Intro/Chapter 1 Language Development

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In an average day, we produce about __ words. In an hour, we produce about ___ individual speech sounds.
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Terms in this set (87)
People need both ___ and ___ competence.linguistic (phonology, morphology, syntax, semantics) pragmatic (socially speaking, when it is appropriate to say sir)Alliteration, rhyme, reading, and writing are examples of ___.decontextualized languageLanguage is species __ and species __.specific uniform___ language is not tied to the hear and now, used to explain and describe things.Decontextualized languageWhat three things does Roger Brown claim as criteria for language?productivity semanticity displacementLanguage is __, __, and __.generative (productivity) symbolic (semanticity) decontextualized (displacement)__ allows speakers to make new utterances and recombine forms they already know to express novel utterances. Aka language is __.Productivity generative___: using language to refers to ideas, events or objects. Aka language is __.Semanticity symbolic___ allows speakers to talk about things that are not in the here and now. Aka language is __.Displacement decontextualizedWhy is the bee dance not considered language?not symbolic or productive. Just a referential abilityAlex the grey African Parrotarbitrary use of labels indicates symbolic ability, but productivity is limitedThe two chimpanzees named __ and __ achieved four vocal productions. Raised by the Hayes family. What did the Hayes family conclude?Gua (didn't achieve any) and Vicki (achieved four) lack Didn't try to teach Gua, raised Viki like a normal child Chimps lack articulatory and physiological abilities that make language possibleWhat makes productivity possible?syntaxThe first 50 words signed by ___ are similar to the first 50 words of children. However, research failed to prove the chimp's ability to use ___.Washoe syntax__ achieved 130 signs, 250 by his death, and some productive combinations.WashoeWith __, researchers found that little of what the chimp sign originated with the chimp, mostly result of prompts by teachers, and that he did not understand turn taking.Nim Chimpsky__ is a bonobo, species that are less aggressive, more social, more intelligent, and more communicative than the common chimp.Kanzi___ has the linguistic skills of a 2 or 3yrold child, started learning just by observing mother's lessons.Kanzi__ million years ago the gorillas and humans split.4-6 million.__ million years ago stone use appears, chimps and bonobos separate, and left temporal lobe of human brain, along with entire human brain, grows a lot.3 million years ago___ years ago language emerged. Two possible purposes?40,000 mating calls express referenceWhat was used to teach Kanzi?lexigrams__ could understand 500 spoken words.KanziWho was taught alongside Alia when he was 8 years and she was 2.5 years? How long? Example of a task. Who did better?Kanzi 6-9 months Put X object on Y. Kanzi did better__ pointing is used to request an object, while __ pointing is used to share information.imperative pointing declarative pointingAutistic children struggle with ___ pointing and sharing their ___.declarative pointing mental stateWhat three studies provide evidence for the argument of a critical age?-children reared in isolation -language creation (pidgin and creole) - studies of late onset language (sign language)What specific gene is related to language?FOXP2___ neurons play a role in cognitive, linguistic, and social development.Mirror___ are a class of neurons that activate when an individual either engages in an activity, observes others engage in an activity, or hears associated sounds.Mirror neuronsWhat three things suggest that language is species uniform?critical age studies brain-behavior relationships language impairmentsAfter four years of intensive care, Genie achieved the vocabulary of a ___ year-old child. How was her syntax?5 primitive (At school scratch face)___ are people who do not share a common language and invent a language system that shares lexical items (words) but each has its own primitive grammar.Pidgins__ is a language system that emerges from language contact. Includes shared lexical items and a complex grammar.CreolesCreoles and Pidgins may or may not be different and reflect the socio-cultural situation of the speakers in terms of __, __, __. and __.time amount of contact competition incentiveWhat is the issue of arguing that the difference between Creoles and Pidgins supports critical age theory?Creoles are born out of Pidgins. Children of Pidgins innovate Creole a study of 35-70 year-olds who had spoken ASL for 30 years, how accurately did they speak ASL? started before 6: __ before 12: after 12:90% 83% 72% supports critical age theoryWho studied the progression of Nicaraguan sign? What did she find?Ann Senghas those who were exposed at older age demonstrated poorer mastery than those exposed at younger age (.37 vs 1.3-1.4 SV agreement per verb)What are the four possible relations between age and capacity?