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[Visual Dictionary] DK CHING A-F
Terms in this set (1394)
The product or result of architectural work; building, collectively
A style or method of building characteristic of a people, place, or time.
The profession of designing buildings and other habitable environments.
The conscious act of forming things, resulting in a unifying or coherent structure.
The art and science of designing and constructing buildings.
The conscience use of skill, craft, and creative imagination in the production of what is beautiful, appealing, or of more than ordinary significance.
The branch of philosophy that deals with the nature of art, beauty, and taste, with a view to establishing the meaning and validity of critical judgements concerning works of art.
The aggregate of qualities in a person or thing that gives intense pleasure to the senses or deep satisfaction to the mind or spirit, whether arising from harmony or form or color, excellence of craft, truthfulness, originality, or other, often unspecific property
Critical judgement, discernment, or appreciate of what is fitting, harmonious, or beautiful prevailing in a culture or personal to an individual.
The ordering of the physical environment by means of architecture, engineering, construction, landscape architecture, urban design, and city planning.
The aspect of architectural and city planning that deals with design of urban structures and spaces.
The activity or profession of determining the future physical arrangement and condition of a community, involving an appraisal of the current conditions, a forecast of future requirements, a plan for the fulfillment of these requirements, and proposals for legal, financial, and constructional programs to implement the plan.
The art, business, or profession of planning the design and supervising the execution of architectural interiors, including their color schemes, furnishings, fittings, finishes, and sometimes architectural features.
The aspect of architecture and interior design that deals with the planning, layout, design, and furnishing of spaces within a proposed or existing building.
A high degree of pleasure or enjoyment.
Something of value, use, or convenience.
A branch of knowledge dealing with a body of facts or truths obtained by direct observation, experimental investigation, and methodical study, systematically arranged and showing the operation of general laws.
Applied science; the branch of knowledge that deals with the creation and use of technical methods and materials, and their interrelation with life, society, and the environment.
The science of an art or of the arts in general.
The science or art of shaping, ornamenting, or assembling materials in building construction.
The unifying structure or concept of an artistic work.
The art and science of applying scientific principles to practical ends in the design and construction of structures, machines, and systems.
The state or equality of being solidly constructed.
Any of the sciences, such as sociology and anthropology, that seek to discover general truths from the observation of human behavior in society.
The science of human social institutions and relationships, specif. The study of the origin, development, structure, functioning, and collective behavior of organized groups of human beings.
The science of human beings, specif. The study of the origins, physical and cultural development, and environmental and social relations of humankind.
The art, business, or protection of designing, arranging, or modifying the features of a landscape for aesthetic or practical reasons.
A curved structure for spanning an opening, designed to support a vertical load primarily by axial compression.
An arch constructed of individual stone or brick voussoirs.
Any of wedge-shaped units in a masonry arch or vault, having side cuts converging at one of the arch centers.
The first voussoir resting on the impost of an arch.
The wedge-shaped, often embelished voussoir at the crown of an arch, serving to lock the other voussoirs in place.
The exterior curve, surface, or boundary of the visible face of an arch.
A decorative molding or band on the face of an arch following the curve of the intrados.
The inner curve or surface of an arch forming the concave underside.
The height of an arch from the spring line to the highest point of the intrados.
The point at which an arch, vault, or dome rises from its support.
The highest part or point of a convex construction, such as an arch, vault, or roadway.
Either side of an arch curving down from the crown to the impost.
The uppermost part of an abutment, often in the form of a block, capital, or molding, from which an arch springs.
The triangular-shaped, sometimes ornamented area between the extrados of two adjoining arches, or between the left or right extrados of an arch and the rectangular framework surrounding it.
Any of several concentric rings of masonry forming an arch, esp. When each projects beyond the one below.
A crosspiece connecting the ribs in a centering. Also called BOLSTER.
An archway having sides or jambs not at right angles with the face of its abutments.
A temporary framework for supporting a masonry arch or vault during construction until the work can support itself.
A board used as centering for a flat arch, slightly crowned to allow for settling of the arch.
The manner in which an arch transforms the vertical forces of a supported load into inclined components and transmits them to abutments on either side of the archway.
The median line of an arched structure.
Line of thrust
The set of resultants of thrust and weight each part of an arch imposes on the next lower one. For bending to be eliminated throughout an arch, the line of thrust must coincide with the arch axis.
An arch shaped to develop only axial compression under a given loading.
Is the funicular shape for an arch carrying a vertical load uniformly distributed along the length of the arch axis.
The funicular shape for an arch carrying a vertical load uniformly distributed over its horizontal projection.
The outward force or pressure exerted by one part of a structure against another.
The thrust of an arched structure on its abutments. Proportional to the total load and span, and inversely propotional to the rise.
An arched structure of timber, steel, or reinforced concrete, constructed as a rigid body capable of carrying bending stresses.
A fixed frame structure having an arched form.
A two-hinged frame structure having an arched form.
A three-hinged frame structure having an arched form.
The part of a structure receiving and supporting the thrust of an arch, vault, or strut.
An iron or steel rod serving as a structural tie esp. One keeping the lower ends of an arch frame from spreading.
An arch having a horizontal intrados with voussoirs radiating from a center below, often built with a slight camber to allow for settling.
A flat arch having voussoirs inclined to the same angles on each side of the center.
An arch having a continuously curved intrados, esp. A semicircular one.
An arch having a semicircular intrados.
A primitive form of arch consisting of two stones laid diagonally to support each other over an opening.
A false arch constructed by corbeling courses from each side of an opening until they meet at a midpoint where a capstone is laid to complete the work. The stepped reveals may be smoothed, but no arch action is effected.
An arch having one impost higher than the other.
An arch resting on imposts treated as downward continuations of the archivolt.
A round arch resting on two large corbels with curved faces.
An arch having an intrados that widens above the springing before narrowing to a rounded crown.
An arch having a cusped intrados with three round or pointed foils.
An arch struck from one or more centers below the springing line.
A stone or course of masonry having a sloping face against which the end of a segmental arch rests.
A three-centered arch having a crown with a radius much greater than that of the outer pair of curves.
An arch having a pointed crown.
A pointed arch having two centers and radii equal to the span.
A pointed arch. Esp. One having two centers and equal radii.
A pointed arch having two centers and radii greater than the span.
A pointed arch having two centers and radii less than the span.
A four- centered arch having an inner pair of curves with a radius much greater than that of the outer pair.
An arch having a rise of less than half the span.
A pointed arch, each haunch of which is a double curve with the concave side uppermost.
A rigid structural member designed to carry and transfer transverse loads across space to supporting elements.
The extent of space between two supports of a structure.
The distance between the inner faces of the supports of a span.
The center-to-center distance between the supports of a span.
An external moment tending to cause part of a structure to rotate or bend, equal to the algebraic sum of the moments about the neutral axis of the section under consideration.
An internal moment equal and opposite to a bending moment, generated by a force couple to maintain equilibrium of the section being considered.
The perpendicular distance a spanning member deviates from a true course under tranverse loading. Increasing with a load and span, and decreasing with an increase in the moment of inertia of the section or the modulus of elasticity of the material.
A slight convex curvature intentionally built into a beam, girder, or truss to compensate for an anticipated deflection.
A shear force at a cross section of a beam or other member subject to bending, equal to the algebraic sum of transverse forces on one side of section.
Horizontal shearing stress
The shearing stress developed to prevent slippage along horizontal planes of a beam under transverse loading, equal at any point to the vertical shearing stress at that point.
An imaginary line passing through the centroid of the cross section of a beam or other member subject to bending, along which no bending stresses occur.
A combination of compressive and tensile stresses developed at a cross section of a structural member to resist a transverse force, having a maximum value at the surface furthest from the neutral axis.
Vertical shearing stress
The shearing stress developed along a cross section of a beam to resist transverse shear, having a maximum value at the neutral axis and decreasing nonlinearly toward the outer faces.
A formula defining the relationship between bending moment, bending stress, and the cross-sectional properties of a beam.
Moment of inertia
The sum of the products of each element of an area and the square of its distance from a coplanar axis of rotation.
A geometric property of a cross section, defined as the moment of inertia of the section divided by the distance from the neutral axis to the most remote surface.
The buckling of a structural member induced by compressive stresses acting on a slender portion insufficiently rigid in the lateral direction.
The tensile and compressive stresses resulting from the interaction of bending and shear stresses at a cross section of a beam.
The point in the cross-sectional plane of a structural member through which a transverse load must pass in order to prevent torsion or twisting of the member about a longitudinal axis.
Lines depicting the direction but not the magnitude of the principal stresses in a beam.
A graphic representation of the variation in magnitude of the external shears present in a structure for a given set of transverse loads and support conditions.
A graphic representation of the variation in magnitude of the bending moments present in a structure for a given set of transverse loads and support conditions.
A beam or other rigid structural member extending beyond a fulcrum and supported by a balancing member or a downward force behind the fulcrum.
A beam resting on a simple supports at both ends, which are free to rotate and have no moment resistance. As with any statically determinate structure, the values of all reactions, shears, and moments for a simple beam are independent of its cross-sectional shape and material.
A projecting beam supported at only one fixed end.
A net resultant of shear forces that acts vertically upward on the left part of the structure being considered.
A net resultant of shear forces that acts vertically downward on the left part of the structure being considered.
A bending moment that produces a concave curvature at a section of a structure.
A point at which a structure changes curvature from convex to concave or vice versa as it deflects under a transverse load, theoretically, an internal hinge and therefore a point of zero moment.
A bending moment that produces a convex curvature at a section of a structure.
A simple beam extending beyond one its supports.
Double hanging beam
A simple beam extending beyond both of its supports.
The part of a beam that is thickened or deepened to develop greater moment resistance. The efficiency of a beam can be increased by shaping its length in response to the moment and shear values, which typically vary long its longitudinal axis.
A beam having both ends restrained against translation and rotation. The fixed ends transfer bending stresses, increase the rigidity of the beam, and reduce its maximum deflection.
Suspended-span or hung span
A simple beam supported by the cantilevers of two adjoining spans with pinned construction joints at points of zero moment.
A beam extending over more than two supports in order to develop greater rigidly and smaller moments than a series of simple beams having similar spans and loading.
The distance between inflection points in the span of a fixed-end or continuous beam, equivalent in nature to the actual length of a simply supported beam.
A masonry unit of clay, formed into a rectangular prism while plastic and hardened by drying in the sun or firing in a kiln.
Brick made for general building purposes and not specially treated for color and texture. Also called building brick.
Brick made of special clays for facing a wall, often treated to produce the desired color and surface texture.
A designation indicating the permissible variation in size, color, chippage, and distortion allowed in a facing brick unit.
Facing brick suitable for use where a minimum variation in a size, narrow color range, and high degree of mechanical perfection are required.
Facing brick suitable for use where a wider color range and greater variation in size are permitted than for type FBX
Facing brick suitable for use where particular effects are desired resulting from nonuniformity in size, color, and texture of the individual units.
A designation indicating the durability of a brick unit when exposed to weathering. The U.S. is divided into three weathering regions- severe, moderate, and negligible -- according to annual winter rainfall and the annual number of freezing cycle days. Brick is graded for use in each region according to compressive strength, maximum water absorption, and maximum saturation coefficient.
Brick suitable for exposure to moderate weathering, as when used above grade on surfaces unlikely to be permeated with water in subfreezing temperatures.
Brick suitable for exposure to severe weathering, as when in contact with the ground or used on surfaces likely to be permeated with water in subfreezing temperatures.
Brick suitable for exposure to negligible weathering, as when used as a backup or in interior masonry.
The weight of water absorbed by a clay masonry unit when immersed in either cold or boiling water for a stated length of time, expressed as a percentage of the weight of the dry unit.
The ratio of the weight of water absorbed by a clay masonry unit immersed in cold water to the weight absorbed when immersed in boiling water, indicating the probable resistance of the brick to the action of freezing and thawing.
Suction or initial rate of absorption
The weight of water absorbed by a clay masonry unit when partially immersed for one minute, expressed in grams or ounces per minute.
A white, powdery deposit that forms on an exposed masonry or concrete surface, caused by the leaching and crystallization of soluble salts from within the material.
The process of forming brick by molding relatively wet clay having a moisture content of 20% to 30 %
Sand struck brick
Brick formed in the soft-mud process with a mold lined with sand to prevent sticking, producing a matte-textured surface.
Brick formed in the soft-mud process with a mold lubricated with water to prevent sticking, producing a smooth, dense surface.
The process of forming brick and structural tile by extruding stiff but plastic clay having a moisture content 12% to 15% through a die and cutting the extrusion to length with wires before firing.
Dry press process
The process of forming brick by molding relatively dry clay having a moisture content of 5% to 7% under high pressure, resulting in sharp-edged, smooth-surfaced bricks.
A furnace or oven for burning, baking, or drying something, esp. One for firing pottery, baking bricks, or drying timber.
Firing brick units alternately with too much or too little air to vary their face color.
A brick or timber rejected as being of inferior quality.
A brick made of fire clay and used for lining furnaces and fireplaces.
A refractory clay used in the making of firebricks, crucibles, and other objects exposed to high temperatures.
A material having the ability to retain its physical shape and chemical identity when subjected to high temperatures.
A dense, hard- burned brick used esp. For paving.
A brick dimension larger than the actual dimension to account for the thickness of a mortar joint.
Any of various oversized bricks having nominal dimensions established by the manufacturer.
A brick or tile having normal face dimensions but a nominal thickness of 2 in. (51 mm).
A brick cut transversely so as to leave one end whole.
To chip or rub stones or bricks to a certain size or shape.
A brick having nominal dimensions of 4x2 2/3 x 8 in. (102 x 68 x 203mm)
A brick having nominal dimensions of 4 x 2 2/3 x 12 in. (102 x 68 x 305mm)
Brick having nominal dimensions of 6 x 2 2/3 x in( 102 x 68 x 305mm). Stands for structural clay research and is a trademark of the brick institute of america.
A brick having nominal dimensions of 4 x 31/5 x 8 in. (102 x 81 x 203mm).
A brick having nominal dimensions of 4 x 31/5x 12 in. (102 x 81 x 305mm)
Brick having nominal dimensions of 4 x 2 x 12in.(102 x 51 x 305mm)
A modular brick having nominal dimensions of 4 x 4 x 8 in. (102 x 102 x 203mm)
A brick or other masonry unit laid horizontally in a wall with the longer edge exposed or parallel to the surface.
A brick or other masonry unit laid horizontally in a wall with the shorter end exposed or parallel to the surface.
A brick laid horizontally on the longer edge with the shorter end exposed.
A brick laid vertically with the longer face edge exposed.
A brick laid vertically with the broad face exposed.
A brick laid horizontally on the longer edge with the broad face exposed.
Brick construction, esp. The art of bonding bricks effectively.
Any of various arrangements of masonry units having a regular, recognizable, usually overlapping pattern to increase the strength and enhance the appearance of the construction.
A brickwork or masonry bond composed of overlapping stretchers.
A brickwork bond having a course headers between every five or six courses of stretchers.
A masonry unit specially formed or cut to finish a course or complete the bond at the corner of a wall
A brickwork bond having alternate courses of headers and stretchers in which the headers are centered on stretchers and the joints between stretchers line up vertically in all courses.
A brick of half the normal width used for completing a course or for spacing regular bricks.
A brickwork bond having alternating headers and stretchers in each course,each header being centered above and below a stretcher.
A three quarter brick for finishing a course or for spacing regular bricks
Flemish diagonal bond
A form of flemish cross bond in which the courses are offset to form a diamond pattern.
A continuous course of soldiers in brickwork.
