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BIO 102: Immunity
Terms in this set (81)
The immune system provides defense against:
Viruses, Bacteria, Fungi, Parasitic protists, parasitic worms & cancer
What's involved in immunity?
Lymphatic system and other defenses;
-Mucus & cilia & ear wax
-Low pH environments
Innate defenses -
"Born with" in active form; non specific (Complement proteins, Lysozymes, Acid Environments, and many types of White Blood Cells )
Acquired defenses -
Cells that are activated by exposure to a pathogen "acquired activity;" very specific (B and T lymphocytes ONLY)
Where do the blood cells of the body (white & red & platelets) get produced?
A. in the appendix
B. in the bone marrow
C. in the liver
D. in lymph nodes
E. all of the above
Antibacterial enzymes produced by salivary glands, tear glands, airways, etc.
1st line of defense:
Prevents pathogens from getting into internal tissues/organs such as the skin, saliva, tears, mucus, stomach acid, & "good" gut bacteria
2nd line of defense:
3rd line of defense:
Acquired, Specific mechanisms
Examples of white blood cells:
Eosinophil, Neutrophil, Basophil, Lymphocytes, Monocytes
Inflammation; What does it look and feel like?
Red & swollen; Hot & Painful
Is an indicator of tissue damage and possibly infection!
Release by basophils and mast cells
Complement proteins -
What's involved in inflammation?
Histamines, Phagocytes, Complement proteins
In damaged tissues...
Mast cells (WBC) & Basophils (WBC) release histamines (a cellular signaling molecule)
Vasodilation of arterioles & venules
Increase permeability of the capillaries
A. are a type of white blood cell
B. are not a type of white blood cell
C. are part of your innate immune system
D. Both B and C
E. Both A and C
(Eating cells) remove pathogens by engulfing them. They also release cytokines and other molecules that kill bacteria
Examples of Phagocytes:
Dendritic cells (WBC)
Some___________ are able to be activated and form a channel that lyses the cell.
A. white blood cells
B. non specific
C. cells that release cytokines
D. cells the engulf pathogens
E. all of the above
Which cells below release histamines?
C. mast cells
D. injured skin cells
E. bacteria challenged by the immune system
Natural Killer cells:
Can identify cancer cells and virally infected cells.
When _______ bind they release
"perforins" which are chemicals that kill the other cell
2 types of acquired immune responses:
Cell-mediated & Antibody-mediated
Provided by T lymphocytes (T cells)
Provided by B lymphocytes (B cells)
What's involved in both Cell Mediated and Antibody Mediated Responses?
1. Exposure & Recognition
2. Activation & Division
3. Response (varies)
Exposure to an active pathogen=
Exposure to an inactive pathogen=
How do the B & T lymphocytes recognize the invader?
The pathogens will all have a specific "chemical appearance"
The chemicals on the pathogen that stimulate an acquired immune response are called:
T/F? A vaccine can contain
the entire pathogen or
it can contain a "subunit" of the pathogen
Some vaccines are NOT long lasting because...
The pathogen mutates and changes antigens
The differences between B cells & T cells:
-Responses to pathogens
T cell-Mediated response:
1) Recognition & activation involves presentation by an antigen presenting cell
An activated T cell divides and it releases _______ that will energize other T cells and B cells
Cytotoxic T cells release...
Which type of cell listed below releases perforins?
A. Helper T cells
B. Cytotoxic T cells
C. Plasma cells
D. B cells
T cells migrate to...
B cells migrate to...
Types of T cells: Which type (Helper or Cytotoxic) releases cytokines that energize other white blood cells?
Types of T cells: Which type (Helper or Cytotoxic) releases perforins that can rupture infected body cells?
B cells; How do they protect us?
With antibodies (Defense proteins that are very specific)
T/F? B Cells don't need Antigen Presenting Cells. They can respond to free antigens
Antigen, Variable region (antigen-binding site), and constant region
-Prevention of cell entry
-Complement protein signaling
Antibodies are made in the person's body
Antibodies are given to the person (baby gets antibodies from mom's milk; snake antivenoms)
T/F? B cells get activated by having their receptor bind to its antigen and through signals from Helper T cells
T/F? Maturation is the same thing as formation
T/F? Maturation is the same thing as activation
An activated B cell divides to form...
"Armies" of cells
The cells formed due to the division of a B cell turn into either:
Plasma cells or Memory B cells
T/F? When you are given a vaccine, a primary immune response should follow allowing you to be protected by secondary immune response in the future.
Which immune response (primary or secondary) is more rapid?
Which immune response (primary or secondary) is stronger (more antibodies produced)?
T/F? All antibodies are proteins.
T/F? IgG, IgM, IgE, IgA, IgD are different classes of antibodies.
State 4 ways that antibodies can function (Explain the way antibodies get rid of pathogens)
1. Phagocyte signaling
2. Antigen clumping
3. Prevention of cell entry
4. Complement protein signaling
Helper T cells:
Release cytokines that stimulate all lymphocytes
Cytotoxic T cells:
Destroy infected body cells and tumor cells with perforins
How important is your Specific Immune system?
A. Very...I would be dead without it.
B. Sort of ...It's good to have but it's slow and ineffective in defense.
C. Not very...It does more harm than good.
A child has to have his thymus removed at an early age. What would you be able to predict about his immune system function?
A. He has a functioning nonspecific immune system but his specific immune system would be compromised.
B. He has a functioning specific immune system, but his nonspecific immune system would not be functional.
C. He has a functional nonspecific immune system and a normally functioning antibody mediated immune system, but he lacks a cell mediated immune system.
D. None of the above; the thymus doesn't affect the immune system.
Physical & Chemical barriers
(Lysozymes, Acids, Mucous)
1st line of defense
-Most WBC, complements, & histamines
2nd line of defense
-Specific= Antigen activated
-Lymphocytes (T cells & B cells)
3rd line of defense
Which cell type listed below makes antibodies?
B. Helper T cells
C. Cytotoxic T cells
D. Plasma cells
E. all white blood cells
What cell type makes (foreign) antigens?
A. mast cells
C. B lymphocytes
D. T lymphocytes
E. both C and D
Allergies and autoimmunity
Which of the below is NOT correct?
A. Plasma cells are activated B cells.
B. Helper T cells are activated by antigen presenting cells.
C. Cytotoxic T cells can be activated by free antigens.
D. Phagocytes are nonspecific in their actions
E. Natural killer cells release perforins.
Complements are produced by:
Antibodies are produced by:
Cytokines are produced by:
Phagocytes & Helper T cells
Perforins are produced by:
Natural Killer cells & Cytotoxic T cells
Histamines are produced by:
Mast cells & Basophils
Antigens are produced by:
Immunoglobins are produced by:
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