-full capacity ends at 5 years -full capacity ends at puberty -gradually declining capacity -capacity declining at increasing rate (exponentially as age)Language is lateralized in the __ hemisphere.leftWhat four genes relate to language?FOXP2 ASPM MCPH1 K1AA0319Are the two hemispheres of the brain symmetrical?noDamage to the language-sensitive areas of the brain results in ___, a generalized communication disorder with varying characteristics depending on the site of the lesion.aphasiaPeople with ___ Aphasia have a lesion in the left frontal region near their motor strip. What does this motor strip control?Broca's Aphasia tongue and lipsWhat are two characteristics of Broca's Aphasia?telegraphic speech missing function wordsPeople with __ Aphasia have better comprehension skills than production skills.Broca's aphasiaA person who struggles to produce articles and prepositions, but can say "Football" or "Saturday" probably has ___.Broca's AphasiaPeople with ___ aphasia have a lesion in the posterior left temporal lobe, near the auditory association of the brain.Wernicke's AphasiaWhat are key characteristics of Wernicke's Aphasia?fluent speech poor comprehension paraphrasias (production of unintended syllables/words) neologisms (made-up words)Saying spork for fork is a ___ error, typical of somebody with ___.literal/phonemic Wernicke's AphasiaSaying horse for dog is a __ error, typical of somebody with __.verbal/semantic Wernicke's AphasiaSaying fresmor for ashtray is a ___ form of, typical of somebody with ___.neologism/jargon Wernicke's Aphasia___ is a band of subcortical fibers that connects the Wernicke's and Broca's area.Arcuate fasciculusIf you ask somebody to repeat a statement it is processed in the __ area, then transferred through the ___ to the __ area.Wernicke's arcuate fasciculus Broca'sSomebody with ___ Aphasia has a lesion in the arcuate fasciculus.conduction aphasiaSomebody with ___ Aphasia has trouble with both comprehending and producing.Conduction AphasiaWhat is a typical characteristic of somebody with conduction aphasia?they cannot repeat a simple sentence that you tell them to repeatA child with ___ language impairment has relatively intact grammar and vocabulary with severe cognitive deficits.William's syndromeWill a 5 or 6 year old child who suffers left brain damage be likely to recover complete use and comprehension of language? Why or why not?yes while adults have specialized language areas of their brains formed, young children's neural circuits haven't firmly committed yet, so if there is an injury the non-language hemisphere of the brain can take control over the dominant hemisphereAphasics are unlikely to recover after ___ months post their injury.6 monthsWhen do the synapses in the brain reach that of an adult level?2 yearsWhat are the characteristics of a child with a speech language impairment?cognitive abilities in normal range deficits in vocabulary delays in morphosyntaxA child with ___ has typical vocab/grammar skills and impaired cognitive skills, while a child with ___ has typical cognitive skills but deficits in vocabulary and morphosyntax.William's syndrome speech-language impairment (SLI)Who came up with the four special characteristics of language, arguing that it is species specific?LennebergWhat are the four characteristics that Lenneberg uses to claim that language is species specific?1) onset of speech is regular 2) speech is not suppressible 3) language cannot be taught to other species 4) languages everywhere have certain universalsDescribe the statement: "the onset of speech is regular"Lenneberg- species specific regardless of culture or language being learned, children have the same order of developmental milestonesDescribe the statement: "speech is not suppressible"Lenneberg- language is species specific typically developing children will learn how to talk if exposed to older speakers, regardless of culture and languageDescribe the statement: "languages everywhere have certain universals"lenneberg-language is species specific -languages are structured in accordance with principles of human cognition -infant can learn any language -universal constraints on the kinds of rules that children can learn universals in all languages: phonology, grammar, semanticsWhat five things do you need to know, in order to know a language? Knowing all of this allows the speaker to achieve ___.the languages: phonology syntax morphology semantics pragmatics communicative competenceA speaker who knows the __ of a language has linguistic competence.syntactic rulesA group of similar sounds that are regarded as all the same by the speakers of a language are called ___.phonemesThe __ system includes the rules for how to combine words into acceptable phrases and sentences.syntactic systemThe __ system includes our mental dictionary, or __.semantic lexiconWho first used the phrase "communicative competence?Dell HymesWhat makes up the form of language?phonology, morphology, syntaxWhat makes up the content of language?semanticsWhat makes up the use of language?pragmatics