A brickwork or masonry bond having successive courses of stretchers with all head joints aligned vertically.
A continuous course of stretchers in brickwork.
A continuous course of headers in brickwork.
A continuous course of headers or bondstones overlapping more than one wythe of masonry.
English cross bond
A modified english bond in which the head joints in the stretching courses are offset by half the length of a stretcher
Flemish cross bond
A modified flemish bond having courses of alternate headers and stretchers alternating with stretching courses.
A brick having a darker end exposed as a header in patterned brickwork.
Garden wall bond
A brickwork bond for lightly loaded boundary walls, having a sequence of a header and three stretchers in each course, with each header being centered over a header in alternate courses.
A relatively permanent enclosed structure constructed over a plot of land for habitable use.
The vertical extension of a building or other construction above the foundation.
The exterior framework or walls and roof a building.
The underlying structure forming the foundation of a building or other construction.
A group of interacting interrelated, or interdependent things or parts forming a complex or unified whole, esp. To serve a common purpose.
A building of exceptional height and many stories, supported by a steel or concrete framework from which the walls are suspended.
A building, esp. one of large size, massive structure, or imposing appearance.
Describing a building having a comparatively large number of stories and equipped with elevators.
A complete horizontal division of a building, having a continuous or nearly continuous floor and comprising the space between two adjacent levels.
Describing a building having one, two , or three stories and usually no elevator.
Describing a building having a moderately large number of stories, usually 5 to 10, and equipped with elevators.
One of the upper floors of a warehouse or factory typically unpartitioned and sometimes converted or adapted to other uses, such as living quarters, artists' studios, or exhibition galleries.
A building having several floors with large areas of unobstructed space, originally rented out for light industrial purposes and now frequently converted to residential occupancy.
A room or space directly under the roof of a building. Esp. A house.
A usable living space within a sloping roof, usually having dormer windows for lighting.
An area in a building having a clearance less than human height, but accessible by crawling, esp. Such a space below the first floor that is enclosed by the foundation walls.
A room or set of rooms for the storage of the food, fuel, or the like, wholly or partly underground and usually beneath a building.
A cellar or other underground place for shelter during violent storms, such as cyclones, tornadoes, or hurricanes
A horizontal or inclined door over a stairway
A continuous supporting surface extending horizontally throughout a building, having a number of rooms and consulting one level in the structure.
A low or partial story between two main stories of a building, esp. One that projects as a balcony and forms a composition with the story beneath it.
The ground floor of a building. In Britain and elsewhere, the first floor is the floor immediately above the ground floor.
The floor of a building at or nearest to ground level.
A story of a building that is wholly or partly below ground level.
A sunken area affording access, air, and light to a basement door or window.
Any story or floor below the main basement of a building.
The front of a building or any of its sides facing a public way or space, esp. One distinguished by its architectural treatment.
A principal facade, or a part or feature of a facade, often treated as a separate element of the design and highlighted by ornamentation.
A projecting subdivision of a facade, usually accented by more eleborate decoration or greater height and distinction of skyline.
A facade falsifying the size or importance of a building.
A major horizontal architectural division, as of a facade or the wall of a nave.
Any of a number of principal compartments or divisions of a wall, roof, or other part of a building marked off by vertical or transverse supports.
A major horizontal division of a wall having no exterior windows.
Describing a recess in a wall having the appearance of a window (blind window) or door (blind door), inserted to complete a series of windows or to provide symmetry of design.
An elevated platform projecting from the wall of a building and enclosed by a railing or parapet.
The design, proportioning, and disposition of windows and other exterior openings of a building.
A raised platform, approached by steps and sometimes having a roof, at the entrance of a house.
An exterior appendage to a building, forming a covered approach or vestibule to a doorway.
A porch having a roof supported by columns, often leading to the entrance of a building.
A courtyard before the entrance to a building or a group of buildings.
A large, open porch, usually roofed and partly enclosed, as by a railing, often extending across the front and sides of a house.
A veranda, esp. One used as a living room.
A series of regularly spaced columns supporting an entablature and usually one side of a roof structure.
A vehicular passageway leading through a building of screen wall into an interior courtyard.
A private or side entrance, as one for pedestrians next to a porte cachere.
A porch roof projecting over a window a driveway at the entrance to a building and sheltering those getting in or out of vehicles.
An open, often paved area connected to a house or building and serving as an outdoor living area.
An open, unroofed porch or platform extending from a house or other building.
A doorway, gate, or entrance, esp. An imposing one emphasized by size and stately architectural treatment.
A round, domed building, or a large and high circular space in such a building, esp. one surmounted by a dome.
A building or structure high in proportion to its lateral dimensions, either standing alone or forming part of a larger building.
A large building divided into a number of separate apartments, offices, or shops.
A colonnaded or arcaded space within the body of a building but open to the air on one side, often at an upper story overlooking an open court.
The principal story of a large building, such as a palace or villa, with formal reception and dining rooms, usually one flight above the ground floor.
A large or principal courtyard of an italian palazzo.
A large, imposing public building or private residence, esp. In italy.
Any of a series of columns supporting a building above an open ground level.
A rectangular building having little width with respect to its length and height.
A wing at right angles to the length of a building.
A part of a building projecting from and subordinate to a central or main part.
An area open to the sky and mostly or entirely surrounded by walls or buildings.
A skylit, central court in building, esp. A large interior one having a glass roof and surrounded by several stories of galleries.
A court adjacent to or within a building, esp. One enclosed on all four sides.
A courtyard, esp. Of a house, enclosed by low buildings, arcades, or walls.
An open, skylit court around which a house or building is built.
To assert or demand recognition or possession.
To combine, blend, or unite gradually by stages so as to blur identity or distinctions.
A public square or open space in a city or town.
An open square or public place in a city or town, esp. In italy.
A square or quadrangular space or court surrounded by a building or buildings, as on a college campus.
A spacious promenade , court, indoor mall, usually having a vaulted roof with commercial establishments.
An area used for a stroll or walk, esp. In a public place, as for pleasure or display.
French term for broad walk planted with trees.
A shelter of shrubs and branches or of latticework intertwined with climbing vines and flowers.
A frame supporting open latticework, used as a screen or a support for growing vines or plants.
A structure of crossed strips arranged to form a regular pattern of open spaces.
A structure of parallel colonnades supporting an open roof of beams and crossing rafters or trelliswork, over which climbing plants are trained to grow.
The position of a building on a site in relation to true north, to points on the compass, to a specific place or site feature, or to local conditions of sunlight, wind, and drainage.
To face in a specific direction or look out upon.
To enclose or encompass on all sides.
A whimsical or extravagant structure built to serve as a conversation piece, lend interest to a view, or commemorate a person or event, found esp. In 18th- century england.
A small, often ornamental building in a garden.
A freestanding roofed structure, usually open on the sides, affording shade and rest in a garden or park.
A building or architectural feature of a building, designed and situated to look out upon a pleasing scene.
Clipped or trimmed into ornamental and fantastic shapes, or the work of art of such clipping.
An ornamental arrangement of flower beds of different shapes and sizes.
A structural system utilizing the cable as the principal means of support.
A flexible structural member, such as wire rope metal chain, having high tensile strength but offering no resistance to compression or bending.
The vertical distance from the supports to the lowest point of a cable structure.
The shape assumed by a freely deforming cable in direct response to the magnitude and location of external forces. A cable always adapts its shape so that it is in pure tension under the action of an applied load.
The shape assumed by a freely deforming cable in direct Response to a set of concentrated loads.
The shape assumed by a freely deforming cable in direct response to a uniformly distributed load.
The curve assumed by a perfectly flexible, uniform cable suspended freely from two points not in the same vertical line. For a load that is uniformly distributed in a horizontal projection, the curve approaches that of a parabola.
A structure shaped to carry or support a given loading by either axial tension or compression. For any given loading condition, there is only one general funicular shape. If the loading pattern changes, bending is induced in the structure.
A lens-shaped structure having the outward thrusts of an arch balanced by the inward pulls of a cable, resulting in no net lateral forces at the supports.
A structure of cables suspended and prestressed between compression members to directly support applied loads.
A bridge having a deck suspended from cables raised on towers and securely anchored to abutments at the ends.
Single curvature structure
A suspension structure utilizing a parallel series of cable to support surface-forming beams or plates. A single-curvature structure is a susceptible to flutter induced by the aerodynamic effects of wind. This liability can be reduced by increasing the dead load on the structure or anchoring the primary cables to the ground with transverse guy cables.
A cable for absorbing the horizontal component of thrust in a suspension or cable-stayed structure and transferring the force to a ground foundation.
A vertical or inclined compression member in a suspension or cable stayed structure, supporting the sum of the vertical force components in the primary and guy cables. Inclining the mast enables it to pick up some of the horizontal cable thrust and reduces the force in the guy cables.
Double cable structure
A suspension structure having upper and lower sets of cables of different curvatures, pretensioned by ties or compression struts to make the system more rigid and resistant to flutter.
One of the pretensioned cables directly supporting the load on a suspension structure.
One of the pretensioned cables used in for stabilizing a suspension structure against flutter, usually having a curvature opposite to that of the primary cables.
Double curvature structure
A suspension structure composed of a field of crossed cables of different and often reverse curvatures. Each set of cables has a different natural period of vibration, thus forming a self-dampening system that is more resistant to flutter.
A cable for anchoring a set of secondary cables in a suspension structure.
Cable stayed structure
A structure having vertical or inclined masts from which cables extend to support horizontally spanning members arranged in a parallel or radial pattern.
The overhead interior surface or lining of a room, often concealing the underside of the floor or roof above.
The underside of a floor showing the supporting beams and finished to form a ceiling.
A ceiling having a cove.
A Concave surface forming part of a ceiling at its edge so as to eliminate the usual interior angle between the wall and the ceiling.
A ceiling having the form of a truncated pyramid.
One of a number of recessed, usually square or octagonal panels in a ceiling, soffit, or vault. Also called caisson, lacunar
A ceiling, soffit, or vault adorned with a pattern of recessed panels.
A flat or vaulted ceiling of decorative character.
A secondary ceiling formed to provide space for piping or ductwork, or to alter the proportions of a room
Tile made in various sizes and textures from a soft, sound-absorbing material, such as cork, mineral fiber, or glass fiber.
An acoustical tile consisting of a steel or aluminum pan having a perforated face and containing a separate layer of sound-absorbing material.
A secondary member of the grid supporting a suspended ceiling system , usually a sheet metal tee carried by the main runners
A principal member of the grid supporting a suspended ceiling system, usually a sheet-metal channel or tee suspended by hanging wires from the overhead structure.
A thin metal strip inserted into edges of two acoustical tiles to make a butt joint between them.
A groove cut into edges of an acoustical tile to receive a spline or t-shaped member of a supporting grid.
Linear metal ceiling
A suspended ceiling system of narrow metal strips, usually incorporating modular lighting and air-handling components.
A suspended ceiling of translucent panels for diffusing the light from luminaries mounted above it.
A suspended ceiling of multicellular louvers for shielding the light sources mounted above it.
A ceiling suspended from an overhead floor or roof structure to provide space for pipes, ductwork, lighting fixtures, or other service equipment.
The space between a suspended ceiling and the floor structure above, esp. One thar serves as a receiving chamber for conditioned air to be distributed to inhabited spaces or for return air to be conveyed back to a central plant for processing.
A ceiling of acoustical tile or other sound-absorbing material.
A metal grid of inverted tees supporting the acoustical tiles of a suspended ceiling.
A metal grid for supporting a suspended ceiling of acoustical tiles having rabbeted joints.
A metal grid supporting the acoustical tiles of a suspended ceiling, hidden within kerfs cut into the edges of the tiles.
A suspended ceiling system incorporating acoustical, lighting, and air-handling components into a unified whole.
A long, narrow diffuser designed to disperse air through slots between the panels of an integrated ceiling system also slot diffuser.
Any of various hard, brittle, noncorrosive, and nonconductive materials formed by the ionic bonding of a metal and a nonmetal, as brick, concrete, and natural stone.
Any of various products made by firing clay or similar materials in a kiln, such as brick, tile, and pottery.
The process of hardening or glazing ceramic ware by heating in a kiln to a specified temperature.
Fired at a high temperature to near vitrification and having relatively low absorption and high compressive strength.
Fired at a low temperature and having relatively high absorption and low compressive strength.
Low fired, opaque, nonvitreous ceramic ware.
High -fired, opaque, vitrified ceramic ware.
To make a clay body vitreous by firing at a specified temperature.
Resembling glass, as in transparency, hardness, brittleness, luster, or having low or no porosity.
Having a moderate water absorption of slightly under 6%
Having water absorption greater than 7%
A hard, vitreous, translucent ceramic material consisting essentially of kaolin, feldspar, and quartz, fired at a very high temperature.
A translucent ceramic material, bisque-fired at a high temperature and glaze-fired at a lower temperature.
A fine white clay used in the manufacture of porcelain and white portland cement. Also called china clay
A vitreous, usually opaque, decorative or protective coating applied by fusion to the surface of metal, glass, or pottery.
An opaque, glass coating bonded to metal by fusing at high temperature also called vitreous enamel
A thermochemical bond between materials resulting from exposure to temperatures approaching the fusion point of the mixture.
The structural portion of a ceramic article or the clay material or mixture from which it is made.
Fired to harden a clay body.
Earthenware or porcelain that has been fired once but not glazed. Also called biscuit.
Fired to fuse a glaze to clay body
A vitreous layer or coating fused to clay body to color, decorate, waterproof, or strengthen its surface.
A fused or partially fused material that is ground to introduce a soluble or unstable ingredient into glazes or enamels.
Any of various specially shaped ceramic tiles for finishing an edge or angle.
A coved tile set at the meeting of a floor and wall to prevent accumulation of dirt and to facilitate cleaning.
Any of the ceramic or nonceramic articles designed to be affixed to or inserted in tilework, such as tower bars, soap holders, and the like.
Any of various fired clay tile used for surfacing walls, floors, and countertops.
Glazed wall tile
Ceramic tile having a nonvitreous body and a bright, matte, or crystalline glaze, used for surfacing interior walls and light-duty floors.
Ceramic mosaic tile
Small ceramic tile having a porcelain or natural clay body, glazed for surfacing walls or unglazed for use on both floors and walls, and usually face or back - mounted on sheets to facilitate handling and speed installation.
Unglazed ceramic floor tile having a natural clay body. Also called promenade tile.
Unglazed ceramic floor tile similar in composition to ceramic mosaic tile but thicker and larger in surface area.
A tile setting process in which ceramic tile is applied over a portland cement mortar bed 3/4 to 1 1/2 in.(19 to 38mm) thick, which allows for accurate slopes and planes in the finished work.
Portland cement mortar
A field mix of portland cement, sand water, and sometimes hydrated lime, used for leveling or setting ceramic tile in the thick -set process.
A thin coat of mortar for bonding ceramic tile to a backing.
A tile-setting process in which ceramic tile is bonded to a continuous, stable backing with a thin coat a dry -set mortar, latex -portland cement mortar, epoxy mortar, or an organic adhesive, 1/32 to 1/8 in. (0.8 to 3.2mm) thick.
A cementitious or resinous mix for filling joints in ceramic tilework.
Structural clay tile
A hollow tile of fired clay having a parallel cells or cores, used in building walls and partitions.
Load-bearing structural clay tile suitable for masonry walls not exposed to frost action, or in exposed masonry where protected by a facing of 3 in.(76.2 mm) or more of stone, brick, terra cotta, or other masonry.
Load bearing structural clay tile suitable for masonry walls exposed to weathering or frost action.
