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Regular Tanneries

Purchase and process skins and hides and sell the leather as their finished product

Contract Tanneries

Process the hides and skins to the specifications of other firms (mainly converters) but are not involved in the final sale of the leather


Buy the hides and skins from the meatpackers, commission the tanning to the contract tanneries, and then sell the finished leather

Sustainable Use

An environmental program that encourages landowners to preserve alligator eggs and habitats in return for the right to use a percentage of the grown animals


Animal pelts that weigh 15 pounds or less; calves, goats, pigs, sheep, and deer


Animal pelts that weigh from 15-20 pounds; young horses and cattle


Animal pelts that weigh more than 25 pounds; cattle, buffalo, and horses


The process of transforming animal pelts into leather


Skin of a fur-bearing animal

Let Out

In regards to furs, a cutting and resewing operation to make short skins into longer-length skins adequate for garment purposes

Leased Department

Situated in the store but run by an independent merchant who pays a percentage of sales to the store as rent

Consignment Selling

A fur manufacturer supplies merchandise to a retail store, which has the option of returning unsold items

Product Development

The teaming of market and trend research with the merchandising, design, and technical processes that develop a final product


An assortment of new designs offered by manufacturers to their customers, usually on a seasonal basis


A subdivision of a line, linked by a common theme such as color, fabric, or style


Describes an expensive line in the US or Europe

Line-for-Line Copies

There are exactly like the original designs except that hey have been mass-produced in a less expensive fabrics to standard size measurements


A trade term referring to the low-price copies of an item that has had good acceptance at higher prices


A design from a previous season reworked in a different color or fabric

High-Fashion Designer

A person who creates designs, chooses the fabric, texture, and color for each design. Often, this person is involved with the development of the production model as well as with plans for the promotion of the lame


A person who adapts or changes the successful designs of others

Freelance Artist-Designers

Designers who sell their sketches to manufacturers

Apparel Manufacturer

One who performs all the operations required to produce apparel, from buying the fabric to selling and shipping the finished garments

Apparel Jobber

One who handles the designing, the planning, the purchasing, usually the cutting, the selling, and the shipping, but not the actual sewing operation

Apparel Contractor

A producer whose sole function is to supply sewing services to the industry

Section Work

The division of labor in apparel manufacturing whereby each sewing-machine operator sews only a certain section of the garment, such as a sleeve or hem, in order to speed up the production process

Item Houses

Contractors that specialize in the production of one product


A producer who handles all phases of a garment's production

Product Development Team

Responsible for a particular product line or brand

Simple Hand

The person who sews the garment in the developmental line, the designer's assistant/seamstress

Computer-Aided Design

Giving designers a new freedom to explore and manipulate their designs in a relatively easy, quick, and inexpensive way

Minimum Orders

A quantity set by manufacturers for the number of styles and/or dollar amount required to accept a retail buyer's order


Adjustment of a style's sample pattern to meet the dimensional requirements of each size in which the style is to be made


A long piece of paper upon which the pieces of the pattern of a garment in all its sizes are outlined and which is placed on top of many layers of material for cutting purposes


Laying-up machine that carries the material along a guide on either side of the cutting table, laying out the material evenly from end to end


The process by which the pieces of each pattern are tied together according to their sizes

Single-Hand Operation

One operator sews the entire garment

Modular Manufacturing System

Teams of seven to nine workers produce entire garments

Floor Ready

The apparel fixed with bar-code price tickets attached, cartons labeled, and shipping documents attached

Quality Assurance

Refers to the product meeting the standards established for it, includes the inspection of each ingredient of the garment

Private Label

A label owned by a retailer and found only in its stores

Retail Store Brand

The name of a chain that is used as the exclusive label on most of the items in the store or clothing

Corporate Licensing

The use of a company's name on related merchandise

Specification Buying

A type of purchasing that is done to the store's, rather than the manufacturer's, standards

Offshore Production

The manufacture of American goods in cheap-labor foreign countries


Financial penalties imposed on manufacturers by retailers

Quick Response

A business strategy that shortens the time from raw materials to design to production to finished product to the consumer

Universal Product Code

One of a number of bar codes used for automatic identification of items scanned at retail cash registers

Electronic Data Interchange

The electronic exchange of machine-readable data in standard formats between one company's computers and another company's computers

Mass Customization

The idea to tailor the product to fit one particular customer and to supply thousands of individuals, at mass prices, not custom-made prices

Brand Extension

A strategy in which a company uses a successful brand name to launch new or modified products


Refers to clothing produced in factories to standardized measurements

Price Zones

Series of somewhat contiguous price lines that appeal to specific target groups of customers

Trunk Shows

Events that present a manufacturer's line to a retail store's sales staff and its customers

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