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FCS 352 Exam 4
Terms in this set (74)
About how much weight do children in middle childhood gain per year and describe gains in height & weight.
5-7 pounds per year
a little over 2 inches in height per year
In terms of nutrition describe food offered to children in middle childhood.
How does the book describe the attitude of children who are overweight?
are usually far from jolly; heavy children are often rejected by their peers or are the objects of derision, perform poorly in sports, have poorer body images than children of normal weight
Explain adipose tissue as it relates to the hunger drive & weight.
How does TV affect weight?
pg. 350 the amount of TV watching affects children's weight; children who watch tv extensively during the middle childhood years are more likely to become overweight as adolescents
Know the results of the Lai et al 2009 study on asthma.
Know about the relationship between reaction time & age and how participation in organized sports & physical activity change with age.
reaction time is the amount time required to respond to a stimulus
reaction time gradually improves from early childhood to about age 18
Know percentage of children with Myopia and the change in development of ear infections in middle childhood.
-25% of children in middle school
-corrective lenses or contact lenses
-number of children affected decreases during middle school
What is ADHD and know the treatments for it.
a behavior disorder characterized by excessive inattention, impulsiveness, and hyperactivity
treatments: pg. 361- stimulants
Know the characteristics and age associated with the Concrete Operations Stage.
7-11/12 years of age
characterized by flexible, reversible thought concerning tangible objects and events
What is important about the last stage in Kohlberg's Stages of moral development?
post-conventional level- moral reasoning is based on the person's own moral standards
Know the capacity for storing chunks of information in short & long term memory for different ages beginning with 5-6 year old.
What is the purpose of categorization in memory?
Down Syndrome is a form of Mental Retardation resulting from what genetic problem?
Know the scores on IQ test related to Mental Retardation.
Know the percentage of heritability of Intelligence
between 40% and 60%
How do the terms egocentrism and self-esteem relate to the middle childhood years.
children's self esteem tends to decline during middle childhood, in part because they come to evaluate their physical appearance and their performance in academic and social domains more realistically
Describe parent and child relationships in regard to monitoring behavior in middle childhood
parents do less monitoring of children's activities and provide less direct feedback than they did in the preschool years. In middle childhood, children do more monitoring of their own behavior.
What is the difference between boys and girls response to divorce?
boys seem to have a harder time than girls coping with divorce, and they take a longer time to recover
Relate the importance of peers to middle childhood
major part of growing up, peers exert powerful socialization influences and pressures to conform; peer experiences broaden children's physical, cognitive, and social skills
Describe a "popular"child in middle childhood
popular children are friendly, nurturant, cooperative, helpful, and socially skillful; have higher self esteem than other children, which tends to reflect success in academics or valued extracurricular activities
Describe friendships of the opposite sex in middle childhood
children's friendships are almost exclusively with others of the same gender, continuing the trend of gender segregation. contact with members of the other gender is strongly discouraged by peers
Describe effects of maternal employment on delinquent behavior
Relate school readiness to the child's early life experiences being filled with diversity?
Know characteristics of effective schools
What are some of the benefits of small class sizes in schools?
smaller classes permit students to receive more individual attention and to express their ideas more often; smaller classes lead to increased achievement in mathematics and reading in the early primary grades
Describe the most effective teachers.
Results of Rosenthal and Jacobsen (1968) study on Teacher's Expectations.
What were some conclusions to sexism in the classroom American Association of University Women 1992 and how do teachers treat boys differently than girls.
What are some of the best predictors and treatment for conduct disorders?
Childhood depression is sometimes misdiagnosed as what other problems?
conduct disorders, physical complaints, academic problems, and anxiety
Global attribution is associated with what disorder in childhood?
What is the best treatment for school phobia?
What is the benefit to being bilingual?
knowledge of ore than one language contributes to the complexity of the child's cognitive processes
awareness of and control of one's cognitive abilities, as shown by the intentional use of cognitive strategies in solving problems
knowledge of the functions and processes involved in one's storage and retrieval of information (memory), as shown by the use of cognitive strategies to retain information
originally, a ratio obtained by dividing a child's score (or "mental age") on an intelligence test by his or her chronological age. In general, a score on an intelligence test.
the view in which cognitive processes are compared to the functions of computers. The theory deals with the input, storage, retrieval, manipulation, and output of information. The focus is on the development of children's strategies for solving problems-- their "mental programs"
the accumulated months of credit that a person earns on the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale
an event that occurs because of the behavior of those who expect it to occur
the ability to generate novel solutions to problems; a trait characterized by flexibility, ingenuity, and originality
when children reach the ages of 9-11; their moral judgements tend to become more self-governed
the first stage in Piaget's cognitive-developmental theory or moral development. In this stage, children judge acts as moral when they conform to authority or to the rules of the game. Morality is perceived as embedded in the structure of the universe
simultaneous focusing (centering) on more than one aspect or dimension of a problem or situation
Gardner's Theory of Intelligence
argued that there are many intelligences, not just one, including bodily talents as expressed through dancing or gymnastics. Each "intelligence" is presumed to have its neurological base in a different part of the brain. Each is an inborn talent that must be developed through educational experiences if it is to be expressed.
a method for learning to read in which children decode the sounds of words via their knowledge of the sounds of letters and letter combinations
the structure of memory that is first encountered by sensory input. Information is maintained in sensory memory for only a fraction of a second
short term memory
aka working memory
the structure of memory that can hold a sensory stimulus for up to 30 seconds after the trace decays.
long term memory
the memory structure capable of relatively permanent storage of information
In Freud's psychoanalytic theory, the fourth stage of psychosexual development, characterized by repression of sexual impulses and development of skills
an acquired (hence, learned) belief that one is unable to control one's environment
a gradual transferring of control from parent to child, beginning in middle childhood
separation anxiety disorder
an extreme form of normal separation anxiety that is characterized by anxiety about separating from parents; SAD often takes the form of school refusal
Children outgrow "baby fat".
The typical American child is exposed to about 10,000 food commercials each year.
Most American children are physically fit.
Hyperactivity is caused by chemical food additives.
Stimulants are often used to treat children who are hyperactive.
Some children who are intelligent and are provided with enriched home environments cannot learn how to read or do simple math problems.
Don't try the "yes, but" defense with a 5 year old. If you did it, you're guilty, even if it was an accident.
Memorizing the alphabet requires that children keep 26 chunks of information in mind at once.
"IQ is another term for intelligence"
Two children can answer exactly the same items on an intelligence test correctly, yet one can be above average in intelligence and the other below average.
Highly intelligent children are creative
Adopted children are more similar in intelligence to their adoptive parents than to their biological parents
Bilingual children have more academic problems than children who speak only one language.
Children's self-esteem rises throughout middle childhood
Parents who are in conflict should stay together "for the sake of the children"
The daughters of employed women are more achievement-oriented and set higher career goals for themselves than the daughters of unemployed women
In middle childhood, popular children tend to be attractive and relatively mature for their age.
Teachers who have higher expectations of students may elicit greater achievements from them
Some children - like some adults - blame themselves for all the problems in their lives whether they deserve the blame or not.
It is better for children with school phobia to remain at home until the origins of the problem are uncovered and resolved.
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