A hard, fired clay, reddish-brown in color when unglazed, used for architectural facings and ornaments, tile units, and pottery.
Architectural terra cotta
Hard-burned, glazed or unglazed terra cotta, hand-molded or machine- extruded to order as a ceramic veneer for walls or for ornamentation.
Sun-dried brick made of clay and straw, commonly used in regions with little rainfall.
Any of various cellular building units of fired clay, concrete, or gypsum, used for building walls, floors, and roofs, or for fireproofing steelwork.
Structural facing tile
Structural clay tile having a glazed surface, used for facing walls and partitions, esp. In areas subject to heavy wear, moisture, and strict sanitation requirements.
Structural facing tile suitable for exposed exterior and interior masonry walls and partitions where moderate absorption, slight variation in face dimensions, minor defects in surface finish, and medium color range are acceptable.
Smooth structural facing tile suitable for exposed exterior and interior masonry walls and partitions where low absorption and stain resistance are required, and where a high degree of mechanical perfection, minimum variation in face dimensions, and narrow color range are desired.
A stiff mixture of clay, sand or other agreggate, and water, compressed and dried within forms as a wall construction. Also called pisé, pisay, pisé de terre.
The religion founded on the teachings of jesus christ, including the catholic, protestant, and eastern orthodox churches.
An early christian church, characterized by a long, rectangular plan, a high colonnaded nave lit by a clerestory and covered by a timbered gable roof, two or four lower side aisles, a semicircular apse at the end, a narthex, and often features, such as an atrium, a bema, and small semicircular apses terminating the aisles.
The forecourt of an early christian church, flanked or surrounded by porticoes.
The covered walk of an atrium or cloister.
A basin of a ritual cleansing with a water in the atrium of an early christian basilica.
A part of a church or a separate building in which baptism is administered.
A sacrament of initiation into christianity, symbolic of spiritual regeneration, marked by a ceremonial immersion or application of water.
A basin, usually of stone, holding the water used in baptism.
A representation of a sacred christian personage, such as christ or saint or angel, typically painted on a wood surface and itself venerated as being sacred, esp. In the tradition of the eastern church.
A portico or vestibule before the nave of an early christian or byzantine church, occupied by those not yet christened.
An inner narthex when two are present.
A covered walk or outer narthex situated before an inner narthex.
A screen or partition on which icons are placed, separating the bema from the nave of an eastern church.
The principal or central part or church, extending from the narthex to the choir or chancel and usually flanked by aisles.
Any of the longitudinal divisions of a church, separated from the nave by a row of columns or piers.
Either of two raised stands from which the gospels or epistles were read or chanted in an early christian church.
A large apsidal extension of the interior volumn of a church.
A semicircular or polygonal projection of a building, usually vaulted and used esp. At the sanctuary or east end of a church.
The bishop's throne, occupying a recess or apse in an early christian church.
A transverse open space separating the nave and the apse of an early christian church, developing into the transept of later cruciform churches.
A sacred or holy place, as that part of a church in which the principal altar placed.
The table in christian church upon which the eucharist, the sacrament celebrating christ's last supper, is celebrated.
An ornamental canopy of stone or marble permanently placed over the altar in a church. Also called ciborium.
A low screen in an early christian basilica, separating the clergy and sometimes the choir from the congregation.
A stone coffin, esp. One bearing sculpture or inscriptions and displayed as a monument.
The sanctuary space surrounding the altar of an eastern church.
A sacristy in an early christian or eastern church, usually on the south side of the bema.
A room in a church where the sacred vessels and vestments are kept.
A chapel in an eastern church where the eucharistic elements are prepared, usually on the north side of the bema.
The monumental western front a romanesque church, treated as a tower or towers containing a low entrance hall below and a chapel open to the nave above.
A rose window having distinctly radiating mullions or bars.
The space between an arch and the horizontal head of a door or window below, often decorated with sculpture.
A column supporting the tympanum of a doorway at its center.
A canopied recess for a religious image or icon.
A series of arches supported on piers or columns.
Curved or arched like a bow; a term used in describing the arched or vaulted structure of a romanesque church or gothic cathedral, as distinguished from the trabeated architecture of an egyptian hypostyle hall or greek doric temple.
A pier or pilaster projecting from a wall as a support for an arch or lintel, esp. At the termination of an arcade or colonnade.
A thickened abacus or supplementary capital set above a column capital to receive the thrust of an arch.
The major transverse part of a cruciform church, crossing the main axis at a right angle between the nave and choir.
The intersection of the nave and transept in a cruciform church.
A bell tower, usually one near but not attached to the body of a church.
A bulbous, domelike roof terminating in a sharp point, used esp. In russian orthodox church architecture to cover a cupola or tower.
A roofed promenade, esp. One extending inside or outside along the exterior wall of a building.
A gallery or upper level in a church or hall.
A tall, acutely tapering pyramidal structure surmounting a steeple or tower.
A tall ornamental structure, usually ending in a spire and surmounting the tower of a church or other public building.
An indigenous Scandinavian church of the 12th and 13th centuries, having a timber frame, plank walls, a tiered, steeply pitched roof, and few windows.
The dwelling of a hermit; more generally, a secluded place of residence or habitation for a religious person or group.
An arcade, esp. A blind one, composed of arches resting on alternate supports and overlapping in series where they cross.
A series of arches superimposed on a wall for decoration.
A relatively small, usually foliated ornament terminating the peak of a spire or pinnacle.
A projecting ornament, usually in the form of curved foliage, used esp. In gothic architecture to decorate the outer angles of pinnacles, spires, and gables.
A grotesquely carved figure of a human or animal esp. One with an open mouth that serves as a spout and projects from a gutter to throw rainwater clear of a building.
A circular window, usually of stained glass and decorated with tracery symmetrical about the center.
Glass colored or stained by having pigments baked onto its surface or by having various metallic oxides fused into it while in a molten state.
An arcaded story in a church, between the nave arches and clerestory and corresponding to the space between the vaulting and the roof of an aisle.
An underground chamber or vault used as a burial place, esp. One beneath the main floor of a church.
A crucifix symbolizing the cross on which christ was crucified, esp, a large one set above the entrance to the choir or chancel of a medieval church.
A screen, often elaborately adorned and property surmounted by a rood, separating the chancel or choir from the nave of a medieval church.
The space about the altar of a church for the clergy and choir, often elevated above the nave and separated from it by a railing or screen.
A chapel endowed for the saying of masses and prayers for the souls of the founders or of persons named by them.
A mazelike pattern inlaid in the pavement of a medieval church.
A small porch used as a chapel for penitents at the west end of sone medieval english churches.
The principal church of a diocese, containing the bishop's throne called the cathedra.
A separately dedicated part of a church for private prayer, meditation, or small religious services.
Garth (cloister garth)
A courtyard or quadrangle enclosed by a cloister.
A walk or passage, as along a cloister or behind the parapets of a castle.
The rounded east end of a gothic cathedral, including the apse and ambulatory.
An aisle encircling the end of the choir or chancel of a church.
The part of a church occupied by the singers of a choir, usually part of the chancel.
A separate division behind the choir or high altar of a large church.
A chapel dedicated to the virgin mary, usually located behind the high altar of a cathedral at the extremity of the apse.
The main altar of a church.
The part of a church reserved for the officiating clergy.
An enclosed place, esp. The land surrounding or beside a cathedral.
A covered passage, esp. One between the transept and chapter house of a cathedral.
The place where the chapter of a cathedral or monastery meets, usually a building attached to or a hall forming part of the cathedral or monastery.
An assembly of the monks in a monastery, or the members of a religious house or order.
An atrium or cloister beside a church.
A covered walk having an arcade or colonnade on one side opening onto a courtyard.
A phenomenon of light and visual perception that may be described in terms of an individual's perception of hue, saturation, and lightness for objects, and hue, saturation, and brightness for light sources.
The distribution of energy emitted by a radiant source, arranged in order of wavelengths, esp. The band of colors produced when sunlight is refracted and dispersed by a prism, comprising red, orange, yellow, green, blue, indigo, and violet.
The perceived color of an object, determined by the wavelengths of the light reflected from its surface after selective absorption of other wavelengths of the incident light.
The absorption of certain wavelengths of the light incident on a colored surface, the remaining portion being reflected or transmitted.
A color produced by mixing cyan, yellow, and magenta pigments, each of which absorbs certain wavelengths. A balanced mixture of these colorant or subtractive primaries theoretically yields black since it absorbs all wavelengths of visible light.
A color produced by combining lights of red, green, and blue wavelengths. These light or additive primaries contain all the wavelengths necessary to produce a colorless or white light.
Designating a color having high lightness and low saturation.
Designating a color having high lightness and strong saturation.
Designating a color having low lightness and low saturation, and reflecting only a small fraction of incident light.
Designating a color having low lightness and strong saturation.
A scale of achromatic colors having several, usually ten, equal gradations ranging from white to black.
A system for specifying colors arranged in three orderly scales of uniform visual steps according to hue, chroma, and value, developed in 1890 by albert h. Munsell. Hue extends in a rotary direction about a central axis through a spectrum of five major and five secondary hues.
One of the three dimensions of color. The property of light by which the color of an object is classified as being red, yellow, green, or blue, or an intermediate between any contiguous pair of these colors.
One of the three dimensions of color. The purity or vividness of a hue.
The degree by which a color differs from a gray of the same lightness or brightness, corresponding to saturation of the perceived color.
The dimension of color by which an object appears to reflect more or less of the incident light, varying from black to white for surface colors and from black to colorless for transparent volume colors.
The degree by which a color appears to reflect more or less of the incident light, corresponding to lightness of the perceived color.
The dimension of a color that is correlated with luminance and by which casual stimuli are ordered continuously from very dim to very bright. Pure white has the maximum brightness, and pure black the minimum brightness.
The merging of juxtaposed dots or strokes of pure colors when seen from a distance to produce a hue often more luminous than that available from a premixed pigment.
Designating a color inclined toward or dominated by red, orange, or yellow.
Designating a color inclined toward or dominated by green, blue, or violet.
A warm color that appears to move toward an observer, giving an illusion of space.
A cool color that appears to move away from an observer, giving an illusion of space.
An arrangement or pattern of colors conceived of as forming an integrated whole.
A triangular diagram developed by faber birren to describe the relationship between a pure hue, white, and black, which combine to yield secondary tints, tones, shades, and grays. All colors may be subjectively conceived as a mixture of the psychological primaries-red, yellow, green, and blue- plus the achromatic pair of white and black.
A relatively light value of a color, produced by adding white to it.
A relatively dark value of a color, produced by adding black to it.
An intermediate value of a color between a tint and shade.
An achromatic color between white and black.
Having no saturation and therefore no hue, such as white, black, or gray.
A circular scale of the colors of spectrum, showing complementary colors opposite each other.
Any of a set of colors, such as red, yellow, and blue, regarded as generating all other colors.
A color, such as orange, green or violet. Produced by mixing two primary colors.
A color, such as brown. Produced by mixing two secondary colors, or a secondary color with one of its constituent primaries.
One of a pair of opposing colors on a color wheel, perceived as completing or enhancing each other.
One of two or three closely related colors on a color wheel.
A combination of three colors forming an equilateral triangle on a color wheel.
A combination of one color and the pair of colors adjoining its complementary color on a color wheel.
A combination of two analogous colors and their complementary colors on a color wheel.
Having only one color or exhibiting varying intensities and values of a single hue.
Having or exhibiting a variety of colors.
A rigid, relatively slender structural member designed primarily to support axial, compressive loads applied at the member ends.
An upright, relatively slender shaft or structure, usually of brick or stone, used as a building support or standing alone as a monument.
A stiff vertical support, esp. A wooden column in timber framing.
A thick column subject to failure by crushing rather than by buckling. Failure occurs when the direct stress from an axial load exceeds the compressive strength of the material available in the cross section. An eccentric load, however, can produce bending and result in an uneven stress distribution in the section.
A column having a mode of failure between that of a short column and a long column, often partly inelastic by crushing and partly elastic by buckling.
The critical point at which a column, carrying its critical buckling load, may either buckle or remain undeflected. The column is therefore in a state of neutral equilibrium.
Critical buckling stress
The critical buckling load for a column divided by the area of its cross section.
The ratio of the effective length of a column to its least radius of gyration.
A slender column subject to failure by buckling rather than by crushing.
The sudden lateral or torsional instability of a slender structural member induced by the action of a compressive load. Buckling can occur well before the yield stress of the material is reached.
The axial load at a which a column begins to deflect laterally and becomes unstable.
Critical buckling load
The maximum axial load that can theoretically be applied to a column without causing it to buckle. The critical buckling load for a column is inversely proportional to the square of its effective length, and directly proportional to the moment of inertia of the cross section.
Radius of gyration
The radial distance from any axis to a point at which the mass of a body could be concentrated without altering the moment of inertia of the body about that axis. For structural section, the radius of gyration is equal to the square root of the quotient of the moment of inertia and the area.
The amount by which an axis deviates from another parallel axis.
An additional moment developed in a structural member as its longitudinal axis deviates from the line of action of a compressive force, equal to the product of the load and the member deflection at any point.
Middle third rule
The proposition that a compressive load should be located within the middle third of a horizontal section of a column or wall to prevent tensile stresses from developing in the section.
The distance between inflection points in a column subject to buckling. The effective length of a column determines its critical buckling load.when this portion of a column buckles, the entire column fails.
Effective length factor
A coefficient for modifying the actual length of a column according to its end conditions in order to determine its effective length. Fixing both ends of a long column reduces its effective length by half and increases its load carrying capacity by a factor of 4.
A set of tensile and compressive stresses resulting from the superposition of axial and bending stresses at a cross section of a structural member, acting in the same direction and equal at any point to their algebraic sum.
The central area of any horizontal section of a column or wall within which the resultant of all compressive loads must pass if only compressive stresses are to be present in the section. A compressive load applied beyond this area will cause tensile stresses to develop in the section.
A point on either side of the centroidal axis of a horizontal column or wall section defining the limits of the kern area.
The bracing of a column or other compression member to reduce its effective length. Lateral bracing is most effective when the bracing pattern occurs in more than one plane.
The distance between the points at which a structural member is braced against buckling in a direction normal to its length.
An artificial, stonelike building material made by mixing cement and various mineral aggregates with sufficient water to cause the cement to set and bind the entire mass.
A naturally occurring clayey limestone that, when calcined and finely pulverized, produces a hydraulic cement.
A siliceous material, such as fly ash, that reacts chemically with slaked lime in the presence of moisture to form a slow-hardening cement, named after a natural cement from pozzuoli, an ancient roman town near vesuvius.
Containing silica or a silicate.
Fine particles of ash recovered from the waste gases of a solid-fuel furnace.
A calcined mixture of clay and limestone, finely pulverized and used as an ingredient in concrete and mortar. The term is frequently used incorrectly for concrete.
A compound constituting about half the volume of portland cement and responsible for the hardening or early gain in strength of the cement.
A compound constituting about one quarter of the volume of portland cement and responsible for the aging or long term gain in strength of the cement.
A compound constituting about one tenth of the volume of portland cement and responsible for the initial setting of the cement.
A fused mass of incombustible matter resulting from heating in a kiln or the burning of coal.
To heat a substance to a high temperature but without melting or fusing to drive off volatile matter or to cause oxidation or reduction.
A hydraulic cement made by burning a mixture of clay and limestone in a rotary kiln and pulverizing the resulting clinker into a very fine powder, named for its resemblance to a limestone quarried on the isle of portland, england.
Cement capable of setting and hardening by a reaction with water.
Type I: normal
A portland cement used for general construction, having none of the distinguishing qualities of the other types.
