Robespierre's first name
Nickname for Robespierre: The _________
'Spirit of the Republic' (Robespierre)
'Nothing other than justice' (Robespierre)
Robespierre's pre-revolution occupation
Robespierre's favourite philosophe
Expulsion of Girondins inspired the____________ Revolt
Form of address used by sans-culottes to replace 'monsieur'
Liberty caps were modelled on hats once worn by____________
Main political organisations of the sans-culottes 1793
In what year was the constitution most sympathetic to the sans-culottes approved by the assembly?
Aug 93 saw the ____________ en masse, raising a conscript army. Schama calls it 'by far the most important' innovation of 1793
Leader of the enrages
5 ____________1793 Terror became 'order of the day'
citizen force created in September 1793 to secure food supplies: ____________army
29 September 1793 saw the General ____________
Committee chiefly responsible for police matters in the Terror (abbreviation)
Duke of Orleans' revolutionary name: Philippe ____________
Infamous drowning in Nantes
City where rebels were executed with cannon (mitraillades)
Law by which anyone could be imprisoned without trial: Law of ____________ (17 September 1793)
Attacks on the Church during the Terror
Law of 14 __________ (4 Dec 93) wound back popular involvement in politics.
From Oct 93 government was said to 'revolutionary until the _____________'
Editor of Le Pere Duchesne
Political group executed as foreign agents on 24 March 1794
Group who wanted to moderate the Terror
Danton's chief supporter in 1794
Indulgents were executed on 5________ 1794
Law of 10 June 94 against 'enemies of the people'
'________ of the Supreme Being'
In July 94 the Maximum was applied to________
Decisive victory of June 94
The Great Terror was in June-July ________
Robespierre was shouted down on 9________II.
Backlash against Terrorists: Thermidorean________
Name for deputies who voted for king's execution
Sans-culottes rising of April 1795
Sans-culottes rising of May 1795
Attacks on ex-terrorists: the ________ Terror
Year of the revolution's third constitution
Government that replaced the Convention
His artillery crushed the Vendemiaire rising
They see the revolution as the transition from feudalism to capitalism
They argue that the revolution retarded the growth of capitalism
The Revolution established the idea of careers open to________
He established the Marxist interpretation early in the 20th century
Boissy ________ was instrumental in establishing the Directory
Marxist historian, Lefebvre's disciple
According to Marxists, they dominated the Revolution
How many revolutions does Lefebvre count from 1787-9?
He led the attacks on Marxist interpretation in 1960s
Revisionist author of 'Citizens'
He said 'I survived'
Leading French revisionist
Schama argues that 'patriotic _____' was a more lasting legacy of the Revolution than democracy
In 1795 the value of France's trade was less than ____of what it had been in 1789
The Great Fear exposed a '______ at the heart of the French government.' (Schama)
Schama: The '______ of paranoia' eventually engulfed the Revolution
Schama: revolutionaries made brutal distinctions between 'Patriots and Enemies, ______ and Aristocrats'
Schama: 4 August 1789 saw 'a tidal wave of _____'
Mounier, President of the Constituent Assembly in late 1789, was leader of the conservative _______
The Jacobins developed from the _____ Club of Versailles
Necker suggested in 1789 that Louis XVI be permitted a _____ veto
The relationship of violence and legitimacy would be resolved in 1794 by the state restoring a ______ of force
Marat often used the term 'blood-______' for those he disliked
Schama says ____ was 'the Revolution's source of collective energy.'
Who said violence was what made the Revolution revolutionary?
Under Lafayette, the National Guard of Paris comprised a police force of some ____ men, mostly part-time
Lafayette's creation of the tricolour cockade shows his appreciation of the need for new _____ to win loyalty
Number of National Guardsman Lafayette took to Versailles in the October Days
Market-women who marched to Versailles in the October Days
In 1789-90,, Louis XVI was sometimes praised as the '____ of Liberty'
The reforming deputies of the Constituent Assemblies included 38 members of the ____, including three presidents
Schama: 'Overwhelmingly, the men who created the new France had been _____ of the old regime.'
Two aristocratic brothers who had served with Lafayette in America and were associated with the 'triumvirate' in 1789-1790: the de _____
Term of Rousseauan abuse directed at deputies seen to care only for their own careers
Mirabeau feared that the Revolution might tend to the extremes of _____ or despotism
Schama calls the Civil Constitution of the Clergy 'the beginning of a holy ____'
The 'militant inclusiveness' of the revolution, with its emphasis on unity and self-sacrifice, relied on having ____ for contrast
Regardless of their origins, Frenchmen regarded as outsiders during the Revolution were labelled '____'
Bishop who presided at the Feast of the Federation and supported the Civil Constitution of the Clergy, diplomat
The officials elected to posts at all levels in the many elections of 1790 shared the optimism and constructive outlook of the ____
Schama: during the revolution many made the metamorphosis from 'nobles to ____'
Schama: one result of the lifting of censorship was the unlimited ' liberation of ____', to the benefit of men like Marat
News from Paris could reach the outskirts of France in three to four ____
Political prints made during the Revolution and stored in the Bibliotheque Nationale (National Library of France)number in the ___ of thousands
Numbers of newspapers rose from about 60 in France before the Revolution to nearly ____ in Paris alone by August 1792
The Jacobin Club was also known as the 'Society of the Friends of the ____'
The revolutionaries borrowed symbols such as the eye of surveillance, the stonemason's level, and the triangle from the ______
Jacobin Clubs often displayed ____ of Brutus, Cato, Rousseau and Franklin
Who does Schama call 'the most intelligent analyst of the machinery of tactics in revolutionary situations' before Lenin?
Schama: The Revolution relied on ' _____ of heroes and martyrs.'
