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Autonomic Nervous System
Terms in this set (14)
All somatic motor neurons produce __________.
Autonomic motor neurons __________.
utilize a two-neuron chain to reach their effectors
Autonomic nerve fibers that increase heart rate, elevate blood pressure, induce dry mouth, and increase sweating do so primarily through the secretion of __________.
Myelination tends to be heaviest on which types of neurons?
somatic motor neurons
What do the parasympathetic and sympathetic divisions have in common?
Most nerve fibers from both divisions innervate many of the same effectors.
Most preganglionic fibers of the parasympathetic system arise from which nerve pair?
A normal response to sympathetic nervous system activation would most likely include the __________.
inhibition of digestive system activity
Which structure or organ is innervated exclusively by sympathetic fibers?
arrector pili muscles
When Mr. T's blood pressure dropped, his heart rate increased. Which part of his autonomic system was responsible for this response? What other signs of autonomic activity did you observe in Mr. T?
Sympathetic: you can tell this system is on because you see the increased heart rate and cold, pale skin in his upper body. The increased heart rate and vasoconstriction will help to raise his BP.
Even though Mr. T's baroreceptor reflex responded to his decreased blood pressure, it did not succeed in raising his blood pressure high enough to prevent him from passing out. Why not? (Hint: remember, this client has a spinal injury that has blocked communication between the brain and the lower half of his body.)
The sympathetic system turned on in the upper half of his body, but it was not activated in the lower half, so the blood vessels in his legs remained dilated, and the blood pooled there. As a result, there wasn't enough blood in the upper half of his body to maintain blood pressure.
Mr. T's heart rate is low, but his blood pressure remains high. How could someone develop a high blood pressure without a high heart rate?
Increased blood volume might have increased his stroke volume.Increased vasoconstriction might have increased his total peripheral resistance.
Nitroglycerine is a vasodilator that affects both veins and arteries/arterioles. It is commonly used for hypertension (high blood pressure) emergency situations. How would dilating veins and arteries affect blood pressure?
Dilating veins reduces the stroke volume, and dilating arteries reduces the TPR.
Mr. T has pale, cold skin below the site of his spinal cord lesion but warm, flushed skin above it. What does this tell you about the sympathetic activity below and above the lesion?
The sympathetic system is active below the lesion, and the parasympathetic system is active above it.
Now that you've worked through the patient's situation, rank the following items in order to showing how his full bladder led to a potentially life-threatening situation.Rank from first step to last step.
1. Discomfort from a full bladder activates sympathetic system below lesion2. Vasoconstriction in legs results3. Increased total peripheral resistance occurs4. Increased blood pressure results5. Baroreceptor reflex stimulates parasympathetic system above lesion6. Heart rate decreases7. Cardiac output decreases
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