Type II: moderate
A portland cement having a reduced content of Tricalcium aluminate, making it more resistant to sulfates and causing it to generate less heat of hydration; used in general construction where resistance to moderate sulfate action is required or where heat buildup can be damaging, as in the construction of large piers and heavy retaining walls.
Type III: high early strength
A very finely ground portland cement having an increased content of tricalcium silicate, causing it to cure faster and gain strength earlier than normal portland cement; used when the early removal of formwork is desired, or in cold-weather construction to reduce the time required for protection from low temperatures.
Type IV: low heat
A portland cement having a reduced content of tricalcium silicate and an increased content of dicalcium silicate, causing it to generate less heat of hydration than normal portland cement; used in the construction of massive concrete structures, such as gravity dams, where a large buildup in heat can be damaging.
Type V : sulfate resisting
A portland cement having a reduced content of tricalcium aluminate, lessening the need for gypsum, a sulfate normally added to cement to retard its setting time ; used where resistance to severe sulfate action is required.
Air-entraining portland cement
A type I, type II, or type III portland cement to which a small quantity of an air-entraining agent has been interground during manufacture; designated by the suffix A, as in type IA, type IIA, or type IIIA.
White portland cement
A portland cement produced from raw materials low in iron oxide and manganese oxide, the substances that give concrete its gray color, used in precast concrete work and in the making of terrazzo, stucco, and tile grout.
An expansive reaction occurring when the cement matrix of concrete or mortar comes in contract with sulfates dissolved in ground water or in soil.
Microscopic, spherical air bubbles, typically 0.004 to 0.04 in. (0.1 to 1.0mm) in diameter, intentionally dispersed in a concrete or mortar mix by an air-entraining agent.
the water used in a concrete or mortar mix, exclusive of any absorbed by the aggregate and free of such harmful substances as organic material, clay and salts. Water fit for drinking is generally acceptable.
a mixture of cement and water for coating, setting and binding, the aggregates particles together in a concrete or mortar mix.
concrete made with aggregate of low specific gravity and weighing less than normal concrete which has a unit weight of about 150pcf (2400kg/m3)
structural lightweight concrete
concrete made with strong lightweight aggregate as expanded shale or slate having a unit weight from 85 to 115 pcf and compressive strength comparable to that of normal concrete
lightweight concrete having a unit weight of less than 60pcf and low thermal conductivity made with lightweight aggregate as perlite, or with a foaming agent or gas forming chemical that infuses the mix with a homogenous cellular structure.
any of various hard, inert, mineral materials as sand and gravel added to a cement paste to make concrete or mortar. since aggregate represents from 60 % to 80 % of the concrete volume, its properties are important to strength weight and fire resistance of the hardened concrete. Aggregate should be hard, dimensionally stable, and free of clay silt and organic matter which can prevent teh cementing matrix from binding the particles together.
concrete made with aggregate of low specific gravity and weighing less than normal concrete which has a unit weigh of about 150 pcf
aggregate consisting of sand having a particle size smaller than 1/4 in. specific. the portion of aggregate that will pass through a 3/8 in. sieve almost entirely through a No. 4 sieve and be predominantly retained on a No. 200 sieve
aggregate consisting of crushed stone, gravel or blast furnace slag having a particle size larger than 1/4 in. specific. the portion of aggregate than is retained on No. 4 sieve.
aggregate having a particle size distribution characterized by uniform grading graded aggregate requires the least amount of cement paste to fill the voids and surrounds the particles.
particle size distribution
the range of particle sizes in a granular material, expressed either as the cumulative percentage by weight of particles smaller or larger than a specified sieve opening or as the percentage by weight of the particles that range between specified sieve.
a particle size distribution in which aggregate particles vary uniformly from fine to coarse without a preponderance of any one size or group of sizes.
a strong lightweight aggregate obtained by the exfoliation of clay or shale. Also called expanded clay
a strong lightweight aggregate obtained by the exfoliation of slate
the splitting or swelling of certain minerals into a scaly aggregate when heated.
a volcanic glass expanded by heat to form lightweight spherical particles used as non structural lightweight aggreagate and as loose fill thermal insulation
mica expanded by heat into very light wormlike threads, used as nonstrucutral lightweight aggregate and as loose fill thermal insulation
any substance other than cement, water, or aggregate added to a concrete or mortar mix to alter its properties or those of the hardened product. Also called additive.
air entraining agent
an admixture that disperses entrained air in a concrete or mortar mix to increase workability improve resistance of teh cured product to teh cracking induced by free thaw cycles or the scaling caused by deicing chemicals and in larger amounts to produce lightweight insulating concrete
an admixture that hastens the setting and strength development of a concrete mortar or plaster mix
an admixture that hastens teh setting and strength development of a concrete mortar or plaster mix in order to allow more time for placing and working the mix
surface active agent
an admixture for reducing the surface tension of the mixing water in a concrete mix, thereby facilitating the wetting and penetrating action of teh water or aiding in teh emlusifying dispersion of other additives in the mix also called surfactant.
water reducing agent
an admixture for reducing the amount of mixing water required for teh desired workability of a concrete or mortar mix. Lowering the water cement ratio in this manner generally results in increased strength. Also called superplasticizer.
a pigment or dye added to a concrete mix to alter or control its color
the most economical selection and proportioning of cement, water, and aggregate to produce concrete or mortar having the required properties of workability. strength, durability and watertightness.
a law postulating that, with given concrete materials, curing, and testing conditions, the compressive strength of concrete is inversely proporitional to the ratio of water to cement: developed by D.A. Abrams in 1919 from experiments at Lewis Institute in Chicago
the ratio of mixing water to cement in a uni volume of concrete or mortar mix preferably expressed by weight as a decimal fraction but often stated in gallons of water per 94lb sack of cement. The water cement ratio controls the strength, durability, and watertighteness of hardened concrete
a measure of portland cement 94 lb in the US
the quantity of cement per unit volume of concrete or mortar mix, preferably expressed in pounds per cubic yard but often stated in sacks of cement per cubic yard of mix.
the quantity of water per unit volume of concrete or mortar mix, preferably expressed in pounds per cubic yard but often stated in gallons per cubic yard of mix.
the relative ability of freshly mixed concrete or mortar to flow, usually measured by the slump test for concrete and by the flow test for grout or mortar. Consistency depends largely on the proportion of cement paste to aggregate in a mix.
the relative ease with which freshly mixed concrete or mortar can be handled, placed in formwork, compacted and finished. Workability depends partly on the water cement ratio and partly on the grading of the aggregate mix.
a concrete or mortar mix that flows sluggishly without segregating and is readily modled
a concrete or mortar mix that flows sluggishly without segregating and is readily molded
a concrete or mortar mix having a relatively high water content and runny consistency yielding a product that is low in strength durability and watertightness.
a method for determining the consistency and workability of freshly mixed concrete by measuring the slump of a test specimen
a measure of the consistency and workability of freshly mixed concrete, expressed as the vertical settling, in inches of a specimen after it has been placed in a slump cone, tamped in a prescirbed manner and the cone is lifted.
an open ended truncated cone of sheet metal 12 in high with a base diameter of 8 in. and a top diameter of 4 in. used to mold a specimen of freshly mixed concrete for the slump test.
a test for determining the compressive strength of a concrete batch, using a hydraulic press to measure the max load a test cylinder can support in axial compression before fracturing
a cylinder of concrete 6in. in diameter and 12in. high, cast from a representative batch and cured in a laboratory or in the field under controlled conditions
a compression test of a cylinder cut from a hardened concrete structure usually by means of a core drill
material for lining the inside face of a form, specially selected to impart a smooth or patterned finish to the concrete surface
any of various materials, as oil or silicone, for preventing the bonding of concrete to a surface. Also called parting compound
a partition closing the end of a form or preventing the passage of nely place concrete at a construction joint
a longitudinal groove or channel formed in a concrete footing or other member that has set, providing a shear-resisting key for newly placed concrete
a clamping device for keeping column forms or the tops of wall forms from spreading under the fluid pressure of newly placed concrete
a strip of wood or other material attached to a form to produce a smooth, rounded or beveled edge on the outside corner of a concrete member
a strip of wood or other material attached to the inside face of a form to produce a groove in the surface of a concrete member
a wood strip fixed to the inside face of a form to indicate the top of a concrete lift.
any of a variety of slotted devices for tightening formwork and transferring the force in a form tie to the wales
trademark for a brand of cylindrical column form made of compressed resin impregnated paper
a device for supporting and holding steel reinforcement in proper position before and during the placing of concrete
a tall chair for supporting top bars in a concrete beam or slab
a wide chair for supporting and spacing bottom bars in a concrete beam or slab
a form that can be raised vertically for succeeding lifts of concrete during the construction of a multistory building
the height of a quantity of concrete placed in a form at one time.
a form that can be moved slowly and continuously as concrete is being placed during the construction of a concrete pavement or building.
a brace, usually of wood for spacing and keeping wall or footing forms apart also called spacer
a horizontal timber or steel beam for reinforcing various vertical members as in formwork or sheet piling, or for retaining earth at the edge of an embankment
a vertical support for aligning and reinforcing wales. Also called stiffback
the temporary structure required to support newly placed concrete, including the forms and all necessary supporting members, bracing and hardware
boarding or sheeting of wood, metal, plastic or fiberglass for containing and giving a desired shape to newly placed concrete until it sets and gains sufficient strength to be self-supporting
a metal tie for keeping wall forms from spreading under the fluid pressure of newly placed concrete
a form tie having notches or crimps which allow its end to be snapped off below the concrete surface after stripping of forms
a form tie having cones at each end inside the forms which allow it to also serve as a spreader
a small truncated cone of wood steel or plastic attached to a form tie to space and spread wall forms leaving a neatly finished depression in the concrete surface to be filled or left exposed
a form tie consisting of waler rods which are inserted through the form and threaded onto the ends of an inner rod. After stripping, the waler rods are removed while the inner rod remains in the concrete.
A large form that can be moved by a crane, used in constructing the concrete floors and roofs of multistory buildings.
concrete deposited formed cured and finished in its final positions as part of a structure. also called cast in situ concrete
time of haul
the period from first contact between mixing water and cement to completion of discharge of the freshly mixed concrete from a truck mixer
the process of depositing and consolidating freshly mixed concrete in a form or in the final position where it is to harden
the discharge of freshly mixed concrete directly into a form from a concrete mixer buggy or crane bucket
the descent of freshly mixed concrete into a form without the aid of drop chute
a chute for containing and directing a falling stream of freshly mixed concrete so as not to cause segregation
an inclined trough or tube for conveying free-flowing materials to a lower level by gravity
the process of eliminating voids other than entrained air within newly placed concrete and ensuring close contact of teh oncrete with form surfaces and embedded reinforcement
consolidation of nely placed concrete by teh repeated insertions and withdrawals of a flat spadelike tool
consolidation of newly placed concrete by the repeated insertions and withdrawals of a rod.
consolidation of newly placed concrete by the moderately high-frequency oscillations of a vibrator.
an electric or pneumatic oscillating tool for agitating and consolidating newly placed concrete.
time of haul
the period from first contact between mixing water and cement to completion of discharge of freshly mixed concrete from a truck mixer.
a truck equipped with a rotating drum and a separate water tank for mixing concrete en route to a construction site.
a truck equipped with a rotating drum and a separate water tank for mixing concrete en route to a construction site
a machine having a revolving drum, often motor driven, for mixing cement, aggregate and water to produce concrete
a cart often motor driven for transporting heavy materials as freshly mixed concrete for short distances at a construction site.
ready mixed concrete
concrete mixed at a batch plant for delivery of agitator truck to a construction site
shrink mixed concrete
concrete partly mixed at a batch plant and then mixed more completely in a truck mixer en route to a construction site
transit mixed concrete
concrete dry batched at a plant and mixed in a truck mixer en route to a construction
the delivery of concrete slurry or plaster by a pipeline or hose to the point of placement on a construction site, either in a plastics state for depositing in place or for spraying or in a dry state with water added at the nozzle from which it is sprayed
a lightweight concrete construction consisting of a mixture of cement, sand or crushed slag, and water pumped through a hose and sprayed at high velocity over reinforcement until the desired thickness is reached. Also called shotcrete.
the process of eliminating voids other than entrained air withing newly placed concrete and ensuring close contact of the concrete with form surfaces and embedded reinforcement.
consolidation of newly placed concrete by the repeated insertions and withdrawals of a flat, spadelike tool.
consolidation of newly placed concrete by the repeated insertions and withdrawals of a rod.
the separation of coarse aggregate from the mortar or of water from the other ingredients of freshly mixed concrete, resulting from excessive horizontal movement or free fall of the mix, or from overvibration after placement.
the separation of an excessively wet or overvibrated concrete mix into horizontal layers with increasingly lighter material migrating toward the top
bleeding (water gain)
the emergence of excess mixing water on the surface of newly placed concrete caused by settlement of solids within the mass. Also called water gain
a milky deposit containing cement and aggregate fines on the surface of new concrete, caused by the bleeding of excess mixing water, overworking of the mix, or improper finishing.
the process of leveling,smoothing,compacting, and treating a newly placed concrete surface to produced the desired texture and appearance
a wooden or metal straightedge drawn a over a newly placed concrete slab to bring it to proper level
a firmly established grade strip or edge form serving as a guide for making a true level surface on a new place concrete slab
a flat tool for spreading and smoothing a fresh concrete,stucco,or palster surface
a float having a large ,flat blade attach to a long handle
a fine-texture finish obtained by smoothing a fresh concrete,plaster or stucco surface with a wood float
any of various flat bladed hand for applying,spreading ,working or smoothing plastic material,such as concrete mortar,and plaster
a portable machine having steel trowels mounted on radial arms that rotate about a vertical shaft to smooth ,comnpact and finish a fresh concrete surface
a trowel having a long,curved lip for rounding the edges of a fresh concrete slab as it ,begins to set
a dense smooth finish obtained by working a fresh concrete or plaster surface with a steel trowel
a wheel mounted rotary power saw equipped with a silicon carbide or diamond blade for cutting a control joint in a hardened concrete
the assumption of a rigid or hard stste by concrete,mortar ,plaster ,or glue due to a physical or chemical changew
to maintain newly placed concrete or mortar at the required temperature and humidity for the first seven daysfollowing placement casting or finishing to ensure satisfactory hydration of the cementitious materials and proper hardening
heat of hydration
the heat generated by the process of hydration as during the setting and curing of a concrete mix
the process in which a subtances combines chemically with water as that occuring when cement is mixed with water
exposed concrete work requiring special care in the selection of materials forming placing and finishing to acquire the desired appearance
dry shake finish
a colored finish produced by sprinkling a dry mixture of cement ,sand and a pigment on a fresh concrete surface following screeding and after any free water has evaporated and then working the mixture into the surface with a float
concrete left in its natural state after formwork is removed esp when the concrete vsurface reflects the texture,joints and fasteners of a board form
a striated finish obtain by stroking a broom or stiff brush over a freshly troweled concrete surface
exposed aggregates finish
produced by sandblasting,etching with an acid,or scrubbing a concrete surface after the initial set in order to remove the outer layer of cement paste and expose the aggregate
a textured finish given to a fresh plaster or concrete surface by troweling with a circular with a circular,overlapping motion
a coarse textured finish obtained by fracturing a concrete or stone surface with a power driven hammer having a rectangular head with a corrugated serrated or toothed face
voids on a formed concrete surface caused by segregation during placement or by insufficient consolidation
the chipping or scalling of a hardened concrete or masonry surface caused by freeze thaw cycles or the application of deicing salts,also called scalling
numerous hair line cracks occuring in the surface of a newly hardened concrete slab as a result of rapid drying shrinkage
a reduction in volume of concrete prior to its final set,caused by hydration of the cement paste
Reduction in volume of concrete prior to its final set, caused by hydration of the cement paste
The art, science, or business of building.
