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Chapter 6- Sedimentary and Metamorphic Rocks

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Sediments
small pieces of rock that are moved and deposited by water, wind, glacier, and gravity.
Weathering
produces rock and mineral fragments
Chemical Weathering
occurs when the minerals in a rock are dissolved or chemically changed
Physical Weathering
rock fragments break off, but remain chemically unchanged
Erosion
the removal and transport of sediment
Deposition
when transported sediments are put on the bottom of a body of water or on the ground
Lithification
the process that transforms sediments into sedimentary rocks
Compaction
The weight of overlying sediments forces the sediment grains closer together.
Cementation
Occurs when mineral growth glues sediment grains together into a solid rock
Bedding
Horizontal layering
Graded Bedding
Bedding in which the particle sizes become heavier towards the bottom layers
Cross Bedding
Inclined layers of sediment are deposited across a horizontal surface
Ripple Marks
when sediment is moved into small ridges by wind or wave action
Sorting and Rounding
As sediment is transported, pieces of rock knock into each other and the edges become rounded over time
Clastic Sedimentary Rocks
most common sedimetary rock. Formed from the deposits of loose sediment that accumulate of Earth's surface.
Porosity
Amount of open space between grains in a rock. Sandstone is a rock that exhibits this feature.
Chemical Sedimentary Rocks
When the concentration of dissolved minerals in a body of water reaches saturation, crystal grains precipitate out of solution and settle to the bottom.
Evaporites
layers of chemical sedimentary rock
Biochemical Sedimentary Rock
formed from the remains of once living organisms. Limestone is the most common type.
Metamorphic Rock
form when preexisting rocks are exposed to increased temperature and pressure.
Foliated Metamorphic Rock
layers and bands of minerals
Nonfoliated Metamorphic Rock
composed mainly of minerals that form block crystal shapes.
Rock Cycle
the continuous changing and remaking of rocks.
Gneiss
Sandstone
Marble

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