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Arts and Humanities
CSD203 Exam 3
Terms in this set (38)
Difficulty producing speech sounds and speech sound sequences
Difficulty understanding and using rules for producing speech sounds and speech sound sequences. Phonology is the language conventions or rules for making words. Phonemes are building blocks of language, simple sound units.
Articulation errors or phonological processes that have to do with development that are often seen in younger, normally developing children.
Articulation errors or phonological processes that are rarely seen in normally developing children
What is the difference between articulation or phonological delays or disorders?
A delay is when a child has difficulty with speech/sound production (articulation, more physical) or trouble with understanding the rules for making sounds (phonologic, more mental) which can follow a normal developmental pattern eventually.
EX: Older child who leaves off the ends of words. Producing speech like a child who is chronologically 24-36 months old.
A disorder is atypical of the speech found at any developmental age where children can have difficulty making sounds (articulation) or understanding rules for language (phonology).
EX: 10 yr old who produces speech that is whispered and contains mostly vowels and only few consonants.
Describe one therapy approach for articulation disorders and one approach for phonological disorders.
Articulation: Speech sounds short words in activities - provide child chance - target sound at the beginning, middle, and end of words.
Phonological: Contrast therapy shows pairs of pictures that differ from each other by one sound. emphasize the use of speech sounds and sequences and deemphasize repetition and feedback on motor performance.
Loss of voice
Difficulty producing speech sounds
Disturbed muscle tone; disturbed phonation.
A method of swallowing air, trapping it in the esophagus, and releasing it to create sound. This is a learned skill that takes a lot of practice and can be difficult to master.
What are three alternatives for producing oral speech following surgical removal of the larynx?
-Artificial larynx: handheld battery activated diaphragm produces sound source -create a spectrum of tones - to neck. Another the device generates sound directly to the mouth by means of a small tube which allows for articulatory modification.
-Esophageal Speech: Swallowing air, trapping it in the esophagus, and releasing it to make sound. Very difficult.
-Tracheo-esophageal Speech: Prosthesis will be placed through another surgery in the small opening between the trachea and esophagus (in the neck).
A therapy approach in which the clinician teaches the person who stutters a new way of talking that is designed to reduce the likelihood of stuttering working on things like speech rate, voice, and articulation.
A therapy approach in which the clinician teaches the client to alter the way he or she stutters.
Primary Stuttering Behaviors
-Repetitions: Repeating of words when talking. There are different types of repetitions that can make it difficult for people to talk fluently.
-Prolongations: Prolong a sound for an unusually long period of time.
-Blocks: Prolonged silence where mouth is positioned to make a sound.
What are some general guidelines to adhere to when interacting with a person who stutters?
One should not make remarks like "slow down", "take a breath", or "relax".
Maintain natural eye contact and wait patiently and naturally until the person, who stutters, is finished.
Don't finish sentences or fill in words.
What are the differences between stuttering modification and fluency shaping approaches to the treatment of stuttering?
Stuttering modification techniques take more of an accepting approach to the stutter. This model helps clients to increase awareness of stuttered speech, reduce physical tension and ultimately change movements of stuttering. This technique has a focus on attitudes and emotion.
Fluency shaping method includes techniques that alter students breathing, speech rate, voice production, and articulation in ways that facilitate more fluent speech. This technique does not have a focus on attitudes and emotion.
left frontal lobe brain damage - disorder - slow, disfluent speech -motor functions of speaking
damage to the nervous system - makes speech more difficult to understand over time.
Childhood Apraxia of Speech
Severe speech disorder
extreme delays in speech development
motor skills develop normally
Speech sound is inconsistent
How does augmentative communication differ from oral speech production?
Augmentative Communication refers to supplementing or augmenting speech using various technique and aids. These can range from any type of movement with gestures or communication aids or devices. This is much slower than oral speech. Because there are so many different types, there have to be adjustments for the listener to properly understand the speaker's message through gestures and/or a communication device.
Autism Spectrum Disorder
Disorder with difficulties in social communication and social interaction are characterized by severe problems with conversation, sharing of interests or emotions, and initiating or responding to social interactions
Specific Language Impairment
A language disorder that delays learning of language skills in children who have no hearing loss or other developmental delays.
A child's skill and growth level compared to what is thought of as typical for that age group.
Individualized Education Program (IEP)
A document that describes a child's disability and the scope of services that will be provided to help the child receive an appropriate education in the least restrictive environment.
Individuals with Disabilities Act (IDEA)
The federal law that provides federal funding for special education and regulates special education procedures.
Knowledge of the sequence of sounds that make up words. The ability to identify the phoneme structure of words.
What is a language impairment?
significant delay in the development of language understanding or production related to vocabulary and sentence structure
What are advantages and disadvantages of child-centered, clinician-centered, and hybrid approaches?
Child-Centered: Clinician and child engage in conversation during play.
Advantages: Clinician provides models of the language skills the child needs to learn and responds to child's attempts.
Disadvantages: Tough for children who have severe trouble communicating.
Clinician-Centered: Based on behavioral principles of learning in which the clinican input is designed to produce a correct response.
Advantages: Clinician provides lots of practice in targeted language structures, in which the children receives feedback immediately.
Disadvantage: Being too dissimilar to the situations in which language is actually used.
Hybrid: In the middle of both the previous approaches. Clinician selects the activities and materials rather than following the child's lead.
Advantage: Has been shown to facilitate the development of language comprehension and production.
Disadvantage: Focuses on only 1 or 2 specific language goals.
Stroke - brain damage - disorder - on reading wrinting language
Cerebrovascular accident (CVA)
A stroke. Interruption of blood supply to an area of the brain.
Sounds and syllables of a word are articulated correctly but are substituted or transposed (e.g., bork for fork).
Unintended substitution of one word for another, usually from the same category (e.g., horse for cow).
What are the primary differences between Broca's aphasia and Wernicke's aphasia?
Broca's aphasia is characterized by difficulties in fluency, effortful speech and agrammatism. (MORE PHYSICAL) Whereas, in Wernicke's aphasia, there is marked difficulty in comprehending language, spoken or written. Reading and writing abilities are significantly affected. (MORE MENTAL)
Ability to comprehend speech. Involves understanding the words, sentences, and meaning of what others say or what is read.
The ability to use sounds, signs, or symbols to communicate meaning. The ability to put thoughts into words and sentences in a way that makes sense and is grammatically accurate.
A noticeable lag in a specific aspect of development that is beyond average variations. When a child does not reach their developmental milestones at the expected times.
Noam Chomsky's theory that all the world's languages share a similar underlying structure.
What are two tasks you would expect a child with a specific language impairment to be able to perform at approximately normal age level?
They should be able to produce and articulate words properly
What two things about their language learning that you would expect to be significantly delayed?
Children with SLI are often late to talk
Struggle to learn new words
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