A person or organization having the legal right or title to a piece of property, usually the architect's client and party to the owner-architect agreement.
A person or organization that invests in and develops the potentiallities of real estate. esp. by initiating and implementing building projects for ownership, management, or resale
A person who engages in the profession of architecture, usually trained and experienced in the design and construction of buildings.
A person or organization that contracts to provide the materials and perform the work for construction project at a specified time and rate.
A person or organization that contract directly with an owner to manage and supervise a construction project, including the work performed by subcontractor.
A person trained, skilled, or professionally engaged in any of various branches of engineering .
A person or organization hired to give professional or expert advice regarding a specific aspect of a project, such as acoustics or lighting.
A person or organization that contracts with a general contractor to provide a portion of the work on a construction project.
Legally certified by a government or other constituted authority to engage in a business or profession in the state or jurisdiction in which a project is to be constructed . Also, registered.
The insuring of property, life, or one's person against loss or harm arising in specified contingencies in consideration of a payment proportionate to the risk involved.
Having a monetary commitment set aside to ensure that all obligations set forth in a contract are fulfilled
The institution, usually a commercial bank, providing the long term financing for a construction project.
A person or organization that contracts with an owner to advise on and coordinate all phases of a building project, from evaluating the construction cost and feasibility of design decisions to managing the bidding, award and construction phases of the project.
A person or organization that develops and constructs building for subsequent sale or lease.
Of a pertaining to an arrangement under which a person or organization contracts directly with an owner to design and construction a building or project.
Of or pertaining to an arrangement under which a person or organization designs and constructs a building for sale or lease when ready for occupancy.
The process of building, from site preparation through erection, assembly, and finishing operations.
To install the highest structural member in a construction or complete the uppermost course in a masonry.
The temporary framework for supporting a structure under construction that is not yet capable of supporting itself
A temporary structure of platform for supporting workers and materials at a height above the floor or ground during the construction or repair of a building.
A detailed investigation and analysis conducted to determine the financial, technical, or other advisability of a proposed construction project.
The competitive process of offering to perform the work described in a contract for a specified sum.
A formal acceptance of a bid or negotiated.
A legally enforceable agreement, usually in written form, between two or more parties to do or not to do something specified.
notice to proceed
A written communication issued by an owner authorizing a contractor to proceed with the work and establishing the date of commencement of the work.
A written authorization to proceed with construction of a building project in accordance with approved drawings and specifications, issued by the local government agency having jurisdiction after plans have been filed and reviewed.
A person designated by a government authority to administer and enforce the provisions of a building code.
To construct by the raising, positioning, fitting together, and fastening of materials or parts.
certificate of occupancy
A document issued by a building official certifying that all or a designated portion of a building complies with the provisions of the building code, and permitting occupancy for its designated use
The process of diagnosing the technical, functional and behavioral aspects of a completed building in order to accumulate information for future programming and design activities.
Of or pertaining to project scheduling in which the design and construction phases of a building project overlap to compress the total time required for completion.
CPM or Critical Path Method
A method for planning, scheduling, and managing a project , combining all relevant information into a flow chart, including the optimum sequence and duration of activities, the relative significance of each event, and the coordination required for timely completion of the project.
construction The manner in which materials are ordered, assembled, and united into a while, as frame construction.
A construction process using a high degree of prefabrication in the manufacture of standardized units or components to speed assembly and erection of a building. Also called industrialized building
A prefabricated section of a floor, wall, ceiling, or roof, handled Asa single unit in the assembly and erection of a building.
A structural panel consisting of a core of relatively light material enclosed between two sheets of a high-strength material, generally resulting in a high stiffness-to-weight ratio.
A structural panel consisting of plywood facings glued to lumber stringers, used as floor, roof, or wall member subject to bending.
To fabricate or manufacture beforehand, esp. in standardized units or components for a quick assembly and erection.
to construct by assembling diverse and usually standardized parts.
Planning and design utilizing prefabricated modules or modular coordination for ease of erection, flexible arrangment, or variety of use.
Any in a series of standardized, frequently interchangeable components used in assembling units of differing size, complexity, or function.
correlating the dimensions of a structure and the units sizes of its components, usually with the aid of a planning grid based on a 4-inch or 100-mm cubical module.
a technique of constructing multistory buildings in which all horizontal slabs are cast at ground level and, when cured, are raised into position by hydraulic jacks.
a method of casting reinforced concrete wall panels on site in a horizontal position, then tilting them up into their final position.
the legal documents comprising a construction contract, including the owner-contractor agreement, conditions of the contract, and the construction drawings and specifications for the project, including all addenda, modifications, and any other items stipulated as being specifically included.
the construction drawings and specifications setting forth in detail the requirements for the construction of a project.
the part of the contract documents consisting of a detailed description of the technical nature of the materials, standards, and quality of execution of the work to be placed under contract.
uniform system (Masterformat)
A format developed by the Construction Specifications Institute for coordinating specifications, filing of technical data and product literature, and construction cost accounting, organized into 16 divisions based on an interrelationship of material, trade, or function.
Wood & Plastics
Thermal & Moisture Protection
Doors & Windows
a specification that stipulates how a particular component of system must perform without giving the means to be employed to achieve the results
a specification that stipulates the exact quantities and qualities of materials to be finished and how they are to be assembled in a construction
a specification that refers to a standard specification to indicate the properties desired in a material or component and the methods of testing required to substantiate the performance of products
a specification that stipulates the use of specific products, systems, or processes without provision for substitution.
a code regulating the design, construction, alteration, and repair of buildings, adopted and enforced by a local government agency to protect the public safety, health, and welfare
A building code developed by an organization of states, professional societies, and trade associates for adoption by local communities.
BOCA National Building Code
A building code developed and published by the Building Officials and Code Administrators International, Inc. (BOCA), and used primarily in the northeastern U.S.
Uniform Building Code
A building code developed and published by the Southern Building Code Conference (SBCC), and used primarily in the southeastern U.S.
Uniform Building Code
a building code developed and published by the international conference of building official (icbo)and used primarily in the central and western U.S.
Standard Building Code
a building code developed and published by the southern building code conference (sbcc) and used primarily in the southeastern U.S.
a building code that set minimum standards for energy conservation and energy efficient design of building of building
Americans with Disabilities Act
an act of congress that became law in 1992,establishing design standards and requirements for all building except single family residences to ensure their accessibility by the physically disabled
an ordinance regulating the division of land into zones,as to restrict the height,bulk,density,and use of building and the provision of an ancillary facilities as parking a principal instrument in the implementation of a master plan also called zoning code
a covenant with a clause that restricts the action of any party to its as an agreement among property owner specifying the use to which a property can be put,racial and religious restriction are legally unenforceable
of or pertaining to a material type of construction or occupancy or use not complying with the requirements set forth in a building code
an official permit to do something normally forbidden by regulations, esp. by building in a way or for a purposed normally forbidden by a building code or zoning ordinance
construction having a structure of steel,concrete or masonry and walls,floors,and a roof of noncombustible material
projected noncombustible construction
noncombustible construction having a structure and major components with fire resistance ratings at least equal to those specified by the appropriate authorities
unprojected noncombustible construction
noncombustible construction having no fire resistance requirements except for fire walls and enclosures of fire exist and vertical shafts
a classification of a building construction according to the fire resistance of its major components,structural frame,exterior bearing and nonbearing walls,interior bearing walls ,floors and ceilings,roofs,and enclosures of fire exits and vertical shaft while each of the model codes differs in the detailed requirements for each construction type,they all limits the area and height of a building according to construction type and intended occupancy ,also called construction class
any construction that does not fulfill the requirements for noncombustible construction
a construction type having noncombustible exterior walls and an interior structure wholly or party of light wood framing
protected ordinary construction
ordinary construction having a structure and major component with fire resistance rating at least equal to those specified by the appropriate authorities
unprotected ordinary construction
ordinary construction having no fire resistance requirements for the interior structure except for fire walls and enclosures of fire exits and vertical shafts
heavy-timber construction (mill construction)
a construction type having noncombustible exterior walls and an interior structure of timber and decking of specified minimum sizes
light wood frame construction
a construction type having a framework of wood members not meeting the requirement for heavy timber construction
projected light wood frame construction
light wood frame construction having a structure and major components with fire resistance rating at least equal to those specified by the appropriate authorities
unprotected light wood frame construction
light wood having no fire resistance requirements except for fire walls and enclosures of fire exits and vertical shafts.
The creation and organization of formal elements in a work of art.
The shape and structure of something as distinguished from its substance or material.
The outline or surface configuration of a particular form or figure.
The visual and esp. tactile quality of a surface, apart from its color or form.
The edge or contour of a shape.
the apparent texture of a surface resulting from the combination and interrelation of colors and tonal values.
The physical, dimensional structure of a surface, apart from its color or form.
of or pertaining to shapes and forms having irregular contours which appear to resemble those of living plants or animals
of or pertaining to shapes and forms not representing natural or actual objects,also nonrepresentational
of or pertaining to shapes and form which resemble or employ the simple rectilinear or cuvilinear elements of geometry
of or pertaining to shapes and forms having an intellectual and affective content dependent soley on their intrinsic lines colors and relationship to one another
a unified composition of two dimensional shapes or three dimensional volumes esp one that has or gives the impression of weight density and bulk
characterized or produce by addition accumulation or uniting ,often resulting in a new identity
characterized or produced by removal of a part or portion without destroying a sense of the whole
something that stands for or represents something else by association resemble or convention deriving its meaning chiefly from the structure in which it appears
a mark or figure having a conventional meaning and used in place of a word or phrase to express a complex notion
a method or manner of joining that makes the united parts clear distinct and precise in relation to each other
the significance or meaning of an artistic work as distinguished from its form
an individual minutes or subordinates part of a whole
the characteristic structure given to a surface or subtance by the size shape ,arrangement and portions of the parts
an underlying framework or stucture of connected parts
an artistic or decorative design esp one having a characteristic arrangement and considered as a unit of which an idea can be given by a fragment
the manner of arranging and coordinating the parts of a composition so as a to produce a coherent image
the systematic arranging of interdepent or coordinated parts into a coherent unity or functioning whole
the organization of element or parts in a complex system as dominated by the general character of the whole
the basic scheme or concept for an architectural design represented by a diagram
A drawing, not necessarily representational, that outlines, explains, or clarifies the arrangement and relations of the parts of a whole.
the arranging of part or elements into proper proportion or relation so as to form a unified whole
a fundamental and comprehensive concept of visual structuring an aesthetic composition
the estate or quality of being combined into one as the ordering of elements in an artistic work that constitues a harmonious whole or promotes a singleness of effect
the state or quality of being identical homogeneous or regular
uniform in structure throughout or composed of parts that are all of the same nature or kind
uniformly or evenly formed or arranged
the state or quality of lacking variety
the state or quality of having varied or diverse forms,types or characteristics
stress or prominence given to an element of a composition by mean of contrast anomaly,or counterpoint
opposition or juxtaposition of dissimilar element in work of art to intensify each elements properties and produce a more dynamicexpressiveness
a deviation from the normal or expected form,order,or arrangement
major idea essential part or salient feature of a narrative or concept
prominent or conspicuous
A condition of logical, harmonious, or comprehensive arrangement in which each element of a group is properly disposed with reference to other elements and to its purpose.
The state or quality of being a whole composed of complicated, intricate, or interconnected parts.
an artistic composition of often diverse elements in unlikely or unexpected juxtaposition
a parallel but contrasting element or theme in a narrative or concept
a state of utter disorder or confusion
the orderly pleasing or congruent arrangement of the element or parts in an artistic whole
harmony in the arrangement of parts or colors that is restful to the eye
logically or aesthetically ordered or integrated to afford comprehension or recognition
correspondence in shape,size, or color ,among the elements in a work or art
the state or quality of being a like in substance,essentials or characteristics
nearness in place order or relation
the estate or qaulity of being continuous,as a line edge or direction
arrangement in or adjustment according to a straight line
a system of element ranked classified and organized one above another ,according to importance or significance
the state or position of being placed opposite another or of lying in corresponding position from an intervening space or object
the state or position of being placed close together or side,so as to permit comparison or contrast
a tenuous balance maintained in an artistic work between
the state or condition of being opposed inconsistent,or logically incongruous
a state of rest or blance between contrasting elements or opposing forces
an equal distribution of weight relationship or forces
a counter balancing weight or force
the pleasing or harmonious arrangement or proportion of parts or elements in a design
the correspondence in size,form and arrangement of parts on opposite sides of a dividing line or plane,or about a center or axis
symmetry resulting from the arrangement of similar parts on opposite sides of a median axis
symmetry resulting from the arrangement of similar radiating parts about a center point or central axis
axis of symmetry
an imaginary line about which a figure ,body ,or composition symmetry
a straight line to which an element in a composition are referred for measurement or symmetry
a symmetrical condition occurring one part of a design ,often serving to center irregular pattern
a rhythmic quality or character of composition suggesting motion by represented gestures or by the relationship of structural elements
the line along which something is moving,pointing or facing with reference to the point toward which it is directed
a process or change taking place by degree or through a series of gradual successive stage
movement characterized by a patterned repetition or alternation of formal elements or motifs in the same or modified form
the act or process of repeating formal element or motifs in a design
a space between two object points or states
a series of linked or interconnected things or events
the comparative proper or harmonious relation of one part to another or to the whole with respect to magnitude quantity or degree
the quality between two ratio in which in the first of the four terms divided by the second equals the third divided by the fourth
a proportion between the two dimensions of a plane figure or the two division of a line, also golden mean
Harmony of proportion or movement
Relation in magnitude,quality or degree between two or more similar things
The unending sequence of number where the first two term are 1 and 1 and each succeeding term is the sum of the two immediately preceding, also called fibonacci sequence
A series in which the term are in harmonic progression
A sequence of numbers of reciprocals of which an arithmetic progression
A certain proportionate size extent or degree,usually judge in relation to some standard or point of reference
The size or proportion of a building element or space or an article of furniture, relative to the structural or functional dimension of the human body
A unit measurement used for standardizing the dimension of building material or regulating the proportion of an architectural composition
The sized or proportion of something relative to an accepted standard measurement
The size or proportion a building element appears to have relative to other elements or components of know or assumed sized
An applied science concerned with the characteristics of people that need to be considered in the design of devices and system in order that people and thing interact effectively and safely. Also called human engineering
The measurement and the study of the size and proportion of the human body
To ascribe human form or characteristic to nonhuman things or being
Any of dimension of human body and it's part
Any of the dimension determined by bodily position and movement,as reach stride or clearance
The correspondence between the size and the posture of human body and a building element or article of furniture
The correspondence between the sensory experience of the bodily presence and movements and the size,shape, and proportion of a space
The sensory experience of the bodily position,presence,or movement derived chiefly from stimulation of nerve ending in muscle s,tendons and joints .also called kinaesthesia, kinesthesis
Relating to or based on the sense of touch
Relating to or based on the sense of smell
The ability,freedom or permission to approach enter or use
Of or pertaining to a spaces,buildings and facilities fully accessible and usable by all people, including the physically handicapped
The study of the symbolic and communicative role of the spatial separation individuals maintain in various social and interpersonal situation and how the nature and degree of this spatial arrangement relates to environmental and cultural factors
The pattern of behavior associated with defining and defending a territory or domain
The variable and subjective at which one person feels comfortable talking to another, also called personal distance
To conceive, contrive or devise the form and stucture of the building or other construction
A purposed activity aimed at devising a plan for changing an existing situation into a future preferred state, especially the cyclical, lterative process comprising the following phases
Identifying a problem and its social economics and physical context
Collecting and analyzing relevant information and establishing goals and criteria for an acceptable solution
Discovering constraints and opportunities and hypothesizing possible alternative solution
Formulating a tentative assumption in order to draw out and test its logical or empirical consequences
One of the positions or courses of action to be chosen from a set of two or more mutually exclusive possibilities
A systematic series of actions or operations leading or directed to a particular end.
