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History Ch. 13: A House Divided, 1840-1861
Terms in this set (21)
Identify the arguments made by these American political figures during the Great Debate that led to the Compromise of 1850.
wanted to abandon the Wilmot Proviso if it meant sectional peace
William H. Seward
argued that a "higher law" than the Constitution—the law of morality—condemned slavery, and so southerners had no right to claim that abolition was a violation of their constitutional rights
John C. Calhoun
rejected any idea of compromise on slavery
After winning its independence from Mexico, Texas joined the United States as a slave state in 1845.
What does this map reveal about the U.S. railroad network in the 1850s?
The North had the highest concentration of railroad mileage in the United States.
Trunk lines linked eastern industrial centers with western farming and commercial centers.
Why did Abraham Lincoln oppose Senator Crittenden's plan to save the Union?
Lincoln refused to compromise on the issue of the expansion of slavery.
Lincoln feared that Crittenden's reference to land "hereafter acquired" offered the South a thinly veiled invitation to demand the acquisition of Cuba, Mexico, and other territory suited to slavery.
After analyzing the following presidential election map, determine which statements accurately reflect the election of 1860.
Upper South states, such as Tennessee and Virginia, supported a moderate candidate like John Bell.
Among the states that the Republicans lost in 1856, but won in 1860, were California and Pennsylvania.
Click on the areas of the map that were open to slavery by popular sovereignty in the 1850s.
Utah Territory, New Mexico Territory, Nebraska Territory, Kansas Territory
In this cartoon, the cat, depicted as _____, seeks to catch the mice, representing the _____, whereas the rat, symbolizing the _____ lies dead, underscoring the futile effort to hold the nation together.
Abraham Lincoln, seceded states, Union
Which of the following are valid statements about the election of 1844?
President John Tyler used Texas annexation to facilitate his campaign and gain support from southerners.
Whig candidate Henry Clay rejected annexation of Texas because he did not want to inflame sectional tensions.
Identify the statements that describe the U.S. railroad system in the 1850s.
The railroads completed the reorientation of the Northwest's trade from the South to the East.
Most of the new railroad construction in the 1850s occurred in Ohio, Illinois, and other states in the Old Northwest Territory.
Between 1848 and 1860, railroad workers added thousands of miles of new tracks.
The path leading the nation to civil war culminated in the firing on Fort Sumter in April 1861. This chapter outlines the pivotal events between 1840 and 1861 leading to civil war. Place the following key events in chronological order.
the Mexican War, the Compromise of 1850, the Dred Scott decision, the election of Abraham Lincoln
The Free Soil Party wanted to stop the expansion of slavery into the West. Identify the reasons people supported the Free Soil Party platform.
Northerners saw moving West as a form of economic betterment, so if the Free Soil Party blocked slavery's expansion, ordinary Americans wouldn't have to compete with plantations to have access to the land.
The Free Soil Party would create more free states, which would break southern domination of the federal government.
The Free Soil platform appealed to racist thinking in the North as it did not include emancipation or equal rights.
Texas annexation was not at the forefront of American politics until President John Tyler used it as a rallying cry for his bid for reelection in 1844. Identify the statements that correctly describe the reactions to the annexation of Texas.
Prospective presidential candidates, Henry Clay and Martin Van Buren, met and agreed to reject the immediate annexation of Texas on the grounds it might lead to war with Mexico.
A letter by Secretary of State John C. Calhoun to President Tyler linked the idea of absorbing Texas directly to the goal of strengthening slavery in the United States.
The Know-Nothing Party seemed to be one of contradictions: it wanted to _____ the rights of immigrants, while promoting an _____ agenda. Ultimately, the Know-Nothings actually accomplished very little in this regard. All European immigrants benefited from being white. These groups had the advantage of being able to _____, whereas free blacks could not.
limit, antislavery, vote
Slavery had a disruptive impact on the traditional political parties and immediately caused political transformation in the mid-1850s. Identify the economic and social changes that led to the rise of the Republican Party.
completion of the market revolution and industrialization
mass immigration from Europe
The Republican Party of the 1850s stood for "free labor" and "free soil." Which of the following statements describe the Republican stance on slavery and labor?
Republicans were not abolitionists; they focused on preventing the spread of slavery, not attacking it where it already existed.
Republicans acknowledged that it was difficult for some white northern laborers to improve their lives and promised to help create more opportunities for them.
What does the map reveal about continental expansion through 1853?
Northern Maine was acquired from Great Britain in 1842.
Florida was purchased in 1819. It became a territory of the United States in 1822 and a state by 1845.
The territory of Texas extended beyond the contemporary state boundaries into present-day New Mexico and Colorado when it was annexed in 1845.
Senator Stephen A. Douglas hoped to apply the principle of popular sovereignty to the Kansas-Nebraska Act. Identify what "popular sovereignty" means and how it was used in Douglas's reasoning.
Popular sovereignty was seen as a political middle ground on the issue of slavery.
Popular sovereignty is the principle that people should rule, and as such, the status of slavery should be determined by the votes of local settlers and not Congress.
Analyze the map showing the results of the Kansas-Nebraska Act of 1854. According to the map, which of the following statements are true?
Under the Kansas-Nebraska Act, the presence of slavery in the new Kansas and Nebraska territories would be a decision left to the citizens of those territories.
The Kansas-Nebraska Act essentially eliminated the purpose of the Missouri Compromise line.
Which of the following choices correctly summarize the impact of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, as reflected in the map?
It added an enormous area of land to the United States.
It changed the citizenship of many Mexicans to Americans.
Mexico lost one-third of its territory, including the present-day U.S. states of California, Arizona, and Nevada.
What facts about the California gold rush are reflected in the map?
The gold rush drew many newcomers to California.
The Sierra Nevada mountains were the center of mining activity.
Gold seekers arrived in California by both ship and land.
What facts about the development of the United States' railroad network as of the 1850s are reflected in the map?
The main purpose of the railroad was to serve the needs of commercial industry.
The North benefited from the expansion of the network far more than the South.
The expansion of the network more or less stopped at the Mississippi River.
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
Chapter 13: A House Divided, 1840-1861
Chapter 11: The Peculiar Institution
Chapter 7: Founding a Nation, 1783—1791
Chapter 12: An Age of Reform, 1820—1840
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