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Survey of Jazz Exam 1 Review
Terms in this set (60)
AABA Song Form
comprises an eight-bar theme (A) played twice. A contrasting melody (B) flows, also usually eight bars long, before the A theme returns.
ABAC Song Form
each section is again, usually eight bars. Musicians often speak of the "first half" of the tune (AB) and the "second half" (AC).
plans the form of a band's performance and often notates the parts for the different instruments.
is a bent, slurred, or "worried" note. Most often occurs on the third of the scale, but any note can be made "blue" by varying its intonation in a blues or jazz performance.
an African American folk music that appeared around 1900 and exerted influence on jazz and various forms of U.S. popular music.
form of blues piano playing in which the performer maintains a driving eighth-note rhythm in the left hand while improvising blues figures in the right hand.
like an obbligato, is a secondary melody that accompanies the main melody. A countermelody is generally heard in the trombone or a lower voice, has fewer notes than the obbligato is often improvised
described the lead (melody) instruments in early jazz bands and usually included trumpet (or cornet), trombone, and clarinet. The saxophone came later to jazz.
is a musical plan and form worked up orally by the players themselves in rehearsal or on the bandstand.
is a form of U.S. musical theater and variety show that flourished in the nineteenth century. Traveling troupes performed songs, dances, and skits based on caricatures of African Americans. Performed by both blacks and whites in blackface, minstrelsy is often considered the first distinctively U.S. musical genre.
is an African American musical genre that flourished from the late 1890s through the mid-1910s and is based on constant syncopation in the right hand often accompanied by a steady march bass in the left hand. Associated now primarily with piano music, ragtime was oringally a method of performance that included syncopated songs, music for various ensembles, and arrangements of non-ragtime music Scott Joplin was ragtime's most famous composer.
in early jazz bands included three or four players on drums, bass or tuba, and one or more chordal instruments (piano, banjo, or guitar).
originally derived from African religious practice, was a rhythmic dance performed in a circle. Worshipers moved counterclockwise while singing spirituals and accompanying themselves by clapping and stamping. The worshipers ingeniously circumvented the prohibition against dancing- strictly speaking, to lift and cross the feet- by shuffling. Some historians describe the ring shout as contributing the essence of African song, dance, and spirit to African American music.
a jazz vocal style in which the soloist improvises using made-up or "nonsense" syllables.
someone who performed a song, usually at a music store, to encourage people to buy the sheet music.
piano player; known primarily as the main composer of ragtime
Urban Blues Singer
Urban Blues Singer
music publisher/composer; solidified the 12 - bar blues through his publishing
guitar player and singer; rural blues artist (in contrast with Bessie Smith and Ma Raney)
is in a more sophisticated form and tended to be a band fronted by a female singer
was a single individual (usually a man) singing and playing guitar
type of New Orleans-style jazz created by Chicago musicians in the 1920s. It merged the group sound of New Orleans bands with the emerging improvisational style and solo emphasis pioneered by Louis Armstrong in the context of larger bands.
a popular term for the jazz style that originated in New Orleans and flourished in the late 1910s and 1920s. The Dixieland jazz band often had a front line (of trumpet or cornet, trombone, and clarinet) accompanied by a rhythm section (of piano, guitar or banjo, bass, and drums). Also called New Orleans Jazz.
featured faster tempos and dramatic solo and group performances, usually with more improvisation than sweet bands had.
a Prohibition-era nightclub in which liquor was sold illegally.
played less syncopated, slower pieces, such as ballads the popular songs.
The Original Dixieland Jazz Band (ODJB)
known primarily for being the first jazz band to make a jazz record (1917).
New Orleans Rhythm Kings (NORK)
another early jazz band like ODJB.
King Oliver's Creole Jazz Band
King Oliver was a trumpet player and was one of the band leaders that provided Louis Armstrong with experience. Louis Armstrong went to be a part of the Creole Jazz Band.
trumpet player; had the first Dixieland jazz band according to jellyroll Morton
played clarinet and soprano sax; highly respected by European classical musicians
invented the drum set
piano player; she played with King Oliver's band and one of Louis Armstrong's wives
a common term for a jazz band arrangement.
merged the group sound of white, New Orleans bands with the emerging improvisational style and solo emphasis pioneered by Armstrong in the context of larger bands.
a jazz vocal style in which the soloist improvise with nonsense syllables.
is a school of jazz piano performance based on a moving left-hand accompaniment alternating bass notes and chords with an appropriate right-hand figuration pulling or tugging at the left hand.
piano player and is considered to be the finest composer/arranger from the early Dixieland jazz days.
played trumpet; tended to play high notes, covered a wide range, loud and exuberant, scat singer, terminal vibrato at the end of his notes, used a lot of blue notes, very heavy swing (pg. 90).
played trumpet; the opposite in style compared to Louis Armstrong (pg. 101)
piano player; worked a lot with Armstrong
a large jazz ensemble typically including three to four trumpets, three to four trombones, four to five reeds (saxophones and doublings), and rhythm (typically piano, guitar, bass, and drums).
a period of outstanding artistic activity among African Americans. The movement was centered in Harlem in New York City.
an informal gathering held to raise money for rent or groceries. At such parties musicians would often gather and perform, sometimes in competition with one another.
a group of related instruments in a big band; three trumpets and three trombones might form the brass section.
a school of jazz piano piano performance based on a moving left-hand accompaniment alternating bass notes and chords with an appropriate right-hand figuration pulling or tugging at the left hand.
Tin Pan Alley
collective name applied to the major New York City sheet music publishers. Tin Pan Alley flourished form the late 1800s until the mid-twentieth century.
Stock Arrangement, or Stock
an arrangement created and sold by a publishing company to bandleaders. In some cases stocks were generic and unimaginative; at other times the arrangements were quite effective. Bands performed stocks to keep up with the latest hit songs. They would either play them as given or modify them to work with their bands; individual styles.
James P. Johnson
often referred to as the father of Stride Piano
pioneer in the big bands; one of the first to start the idea of a bigger band; Louis Armstrong went to New York for the first time to join Henderson's band
piano player as well as a band leader/composer/arranger/pioneer in the big bands; atypical use of bowed string bass (pg. 123)
blind; plays fast and complex piano
Quintet to Hot Club de France
led by guitarist Djengo Reinhardt and Stephane Grappelli
piano player; more of a classical musician, not jazz; sounded like jazz but with no improv, it was all written out
band leader in NY. Gershwin played the world premier of "Rapsody in Blue" with Whiteman's orchestra.
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