A particular stage in a process of the change or development
A procedure for solving a problem as a statement setting forth the context condition, requirement and objects for a design project
The pattern of changes, growth or development of a object or phenomenon
An intense effort to complete a design project within a specified time
A preliminary version of a plan or design
Evaluation information about an action or process prompting a return to a preceding phase for alteration or correction
To ensure the fulfillment of by means of a definite plan or procedure
Simulating testing and modifying acceptable alternative according to specified goals and criteria
Selecting and implementing the most suitable solution
Assessing how well an implemented solution in use satisfies the specified goals and criteria
To form an idea or conception in the mind
To form in an artistic or ingenious manner
To form in the mind nby new combinations or application of existing ideas or principles
Separating of a whole into its constituent parts or element,esp as a method of studyimg the nature of the whole and determining its essentials features and their relation
Combining of separate,often diverse parts or elements so as to form a single or coherent whole
To work out,expand or realized the capabilities or possibilities of so as to bring gradually to a fuller or more advanced or effective state
To change the form ,character or qualities of in order to give a new orientation to or to serve a new end
To improve or elaborate in order to make more fine or precise
A bend angle, similar change in the shape of s configuration by means of which a change of relationship to some context or condition is indicated
The process of changing in formation or structure through a series of discrete permutation and manipulations im response to a specific context or set of condition without a loss of identity or concept
To create a likeness or model of something anticipated for testing and evaluation
A miniature representation usually built to scale to show the appearance or construction of something
A fullsized model of a building or structure built accurately to scale for study,testing or teaching, teaching
To subject a system or process to such condition or operation as will lead to critical evaluation of abilities or a performance and subsequent acceptance or rejection
To ascertain or assess the significance worth or quality of usually by careful appraisal and study
A standard rule or principle on which a judgment or decision may be based
An assumed given or otherwise determined fact or proposition from which conclusions may be drawn or decision made
To choose from a number of alternatives by fitness or preference
The mental ability to perceive distinction, comprehend relationship or distinguish alteration
The natural or proper action for which something is designated, used, or exists.
The reason for which something exists or is done, made or used
Any feature that provides or increases comfort convenience or pleasure
Careful thrifty and efficient used and management of of resources
To express, convey, or interchange ideas information or the like by writing, speaking or through a common system of sign or symbols esp. in a way that is clearly and readily understood
The offering of a plan for consideration acceptance action
The faculty or power of comprehending, inferring, or thinking in an orderly, rational way.
To form or recall a mental image of.
The power of reproducing images stored in the memory under the suggestion of associated images.
The play of the mind through which visions are summoned, esp. mental inventions that are whimsical, playful, and characteristically removed from reality.
To form a mental picture of a future possibility.
The power of recombining former experiences in the creation of new images directed at a specific goal or aiding in the solution of a problem.
A mental representation of something previously perceived in teh absence of the original stimulus.
To regard an idea or concept as having some form of objective reality outside the mind.
To animate or permeate with a particular form, substance, quality, or distinction.
To direct the efforts or attention of.
To attract and hold fast by influence or power.
The act or power of anticipating that which will or may come to be.
The faculty of seeing things in their true relations or of evaluating their relative significance.
A particular manner or mode of looking at or regarding something.
A way in which a thing may be viewed or regarded.
Actual performance or application of principles, as distinguished from theory.
Having objective, verifiable, and independent existence, as opposed to being artificial or illusory.
Abstract thought or speculation resulting in a system of assumptions or principles used in analyzing, explaining, or predicting phenomena, and proposed or followed as the basis of action.
Thought or without referenc to concrete reality or a particular instance.
A fundamental and comprehensive law, truth, or assumption governing action, procedure, or arrangement.
A systematic classification or study of types according to structural features.
A number of things regarded as forming a group by reason of common attributes or characteristics.
An original model or pattern on which all things of the same kind are copied or based.
A reproduction of an original.
An early and typical example that exhibits the essential features of a class or group and on which later stages are based or judged.
An example serving as a pattern for imitation or emulation in the creation of something.
Contextual, causal, or logical relations or associations of something observed or imagined.
The ability to transcend traditional ideas, patterns, or relationships and to initiate meaningful new ideas, forms, or interpretations.
The creative ability to imagine or express in an independent and individual manner.
The faculty of forming mental images or concepts of what is not present to the senses or perceived in reality.
A thought or notion resultign from mental awareness, understanding, or activity.
A mental image or formulation of what something is or ought to be, esp. An idea generalized from particular characteristics or instances.
A concept for the form, structure, and features of a building or other construction, represented graphically by diagrams, plans, or other drawings.
An underlying organizational pattern or structure for a design.
The original scheme for a design presented in the form of a sketch outlining its specific character, to be developed in detail in later studies.
The study of creative processes, esp. as applied to the stating and solution of problems that involves free use of metaphor and analogy in informal interchange within a small group of diverse individuals.
An object, activity or idea used in place of another to suggest a likeness between them.
A similarity in some particulars between things otherwise dissimilar.
The power or faculty of knowing without evident rational thought and inference.
Meditation or reflection on a subject or idea, resulting in a conclusion inferred from incomplete or inconclusive evidence.
The state or quality of being susceptible to undertainty of meaning or multiple interpretation.
An aptitude for making desirable and unexpected discoveries by accident.
A fortuitous circumstance, quality, or characteristic.
A vaulted structure having a circular plan and usually the form of a portion of a sphere, so constructed as to exert an equal thrust in all directions.
A curved line describing a vertical section cut through the axis of a rotational surface
A circular line describing a horizontal section cut perpendicular to the axis of a rotational surface
A dome having the form of a hemisphere
A force acting along a hoop line of a dome structure, perpendicular to meridional forces ,hoop forces, which restrain the out of plane movement of the meridional strip in the shell of a dome are compressive in the upper zone and tensile in the lower zone
A force acting along a meridional line of a dome structure always compressive under full vertical loading
A dome having the form of a segment of a sphere with its center well below the springing Line, a saucer dome is particularly to buckling under the external load
A ring encircling the based of a dome to contain the outward components of the meridional forces. In a concrete dome, this ring is thickened and reinforced to handle bending stresses cause by the differing elastic deformation of the ring and shell
The circle of the greatest diameter that can be drawn on a sphere
A dome with steel or timber trusses arranged in a radial manner and connected by polygonal rings at various heights
A steel dome structure having members that follow the line of the latitude and longitude and a third set of diagonal completing the triangulation
A steel dome structure having members that follows the circle of latitude and two set of diagonal replacing the line of longitude and forming a series of isosceles triangle
A steel dome having members that follow three principal set of great circle intersecting at 60° subdividing the dome surface into a series of equilateral spherical triangles
A circular opening esp one at the crown of a dome
A superstructure crowning a roof or dome and having open or window walls to let in the light and air
A light structure on the dome or roof ,serving as a belfry, lantern or belvedere
The vertical part of cupola
The space between the inner and outer shell of a dome
A dormer window in q roof or spire
A spaced or gallery beneath a dome or vault in which low sound produced at any of certain other distant points
A cylindrical or faceted construction often pierced with windows , supporting a dome
The substructure supporting dome or copula
A strap, ring or chain placed around a structure to secure and hold its parts together as round the springing of a dome
Half a dome formed by a vertical section such as one over an apse or niche
A semidome or quarter sphere vault,such as one over an apse or niche
A spherical triangle forming the transition from the circular plan of a dome to the polygonal plan of its supporting structure
An area in the place of a wall framed by an arch or vault containing a window,painting or sculpture
A spherical dome formed by removing four segments so that it merges with it pendentives and sits on a square plan
An arch or corbeling built across the upper inside corner of a square tower to support the side of a superimposed octagonal structure
A hinged, sliding, or folding barrier of wood, metal, or glass for opening and closing an entrance to a building, room, or cabinet.
A door that turns on hinges or pivots about a vertical edges when pushed or pulled.
A door carried on and swinging about on a center or offset pivot, as distinguished from one hung on hinges.
A door with hinged sections that can be folded flat against one another when opened.
A door that operates or moves by sliding on a track usually parallel to a wall.
A large door consisting of horizontal interlocking metal slats guided by a track on either side, opening by colling about an overhead drum at the head of the door opening
A pivoted door that is partially counterbalanced for easier opening and closing.
A door that opens automatically at the approach of a person or automobile
A mechanism that automatically opens a door when actuated by a radio transmitter electric eyes, or other device.
A folding door that divides into two parts, the inner leaf of each part being hung from an overhead track and the outer leaf pivoted at the jamb.
A multileafted door that is hung from an overhead track and opens by folding back in the manner of an accordion.
A door that slides into and out of a recess in a doorway wall.
A large door constructed of one or several leaves. Opening by swinging or rolling up to a horizontal position above the door opening.
Single acting door
A door hung on hinges that permit it to swing in one direction only.
Double acting door
A door hung on hinges that permit it to swing in either direction from a closed position.
A pair of doors hung in the same doorframe
A hinged or sliding section of a door or shutter.
The leaf of a pair of double doors to which the latching or locking mechanism is attached. Also called opening leaf.
The leaf of a pair of double doors to which the strike plate is fastened to receive the latch or bolt of the active leaf. Usually fixed in a closed position by bolts at the top and bottom of the door. Also called standing leaf.
A molding attached to one or both meeting stiles of a pair of double doors to prevent draft or the passage of light, noise or smoke.
A slender vertical member dividing the opening for a pair of double doors. Sometimes removable to permit the passage of large objects.
An entrance door for excluding drafts from the interior of a building, consisting of hour leaves set in the form of a cross and rotating about a central, vertical pivot within a cylindrically shaped vestibule.
One of the leaves of a double or revolving door.
The flexible weatherstripping along the edges of a revolving door.
A stream of composed air directed downward across a doorway so as to form a shield to exclude drafts.
An opening in a wall into which a doorframe or window frame is fitted
A doorless opening finished with trimwork
Either of the vertical sides of an archway, doorway, or window opening
The frame of a doorway, consisting of two jambs and a head or lintel
The uppermost member of a doorframe or window frame
Either of the two sidepieces of a doorframe
The projecting part of a doorframe against which a door closes.
A stop formed by attaching a molding to a doorframe or window frame
A stop formed integrally by a rabbet in a doorframe or window frame
A doorjamb having no stops, nor prepared to receive hardware
The horizontal member beneath a door or window opening
The sill of a doorway, covering the joint between two flooring materials or providing weather protection at an exterior door.
A raised piece of flooring between the jambs of a doorway, to which a door fits closely so as to prevent its binding when opened
The finished, often decorative framework around a door or window opening, esp. the portion parallel to the surrounding surface and at right angles to the jambs
A rough casing for a doorway or window opening
A subframe of wood or metal set in a partition to support the finish frame of a door or window
The clearance required to prevent binding between a door and its doorframe or the finished floor
The angle of the lock edge in relation to the face of the lock stile, usually an inclination of 1/8 in. for each 2 in. of door thickness, allowing the door to swing free of the door frame
An ornamental painting, carving, or section, of woodwork directly above a doorway
A crosspiece separating a doorway from a window or fanlight above it
A window above the transom of a doorway
The part of a jamb of a window or door opening that is visible between the outer wall surface and the window or doorframe
The reveal of a window or door opening from the frame to the inner face of the wall
A semicircular or semielliptical window over a doorway or another window
A window at the side of a door or another window
A surface that makes an oblique angle with another, as where a window or door opening widens from the frame toward the face of the wall
A doorway having a form similar to that of a Palladian window
A door having a framework of stiles, rails, and sometimes muntins, filled with panels of a thinner material
A distinctive section or division of a wall, ceiling, or door, recessed below or raised above the general level or enclosed by a frame
Any of various upright members framing panels, as in a system of paneling, a paneled door, window sash, or a chest of drawers
Any of various horizontal members framing panels, as in a system of paneling, a paneled door, window sash, or chest of drawers
The uppermost rail connecting the stiles of a paneled door or window sash
The rail of a door that meets the shutting stile at the level of the lockset
The lowest rail connecting the stiles of a paneled door or window sash
The stile of a door by which it is hung
The stile of a door that closes against the frame of the opening
A stile within the frame of a door
One of the abutting stiles in a pair of double doors
An outer or supplementary door, usually glazed, for protecting an entrance door from drafts, driving rain, or severe weather
An exterior door having wood or aluminum stiles and rails that hold a wire or plastic mesh to admit air but exclude insects
An exterior door having a frame into which different types of panel can be inserted, such as a screen for summer or storm sash for winter
A door having rectangular glass panes extending throughout its length, and often hung in pairs
A door having a louvered opening for the passage or circulation of air
A door of heat-strengthened or tempered glass, with or without rails or stiles, used primarily as an entrance door
A door divided horizontally so that the upper or lower part can be opened or closed separate
A door constructed of vertical boards held together by horizontal battens and diagonal bracing
A door hinged to be flush with the wall on either side and treated so as to be indiscernible when closed
A small light in the upper portion of a door glazed with clear glass for viewing
An opening fitted with slanting, fixed or movable slats to admit air but exclude rain and snow or to provide privacy
A door having smooth-surfaced faces
A wood flush door having a solid core of staved lumber, particleboard, or a mineral composition
A wood flush door having a framework of stiles and rails encasing an expanded honeycomb core of corrugated fiberboard or a grid of interlocking horizontal and vertical wood strips
A wooden construction, as in a door, forming a backing for face veneers
The plywood or hardboard veneer immediately beneath the face veneers of a flush door
A surface veneer of plywood, hardboard, plastic laminate, or medium density overlay, bonded to the crossbanding or core of a flush door
A doorframe having a split head and jambs for installation in various wall thicknesses
A door hung in a doorframe before installation in a wall, sometimes prefinished and prefitted with all necessary hardware and casing trim
A door having a sound-deadening core, gasketed stops along the top and sides, and an automatic drop seal along the bottom
A door having a structural wood core clad with galvanized sheet metal
Hollow metal door
A door having face sheets of light-gauge steel bonded to a steel channel frame, reinforced with channels, a kraft honeycomb structure, or a rigid plastic-foam core
The opening between the backbends of a metal doorframe
The face at the outer edge of a metal doorframe that returns to the wall surface
Hollow metal frame
A doorframe having a head and jambs formed from a single piece of metal
A metal doorframe composed of three or more parts for assembly in the field
A metal doorframe that is completely set up and welded at the factory
Any various metal devices for securing the jamb of a doorframe to a masonry, steel stud, or wood stud wall
Any of various metal devices for binding one part of a structure to another
A metal clip or device for securing the base of a doorframe to the floor
A stop having a closed end that terminates above the floor line at 45° or 90° angle
A protective lining, usually of stainless steel, at the base of a doorframe
A metal doorframe designed to be installed during construction of a masonry or stud wall
A knockdown frame having a double-return backbend for installation after a drywall partition is finished
A metal doorframe completely filled with plaster or mortar for structural rigidity and increased fire resistance
Double egress frame
A metal doorframe prepared to receive a pair of single-acting doors that swing in opposite directions
The art, process, or technique of representing an object, scene of idea by means of lines on a surface
A method or procedure for accomplishing a desired aim or task, as that employed by an artist showing a high degree of skill or command of fundamentals.