Mirabeau was the first person buried in the _____ for French heroes
Pope who rejected the Civil Constitution of the Clergy
Animal with which Louis XVI was increasingly identified
Schama: Moderate revolutionaries such as the Triumvirs, believed in ___ rather than popular sovereignty.
The _____ said the 1791 Constitution was 'a tissue of impracticable absurdities.'
In relatively poor departments, like the Aveyron, just ____ citizens were eligible to stand as deputies or vote in the electoral college
Was Robespierre a deputy on the left, right or centre?
Robespierre's pre-revolutionary nickname: the _____
Did Robespierre see the state's main role as regeneration, redistribution, disenfranchisement or disestablishment?
Robespierre was said to deliver his speeches in a tone of 'righteous____' (Schama)
Robespierre was said to speak in tones of 'threatening and studious ____'
Robespierre's newspaper: '____ of the constitution'
Which of these assemblies was said to have the most intellectual talent and oratory of 'operatic intensity': NA, LA, NC, Directory?
Approximate proportion of eligible voters who voted for the Legislative Assembly? 10, 20, 30, 40
Schama 'the more radical the Revolution became, the ____ the electoral base on which it rested'.
Isnard, Vergniaud, Guadet, Gensonne were all brilliant ____ of the Girondins.
The Constituent Assembly, Legislative Assembly and Convention all met in the Salle du ______
Elected to EG. Brought king from Varennes to Paris. Mayor of Paris 1791. Girondin. Died 1793.
Varennes destroyed the credibility not only of the royal family but also of this man, also known as The General
Brissot called the war that began in 1792 'a _____ for universal liberty'
The three French commanders appointed at the beginning of the war in 1792 were veterans of the _____ war: Lafayette, Luckner, Rochambeau.
Robespierre and his supporters were obsessed with '____' hypocrites.
Marie Antoinette's attitude towards Lafayette: loathing, adoration, indifference
By August 1792, fear had driven many LA deputies away: only about one ____ were sitting.
Schama: 'Bloodshed was not the unfortunate by-product of revolution, it was the source of its _____'
Term often used for the guillotine during the Revolution: the '_____'
Schama: 'The core problem of revolutionary government' related to 'efforts to manage popular violence on behalf of, rather than against, the _____'
Leader of the Paris National Guard from 1793. Prominent in Sep Massacres, led armed forces on 31 May 93. Executed after 9 Thermidor.
Schama: only in August 1792 did a 'true revolutionary _____ state' come into existence in Paris
Schama accuses some historians' accounts of the September Massacres of 'the scholarly normalization of ____'
Approximate number of deaths in September massacres:____
Two men who can be blamed for not doing more to stop the September Massacres are Danton, Minister of Justice and ____, the Minister of the Interior
He said 'We need audacity [l'audace], always audacity and still more audacity!' in September 1792
The Conciergerie, Abbaye and Force were all ______
Percentage of Parisian prisoners killed in the September Massacres: 25, 50, 75, or 100?
This battle of 6 November 1792 allowed the French to take the initiative in the war
Brissot, 26 November 1792: 'we can only be at peace once Europe is ____ from end to end'
Although the elections to the National Convention involved universal male suffrage, less than ____ (10, 20, 50?) per cent of eligible voters did so.
The Convention included more (lawyers, soldiers, writers, doctors) than the previous assemblies
Who gave 'the most famous maiden [first] speech of the French Revolution', in the Convention?
Saint-Just was the ____ deputy in the Convention
The '____ de fer' was a wall safe found in the Tuileries in November 1792 and contained compromising correspondence.
When the king tried to speak at his execution, the head of the Paris National Guard, Santerre, ordered ____ to drown him out
Schama: 'The Sovereign People was no more capable than Louis XVI of reconciling freedom with ____'
Schama says the Revolutionaries had a view of the war as Good vs Evil. Is this view Manichaean, Machiavellian or Megalomaniacal?
Who likened the Revolution to Saturn, devouring its own children and leading to despotism?
Charlotte ____ assassinated Marat on 13 July 1793
Schama: the imposition of the Maximums reflected the Revolution's yearning for _____ over freedom, paternalism over individualism
Schama estimates the sans-culottes 'movement' as comprising no more than ___ [3000, 25000, 50000] 'committed revolutionary zealots.'
2 Jun 93
Schama: On [10 Aug 92, 2 Jun 93 or 5 Sep 93] revolutionary leaders abandoned 'the last scrap of pretence that the Revolution was founded on legality or indeed on representation'
Does Schama describe the French Revolution as proto-communist, antediluvian or anti-capitalist?
Saint-Just: the 'republic consists in the _____ of everything that opposes it'.
Was Fouquier-Tinville a famous judge, general, deputy or representative-on-mission?
Which political groups does Schama describe as 'for unrelenting surveillance, denunciation, indictment, humiliation and death'? Mountain, poissardes, Feuillants or Hebertistes?
On 10 October 1793 the Convention declared that government would be '____ until the peace'.
Schama: To the notables the Revolution was merely an [abstemious, ephemeral, amorphous] break in their social and institutional power
A Prussian official scathingly predicted in 1792 that that the French 'army of ____' would be rapidly defeated.
When Tim Blanning says the Revolution was 'sui generis', does he mean it was generous, unique, legal or generative?
Blanning: the 23 August 1793 levee en masse decree was 'the first declaration of ___ war'
The levee en masse created the largest ____ seen thus far in Europe
By 1794 the French army probably numbered about ______ men.
The number of French army generals executed in 1793-4: 17, 30, 84
By 1793 the war had become less about fraternity than about French ____
Madame Roland on the scaffold: 'O ____, what crimes are committed in your name!'
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