The technique of drawing lines to represent the contours of a subject, without shading or modeling of form
The art, process, or technique of drawing by hand without the aid of drafting instruments or mechanical devices, esp. for the representation of perceptions or the visualization of ideas
The outline of a two-dimensional shape or bounding edges of a three-dimensional form
A representation of the form or appearance of something, made visible in a sculpture, photograph or drawing.
A thin, continuous mark made on a surface with a pencil, pen or bursh as distinguished from shading or color.
A line describing the outer boundary of a figure or object.
An outline of a form or structure seen or represented from the side.
Cross- Contour Drawing
The technique of drawing lines to represent a series of cuts across the surface of a form rather than its edges.
A line drawn to measure or express alignment, scale or proportion
A line lightly drawn to record alignment or measurement.
The technique of drawing a single or multiple lines freely and quickly as a subject is scanned and perceptions of volume, mass, movement and significant details are projected onto the drawing surface. In contrast to contour drawing, gesture drawing generally proceeds from the whole to the parts.
A movement of the hand, arm, head, face or body that expresses an idea, opinion or emotion.
The effect or illusion of motion conveyed by the relationship of structural elements in a design or composition.
The rendering of light and dark values in a drawing to create illusion of three-dimensionality, represent light and shadow, or give the effect of color.
Shading composed of fine lines drawn in close proximity.
Shading composed of two or more series of intersecting parallel lines.
Shading by means of a network of random, multidirectional lines.
Shading by means of dots, small spots or short strokes.
The dominant tonal value of a drawing or painting.
Having chiefly dark tones with little contrast
Having chiefly light tones with little contrast.
Monochromatic painting in shades of gray to produce a three-dimensional effect.
The technique of rendering the illusion of volume, depth, or solidity on a two-dimensional surface by shading.
The drawing of lines to represent the three- dimensional; structure and geometry of a form, proceeding generally from the whole to the constituent parts.
A simply or hastily executed drawing or painting representing essential features of an object or scene without the details, often made as a preliminary study.
A drawing exectued as an educational exercise, produced as a preliminary to a final work, or made to record observations. Sometimes referred to as a REERENTIAL DRAWING.
A drawing of something that does not yet exist
A preliminary sketch of a design or plan, esp. one subject to revision.
A sketch showing the general features of a design or plan.
A full-scale, detailed drawing done on a wall, floor or other large surface, from which are traced the patterns for various building elements.
A full-scale drawing of a motif or design to be transferred in preparation for a fresco, mosaic or tapestry
A drawing, esp. a perspective of a building or interior space artistically delineating the materials, shades and shadows usually one for the purposes of presentation and persuasion.
A drawing or painting in which objects are rendered in extremely fine detail to emphasize the illusion of tacile and spatial qualities
A unified area of light, shade or color that defines shape or form in general outline rather than in detail.
An area, section or detail of a work, esp. with respect to its qualities of execution.
An elevation drawing of facade surround by a decorative arrangement of drawings of important details sometimes a plan or section of the facade.
A drawing that is shaded off gradually into the surrounding paper so as to leave no definite line at the border .
Any set of design drawings made to articulate and communicate a design concept or proposal, as for exhibition, review or publication.
Any of the drawings made to aid the visualization, exploration, evaluation and communication of a concept in the design process.
Drawing done with the aid of such instruments such as T-squares, triangles, compasses and scales esp. For the systematic representation an dimensional specification of architectural and engineering structures. Also called MECHANICAL DRAWING.
A solid line representing a contour of an object.
A broken line consisting of short, closely spaced strokes used esp. to represent object lines that are hidden or removed from view.
A broken line consisting of a series of closely spaced dots, sometimes used in place of a dashed line.
A broken line consisting of relatively long segments separated by single dashes or dots uses to represent the axis of a symmetrical element or composition.
A rectangular system of lines and coordinates serving as a reference for locating and regulating the elements of a plan.
The portion of the contract documents showing an accurate graphic or pictorial form of the design, location, dimension, and relationships of the elements of a project. Also called CONTRACT DRAWINGS, WORKING DRAWINGS.
An embossing stamp uses by a licensed architect, engineer or other design professional on contract drawings and specifications to show evidence of registration in the state where the work is to be performed.
A line extending from an edge or feature of an object, to which a dimension line is drawn.
A line terminated by arrows, short slashes or dots indicating the extent or magnitude of a part or the whole, and along which measurements are scaled and indicated.
A broken line consisting of relatively long segments joined by short zigzag strokes, used to cut off a portion of a drawing
A V-shaped mark the apex of which is a reference point
A short line leading the eye from a note or dimension to a reference point, line or area
The theory of making projections of three-dimensional objects on a plane surface in order to deduce their geometric properties and relationships.
A plan of a room as seen from above but having its ceiling surfaces and elements projected downward upon it so that would appear to the right when seen from below appears on the plan to the left. Also called REFLECTED CEILING PLAN.
A plan showing the pattern, elements and connections of the structural frame for a floor or roof of a building, using a system of symbols and drafting linework.
An imaginary line joining points of equal elevation on a surface, or its representation on a topographic plan or map.
The difference in elevation represented by each contour line on a topographic plan or map.
A plan showing the proposed finish contours and elevations of the ground surface of a construction site.
A graphic symbol used on plans and maps to indicate the direction of north.
A proportion determining the relationship of a representation to that which it represents.
A graduated line or bar indicating the proportion between a representation and that which it represents.
The process or technique of representing a three dimensional object by projecting all its points by straight lines, either parallel or converging, to a picture plane.
A method of projection in which a three-dimensional object is represented by projecting lines perpendicular to a picture plane. Also called ORTHOGONAL PROJECTION.
An orthographic projection of the top section of an object or structure on a horizontal plane usually drawn to scale. Also called PLAN VIEW.
A plan of a room, suite or entire floor of a building as seen from above after a horizontal section is cut and the upper portion removed, typically showing the form and arrangement of interior spaces and their enclosing walls, windows and doors.
The walls, columns and other solids of a buildings that are cut in a floor plan or section drawing, indicated usually in black or hatching.
A plan sowing the top view of a building esp. The form of its roof.
A plan showing the form, location and orientation of a building or group of buildings on a site, usually including the dimensions, contours, landscaping, and other significant features of the plot. Also called PLOT PLAN.
A plan showing the principal elements of a design project in the wider context of its surrounding environment.
An orthographic projection of an object or structure as it would appear if cut through by an intersecting plane to show its internal configuration, usually drawn to scale.
An orthographic projection of a section made by cutting transversely esp. at right angles to the long axis of an object. Also called TRANSVERSE SECTION.
An orthographic projection of an object or structure on a vertical picture plane parallel to one if its sides, usually drawn to scale.
Shades And Shadows
The casting and rendering of shade and shadows esp. in orthographic views to convey light, surface, form and depth.
The parts of a solid that receive no light because they are tangent to or turned away from a theoretical light source.
A dark figure cast upon a surface by an opaque body intercepting the rays from a theoretical light source.
A brilliantly lighted area of a molded drawing appearing as a luminous spot.
An orthographic projection of a section made by cutting through the longest axis of an object.
A centerline terminating in a perpendicular segment with an arrow, used to indiccate where a section is cut in a plan or elevation view and the direction in which the section is to be viewed
An orthographic projection of a section made by cutting with a plane that is neither parallel nor perpendicular to the long axis of a subject.
An apparent projection from a flat background due to contrast, creating the illusion of three dimensions.
The natural color of a particular object as it would appear in white light.
Any of various single-view drawings characterized by parallel lines in remaining parallel to each other rather than converging as in linear perspective.
A part of drawing that is made transparent to permit representation of details otherwise hidden from view.
A drawing or model having an outer section removed to display the interior.
A drawing that shows the individual parts of a structure or construction separately but indicates their proper relationships to each other and to whole. Also called EXPANDED VIEW.
A broken line consisting of relatively long segments separated by two short dashes or dots used to represent a property line, an alternative position of a part of an object, or the relative position of a phantom line.
An axonometric projection of a three-dimensional object inclined to the picture plane in such a way that two of its principal axes are equally foreshortened and the third appears longer or shorter than the other two.
An axonometric projection of a three-dimensional object inclined to the picture plane in such a way that all three principal axes are foreshortened at a different rate.
A paraline drawing of an oblique projection, having the receding lines perpendicular to the picture plane drawn to the same scale as the lines parallel to the picture plane.
A paraline drawing of an oblique projection, having all lines parallel to the picture plane drawn to exact scale, and the receding lines perpendicular to the picture plane reduced to half scale.
A paraline drawing of an isometric projection, having all lines parallel to the prinicpal axes drawn to true length at the same scale.
The orthographic projection of a three-dimensional object inclined to the picture plane in such a way that its three principal exes are foreshortened.
A paraline drawing of an axonometric projection, having all lines parallel to the three principal axes drawn to scale but diagonal and curved lines distorted.
An axonometric projection of a three dimensional object having its principal faces equally inclined to the picture planes so that its three principal axes are equally shortened.
A method of projection in which a three-dimensional object, having one principal face parallel to the picture plane, is represented by projecting parallel lines at some angle other than 90 degrees to the picture plane.
A paraline drawing of an oblique projecting having all lines and faces parallel to the picture plane drawn to exact scale and all receding lines perpendicular to the picture plane shown at any convenient angle other than 90 degrees, sometimes at a reduced scale to offset the appearance of distortion.
Any of various techniques for representing three dimensional objects and spatial relationships on a two-dimensional surface as they might appear to the eye.
A technique for rendering depth or distance by muting the hue, tne and distinctness of objects perceived as receding from the picture plane. Also called ATMOSPHERIC PERSPECTIVE.
A mathematical system for representing three dimensional objects and spatial relationships on a two-dimensional surface by means of perspective projection.
A method of projection in which a three dimensional object is represented by projecting all its points to a picture plane by straight lines converging at an arbitrarily fixed point representing the eye of the owner.
Center of Vision
A point representing the intersection of the central axis of vision and the picture plane in linear perspective.
A fixed point in space representing a single eye of the viewer in linear perspective.
The illusion of space or depth depicted on a two-dimensional surface by various graphic means, such as aerial perspective, continuity of outline or vertical location.
A technique for representing depth otr distance by placing distant objects higher in the picture plane than objects perceived as being closer.
A technique for representing depth or distance by reducing the size of objects perceived as receding from the picture plane.
Continuity of Outline
A technique for representing depth or distance by emphasizing the continuity of the contour of a shape perceived as being in front and concealing a part of another behind it.
An edge of an object or surface separated from its background by an interval of space, delineated by a thicker line or by a sharp contrast in value or texture.
A technique for representing depth or distance by gradually increasing the density of the texture of a surface perceived as receding from the picture plane.
An imaginary transparent plane, coexistent with the drawing surface, on which the image of a three-dimensional object is projected. In linear perspective, any line or plane coincident with the picture plane can be drawn to exact scale.
A point toward which receding parallel lines appear to converge in linear perspective., located at the point where a sightline parallel to the set of lines intersects the picture plane.
A line representing the intersection of the picture plane and a horizontal plane through the eye of the viewer in linear perspective.
A horizontal line representing the intersection of the ground plane and the picture plane in linear perspective. Also called BASE LINE.
A horizontal plane of reference from which vertical measurements can be taken in linear perspective, usually the plane supporting the object depicted or on which the viewer stands.
Any of the lines projecting from the edge of the viewer to various points on an object in linear perspective.
Cone of Vision
The field of vision radiating outward from the eye of the viewer in linear perspective, defined by sightlines forming a 15 to 30 degrees angle with the central axis of vision. The cone of vision serves as a guide in determining what can be drawn in linear perspective without the appearance of distortion.
Central Axis of Vision
The sightline indicating the direction in which the viewer is looking in linear perspective, perpendicular to the picture plane.
The apparent movement of parallel lines toward a common vanishing point as they recede, used in linear perspective to convey an illusion of space and depth.
Diagonal Vanishing Point
A vanishing point for a set of horizontal lines receding at 45 degrees angle to the picture plane in linear perspective. Also called diagonal point, distance point.
A drawing of the perspective projection of an object or scene, characterized chiefly by convergence and foreshortening
The apparent contraction or distortion of a represented line or shape that is not parallel to the picture plane, conveying an illusion of extension or projection in space.
A linear perspective of a rectangular object or volume having a principal face parallel with the picture plane, so that vertical lines parallel to the picture plane remain vertical, horizontal lines parallel to the picture plane remain horizontal, and horizontal lines perpendicular to the picture plane appear to converge at the center of vision.
A line along which all sets of receding parallel lines lying in the same or parallel planes will appear to converge in linear perspective.
A vanishing point for a set of parallel lines used in transferring scaled measurements in the picture plane to lines receding in linear perspective.
Having the heads of all figures at approximately the same level.
A linear perspective of a rectangular object or volume having two principal faces oblique to the picture plane, so that vertical lines parallel to the picture plane remain vertical and two horizontal sets of parallel lines oblique to the picture plane appear to converge at two vanishing points, one to the left and the other to the right.
Any line coincident with or parallel to the picture plane, as the ground line, which can be used to take measurements in linear perspective.
A straight line connecting two nonadjacent angles of a rectangle, used in subdividing a whole into proportionate parts of multiplying a basic unit of measurement or space.
A distorted image that appears in natural form only when viewed at a special angle or reflected from a curved mirror.
Of or relating to pictorial representation, esp. That which depicts in a clear and effective manner.
Three Point Perspective
A linear perspective of a rectangular object or volume having all principal faces oblique to the picture plane, so that the three principal sets of parallel lines appear to converge at three different vanishing points.
The science dealing with the physical phenomena arising from the existence and interaction of electric charges.
The intrinsic property of matter giving rise to an electric phenomena, occurring in two forms arbitrarily given positive and negative algebraic signs and measured in coulombs. Opposite charges attract while like charges repel each other.
The SI unit of electric charge, equal to the quantity of electricity transferred across a conductor by a current of one ampere in one second. Abbr: C
The energy per unit charge available for conversion from a chemical, mechanical or other form of energy into electrical energy, or vice versa, in a conversion device, as a battery, generator, or motor. Abbr: emf
The voltage difference between two points that represent the work involved in the transfer of a unit charge from one point to the other
The work required to move a unit charge from a reference point to a designated point
a group of two or more cells connected together to produce electric current
A device for converting chemical into electrical energy, usually consisting of a receptacle with electrodes in an electrolyte. Also called electric ___, galvanized ____, or voltaic ____.
A nonmetallic conducting medium in which in which current is carried by the movement of atoms
A conductor through which a current enters or leaves a nonmetallic medium
The negative terminal of a primary cell or storage battery
The positive terminal of a primary cell or storage battery
Potential difference or electromotive force expressed in volts: analogous to pressure in water flow
The SI unit of potential difference and eIectromotlve force, defined as the difference of electric potential between two points of a conductor carrying a constant current of one ampere, when the power dissipated between the points is equal to one watt. Abbr: V
The complete path of an electric current, including the source of electric energy
An arrangement of components in an electric circuit In which the same current flows through each component in turn without branching
An arrangement of components in an electric circuit in which all positive terminals are connected to one conductor and all negative terminals are connected to a second conductor, the same voltage being applied to each component
The product of potential difference and current in a direct-current circuit. In an alternating current circuit, power is equal to the product of the effective voltage, the effective current and the cosine of the phase angle between current and voltage. W=(V)(A)
The SI unit of power, equal to one Joule per second or to the power represented by a current of one ampere flowing across a potential difference of one volt. Abbr: W
An amount of power, esp. the power required to operate an electrical device or appliance, expressed in watts.
A unit of power, equal to 1000 watts. Abbr.: kW
A unit of energy, equal to the energy transferred or expended by one kilowatt in one hour, a common unit of electric power consumption. Abbr.: kWh
The rate of flow of electric charge in a circuit per unit time, measured in amperes
The basic SI unit of electric current, equivalent to a flow of one coulomb per second or to the steady current produced by one volt applied across a resistance of one ohm. Abbr.: A
The strength of an electric current measured or expressed In amperes: analogous to the rate of water flow.
The opposition of a conductor to the flow of current. causing some of the electric energy to be transformed into heat and usually measured in ohms. Abbr.:R
The Sf unit of electrical resistance. equal to the resistance of a conductor in which a potential difference of one volt produces a current of one ampere.
The law that for any circuit the electric current is directly proportional to the voltage and inversely proportional to the resistance. I=V/R
The principle that the rate of production of heat by a direct current is dinectly proportional to the resistance of the circuit and to the square of the current.
The resistance per unit length of a substance with a unit cross-sectional area. Also called specific resistance.
A measure of the ability of a substance to conduct electric current, equal to the reciprocal of the resistivity of the substance. Also called specific conductance.
A machine that converts mechanical energy into electrical energy.
A generator for producing alternating current.
A machine that converts electric power into mechanical energy
The main current-carrying winding of a motor or generator in which electromotive force is induced
A copper or carbon conductor serving to maintain electric contact between fixed and moving elements in a motor or generator.
A mass of iron or other ferrous material in an electromagnet, induction coil, or transformer, serving to concentrate and intensify the magnetic field resulting from a current in a surrounding coil
A conductor wound in a spiral form to introduce inductance into a circuit
An electric current flowing in one direction only and having a magnitude that does not vary or varies only slightly. Abbr.: DC
An electric current that reverses direction at regular recurring intervals, having a magnitude that varies in a sinusoidal manner. Abbr.: AC
A unit of electric measurement, equal to the product of one volt and one ampere. equivalent to one watt for direct current systems and a unit of apparent power for alternating current systems. Abbr.: VA
An electric device consisting of two or more windings wound on the same core, which employs the principle of mutual induction to convert variations of alternating current in a primary circuit into variations of voltage and current in a secondary circuit
A transformer having fewer turns in the primary winding than In the secondary serving to transform low voltage to high voltage.
A transformer having a greater number of turns in the primary winding than in the secondary, serving to transform high voltage to low voltage.
The supplying of utilities, as water, gas, and electricity. required or demanded by the public.
The decrease in voltage between two points on a power line, usually caused by resistance or leakage along the line.
Operated on, powered by, or transmitting high voltage
An auxiliary power station where electric current is converted, as from DC to AC, or where voltage is stepped up or down
The voltage supplied by a power line, measured at the point of use.
Any of several conductors extending from a main power line or transformer to the service equipment of a building.
The overhead portion of service conductors extending from the nearest utility pole to a building
The underground portion of service conductors extending from a main power line or transformer to a building
Service entrance conductor
The portion of a service conductor extending from a service drop or service lateral to the service equipment of a building.
A meter for measuring and recording the quantity of electric power consumed with respect to time.
A fire rated room housing a transformer and auxiliary equipment for a large building, usually located on grade or below ground and ventilated directly to the outside air.
A room containing the service equipment for a large building.
The equipment necessary for controlling. metering. and protecting the electric power supply to a building. located near the entrance of the service conductors and usually consisting of a main disconnect switch and secondary switches, fuses. and circuit breakers.
A generator for providing emergency power during a power outage. Also called emergency generator
Uninterruptible power supply
An emergency system designed to provide power automatically and instantaneously upon failure of the normal power supply.
One or a group of panels on which are mounted switches. overcurrent devices, metering Instruments. and buses for controlling and protecting a number of electric circuits. Also called switchgear.
A freestanding enclosure housing a disconnect switch, a step-down transformer, and switchgear for a number of electric circuits.
Any of the conductors extending from the service equipment to various distribution points in a building.
The fractional part of a period or cycle through which time has advanced, measured from a specified reference point and often expressed as an angle.
A conducting connection between an electric circuit or device and the earth or otherpoint of zero potential.
Pertaining to a circuit energized by an alternating current with One phase or with phases deferring by 180 degree
Pertaining to a circuit energized by two alternating current or voltage differing in phase one quarter of a cycle or 90 degree
The main disconnect for the entire electrical system of a building, except for any emergency power system
A board or which are mounted the switches, fuses and circuit breakers for controlling and protecting a number of similar branch circuits, installed in a cabinet and accessible from the front only. Also called panel board
A heavy conductor, usually in the form of a solid copper bar, used for collecting, carrying, and distributing large electric current. Also called busbar
Any conductor of an electrical system intentionally connected to a ground connection
A conductor such as a metal ground rod ground plate or cold water pipe, firmly embedded in the earth establish a ground connection
A conductor connecting electric equipment or a circuit of a ground connection also called grounding conductor
Circuit breaker (breaker)
A switch that automatically interrupts an electric circuit to prevent excess current from damaging apparatus in the circuit or from causing a fire.
Any of various metal alloys having a melting point below 300 degree F or 70 degrees Celsius, use as soldier in a various safety devices also called fusible alloy
A device containing a strip or wire of usable metal that melts under the heat produced by excess current, thereby interrupting the circuit
Pertaining to a combination of 3 circuits energized by alternating current or voltage differing in phase by one third of a cycle or 120 degree
Electrically connected to a source of voltage, or electrically charged so as to have a potential different from that of earth, also hot
Not electrically connected to a source of voltage
Not electrically charged
A local failure in the insulation or continuity of a conductor, or in the functioning of an electrical system
An abnormal, usually accidental condition or low resistance between two points in an electrical circuit, resulting in a flow of excess current also called short
The muscular spasms caused by an electric current passing through the body
Fuse housing fusible link in a porcelain cup fitted with that threaded metal base
Fuse having a one time or a renewable fusible Linkin enclosed in an insulating fiber tube
Knife blade fuse
A cartridge fuse having a metal blade at each end for making contact with the fusible link within
time delay fuse
Fuse that delays opening to allow a short term overload to pass, as when starting a motor
A Momentary, usually accidental, grounding of a conducting wire
Circuit breaker that senses current caused by ground faults in instantaneously shuts off power before damage or injury can occur
Any of several conducting rods installed at the top of a structure in grounded to the divert lighting away from the structure
a device for protecting electric equipment from damage by lighting or other high voltage current, using spark gaps to carry the car into the ground without passing through the device
A space between two terminals or electrodes, across which a discharge of electricity may pass at a prescribed voltage
The portion of an electrical system extending from the final overcurrent device protecting a circuit to the outlets serve by the circuit
A panel for distributing power to other panels or Motors another heavy power consuming loads
Pertaining to a circuit in which alternating current below 50 volts is applied by a step down transformer from the normal line voltage, use in residential system to control doorbells, heating and cooling systems, and remote lighting fixtures. Low voltage circuit do not require a protective Raceway
A branch circuit that supplies current to a number of outlets for lighting and appliances
Branch circuit that supplies current to one or more outlets specifically intended for appliances
branch circuit that supplies current only to a single piece of electrical equipment
The power delivered by a generator or transformer or the power consumed by an appliance or device
The total load on an electrical system or circuit all connected apparatus and equipment are energized simultaneously
the greatest love delivered to an electrical system or circuit over a specified interval timer
The ratio of the maximum demand to the connected load of an electrical system, used in estimating the required capacity of the system to account for the probability that only a portion of the connected load may be applied at any time
the ratio of the sum of the maximum demands on the various parts of an electrical system to the maximum demand of the whole
The ratio of the average load on an electrical system over a specific period of time to the peak load occurring in the period.
A single insulated conductor or a bound or sheathed combination of conductors insulated from one another
Electric cable consisting or more insulated conductors protected by a flexible, helically wounded metal wrapping. Also called BX cable
Electrical cable consisting of a tabular sheath containing one or more conductors embedded in a highly compressed, insulating refractory mineral
Nonmetallic sheathed cable
Electrical cable consisting of two or more insulated conductors enclosed in and nonmetallic, moisture resistant, flame retardant sheath . Also called romex cable
Cable for transmitting high frequency telephone, digital, or television signals, consisting of an insulated conducting to enclosing an insulated conducting core
An electric cable enclosed within a metallic sheath in order to reduce the effect of external electric or magnetic fields
A tube, pipe or duct for enclosing and protecting electric wires or cable
Rigid metal conduit
Heavy-walled, tubular steel conduit joined by screwing directly into a threaded hub with lock nuts and bushings.
Electrical metallic tubing or EMT
Thin walled, tabular steel conduit joined by compression or setscrew couplings
Flexible metal conduit
It's flexible helically metal conduit, use for connection to motors or other vibrating elements. Also called Greenfield
Channel expressly designed to hold and the electric wires in cable
Raceway design for exposed insulation in dry, non-hazardous, non corrosive locations
Surface mounted Raceway designed to house and electrical wires for a circuit and series of receptacles
Raceway suitable for installation under floor often use in office buildings to allow for the flexible placement of power, signal, and telephone outlets
A pliable metallic strand or a twisted or woven assembly of such strands often insulated with dielectric material in use as a conductor of electricity
Substance, body or device that conducts heat, sound, or electricity
Material that is a poor conductor of electricity used for separating are supporting conductors prevent the undesired flow of current
The minimum applied voltage at which a given insulator breakdown and permits current to pass
The maximum voltage that can be applied to a given material without causing it to break down usually expressed in volts or kilovolts per unit of thickness
A non-conducting substance
An enclosure for housing and protecting electric wires or cables that are joined together in connecting or branching electric circuits
A panel in a teasing or box that can readily be removed as by punching, hammering, or cutting to provide an opening into the interior
rubber or plastic washer inserted in a hole in a metal part to prevent grounding of a wire passing through the hole
An insulating and protective lining for one or more conductors passing through a hole
An enclosed Raceway for housing conductors or cables
A rigid metal house for a group of buses insulated from each other in the enclosure. Also called busway
An open metal frame work for supporting insulated electrical conductors
A switch in which the interruption of a circuit occurs in air
A form of air switch in which hinge cover blade is place between to contact clips
Switch control by a conductor floating in a liquid
And especially quiet switch that opens and closes an electric circuit by shifting a sealed glass tube of mercury so as to uncover or cover the contact
A switch operated only by inserting a key
Rheostat or similar device for regulating the intensity of an electric light without appreciably affecting spatial of the distribution. Also called dimmer switch
Resistor for regulating a current by means of variable resistance
An absolute writing system consisting of a single insulated conductors secured to and supported on porcelain knobs and tubes
A flexible , nonmetallic, fire resistant tubing for conductors in knob and tube wiring
A flexible insulated conductor for electrically connecting an apparatus to another or to a circuit
A short flexible conductors use in connecting a stationary terminal with a terminal having a limited range of motion
A conductive element or device for establishing an electric connection to an apparatus
A protective plate surrounding an electric outlet or light switch
A device for making, breaking, or directing an electric current
Switch in which a lover or knob ,moving through a small arc causes the contact to open or close an electric circuit
A single pole double throw switch used in conjunction with another to control lights from locations
switch used in conjunction with the 3 Way switches to control lights from the three locations
A point on a wiring system at which current is taken to supply an electric device or apparatus
the junction box designed to facilitate connecting an electric device or receptacle to a wiring system
An outlet usually mounted on the wall in housing one or more receptacles for portable lamps or appliances
A female sitting connected to a power supply and equip to receive a plug. Also called socket
An outlet having an additional contact for a ground connection
A male fitting for making an electrical connection to a circuit by intersection of a receptacle
Design so that a plug in receptacle configured in only one way
A small flexible insulated cable fitted with a blog to connect a portable lamp or appliance to a receptacle
A plastic connector containing a threaded metal fitting for screwing into the intertwined and of two or more conductors
Any of various devices for joining two or more conductors without permanent splice
A moving platform or cage for carrying passengers or freight from one level of a building to another
British term for elevator
An elevator exclusively for the use of passengers
An elevator for carrying heavy cargo, on which the operator and the persons necessary for unloading and loading the freight are permitted to ride
A small elevator for conveying food, dishes, or other materials between the floors of a building
A row of elevators in a high rise building controlled by a common operating system and responding to a single call button
The vertical distance traversed by an elevator car from the lowest to the highest landings of the Hoistway. Also called travel.
An elevator system consisting of a car that is mounted on guide rails, supported by hoisting cables and driven by electric hoisting machinery (traction elevator)
A structure housing elevator machinery on the roof of a building
Top car clearance
The vertical distance from the top of an elevator car to the neares overhead obstruction when the car platform is level with the top building .
A vertical enclosed space for the travel of one or more elevators, also called an elevator shaft
The portion of a floor adjacent to an elevator Hoistway, used for the receiving and discharge of passengers or freight.
Elevator car safety
A mechanical device for slowing down and stopping an elevator car in the event of excessive speed.
A door between hoistway and an elevator landing
Portion of a hoistway extending from the level of the lowest landing to the floor of the hoistway
Bottom car clearance
The vertical distance from the floor of an elevator pit to the lowest part of an elevator car platform
Boxlike structure on a roof providing access to a stairwell or an elevator shaft
Contains switches,buttons and other equipment for regulating electrical devices
For raising and lowering an elevator car;has motor generator set ,traction machine, speed governor ,brake,drive shaft,driving sheave and gears
A wheel or disk with a grooved rim,used as pulley for hoisting
A pulley for tightening and guiding the hoisting cables of an elevator system.
One of the heavy steel beams supporting the hoisting machinery for an elevator
One of the wire cables or ropes used for raising and lowering an elevator car
One of the vertical steel tracks controlling the travel of an elevator car or counterweight
One of the electric cables connecting an elevator car to a fixed electrical outlet in the hoistway
A weight balancing another weight to counterbalance the load placed on the hoisting machine
Automatically cuts off current to an electric motor when an object moved by it has passed a given point
A piston or spring devices for absorbing the impact of a descending elevator car or counterweight at the extreme lower limit of travel
A room housing the hoisting machinery ,control equipment and sheaves for raising and lowering an elevator car.
An elevator system consisting of a car supported by a piston that is moved by or moves against a fluid under pressure
The load carrying unit of an elevator, consisting of a car frame, platform, light metal enclosure and door or gate
The structural steel frame of an elevator car to which are attached the platform,guide shoes,elevator car safety, hoisting cables and control equipment
A light, usually over the entrance to an elevator, signals the approach of the elevator
A signaling apparatus in an elevator car or at a landing that displays a visual indication of floor landing
A push button for requesting an elevator
A safety device for preventing the operation of an elevator car unless the hoistway door is locked in the closed position
A safety device for preventing the operation of an elevator car unless its door or gate is fully closed
The horizontal section of railing at the upper or lower end of an escalator.
The toothed portion of the threshold plate at both ends of an escalator or moving walk, designed to mesh with the grooved surface of the moving steps or treadway.
A power-driven stairway consisting of steps attached to a continuously circulating belt, ( moving staircase/stairway)
A chair or platform mounted on a steel guide rail and driven by an electric motor, used for raising or lowering a person or goods along a stairway (stair lift)
A power driven continuously moving surface similar to conveyor belt, used for carrying pedestrians horizontally or along low inclines
Any various forms of mass transit such as moving sidewalks or automated driverless vehicles, used for shutting people around airports or in congested urban areas
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