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141 terms

Circulatory System: The Heart

Taken from multiple sets and combined into one
STUDY
PLAY
body
Blood vessels carry blood to every part of your __________.
oxygen
Blood moves __________ and nutrients to cells.
nutrients
Blood moves oxygen and __________ to cells.
carbon dioxide
Blood carries __________ __________ and other wastes away from cells.
wastes
Blood carries carbon dioxide and other __________ away from cells.
diffusion
Movement of materials into and out of your cells occurs by __________ and active transport.
cardiac
Your heart is made of __________ muscle tissue.
four
Your heart has __________ chambers.
atriums
The two upper chambers of your heart are called __________.
ventricles
The two lower chambers of your heart are called __________.
valve
A one-way __________ separates each atrium from the ventricle below it.
mixing
The wall between the right and left ventricles and atriums prevents oxygen poor blood from __________ with oxygen rich blood.
three
Scientists have divided the circulatory system into __________ sections.
coronary
The flow of blood to and from the tissues of the heart is called __________ circulation.
pulmonary
The flow of blood through the heart to the lungs and back to the heart is called __________ circulation.
oxygen
When blood is pumped into your lungs __________ is picked up by red blood cells.
carbon dioxide
When blood is pumped to your lungs __________ __________ is released by red blood cells.
arteries
Blood vessels that pump blood away from the heart are called __________.
oxygen
Arteries carry blood that is rich in __________.
pulmonary
The right ventricle is connected to the __________ artery.
aorta
The left ventricle is connected to the __________.
aorta
The largest artery in the human body is called the __________.
veins
The blood vessels that carry blood back to the heart are called __________.
valves
Veins have one-way __________ that keep blood moving toward the heart.
superior vena cava
The __________ __________ __________ returns blood from your head and neck back to the heart.
inferior vena cava
The __________ __________ __________ returns blood from your abdomen and lower body back to the heart.
capillaries
Arteries and veins are connected by microscopic blood vessels called __________.
one
The walls of capillaries are only __________ cell thick.
diffuse
Nutrients and oxygen __________ into body cells through the thin capillary walls.
diffuse
Waste materials and carbon dioxide __________ from body cells into the capillaries.
arteries
Blood pressure is highest in __________.
veins
Blood pressure is lowest in __________.
blood pressure
The force of the blood on the walls of the blood vessels is called __________ __________.
heartbeat
The rise and fall of your blood pressure in your blood vessels occurs with each __________.
systolic
When you measure blood pressure when the heart contracts your are measuring __________ pressure.
diastolic
When you measure blood pressure when the heart relaxes your are measuring __________ pressure.
normal
Your body tries to keep blood pressure __________.
heart
In the United States the leading cause of death is __________ disease.
atherosclerosis
A disease called __________ occurs when fatty deposits build up on the walls of arteries.
hypertension
What is another name for high blood pressure?
heart failure
What happens when the heart cannot pump blood efficiently?
salt
To prevent cardiovascular disease you should choose to eat foods that are low in __________, sugar, cholesterol, and saturated fats.
sugar
To prevent cardiovascular disease you should choose to eat foods that are low in salt, __________, cholesterol, and saturated fats.
cholesterol
To prevent cardiovascular disease you should choose to eat foods that are low in salt, sugar, ____________, and saturated fats.
saturated fats
To prevent cardiovascular disease you should choose to eat foods that are low in salt, sugar, cholesterol, and ____________ ____________.
relax
Learning to __________ and having a regular program of exercise can help prevent tension and relieve stress.
exercise
Learning to relax and having a regular program of __________ can help prevent tension and relieve stress.
smoke
Another way to prevent cardiovascular disease is to not __________.
faster
Smoking causes the blood vessels to contract, and makes the heart beat __________ and harder.
harder
Smoking causes blood vessels to contract and makes the heart beat faster and __________.
kidneys
Blood carries waste products from your cells to your __________ to be removed.
nutrients
Blood transports __________ and other substances to your body cells.
infections
Cells and molecules in blood fight __________ and help heal wounds.
plasma
The liquid part of blood is called __________.
plasma
Which part of your blood transports dissolved nutrients, minerals, and oxygen?
red blood cells
Which blood cell contains hemoglobin?
hemoglobin
A molecule found in red blood cells that binds to oxygen and carbon dioxide is called __________.
white blood cells
Which blood cell fights bacteria, viruses, and other invaders of your body?
platelets
Which blood cell helps clot blood?
four
In humans there are __________ blood types.
antigens
Blood types A, B, and AB have chemical identification tags called __________.
red blood cells
Antigens can be found on the surface of which blood cells?
antigens
Blood type O has no __________ on the surface of red blood cells.
antibodies
In blood types A, B, and O there are __________ that destroy or neutralize substances that do not belong in or are not part of your body.
O, A
If you have type A blood you can receive blood from blood types __________ and __________.
O, B
If you have blood type B you can receive blood from blood types __________ and __________.
all
If you have blood type AB you can receive blood from __________ blood types.
O
If you have blood type O you can receive blood from blood type __________.
A, AB
You have blood type A and you want to donate blood. Which other blood types can you donate blood to?
B, AB
You have blood type B and you want to donate blood. Which other blood types can you donate blood to?
AB
You have blood type AB and you want to donate blood. Which other blood types can you donate blood to?
all
You have blood type O and you want to donate blood. Which other blood types can you donate blood to?
A antigens
You have blood type A. What antigens are found on your red blood cells?
B antigens
You have blood type B. What antigens are found on your red blood cells?
A and B antigens
You have blood type AB. What antigens are found on your red blood cells?
No antigens
You have blood type O. What antigens are found on your red blood cells?
Anti-B antibodies
What antibodies can be found in the blood of a person with blood type A?
Anti-A antibodies
What antibodies can be found in the blood of a person with blood type B?
No antibodies
What antibodies can be found in the blood of a person with blood type AB?
Anti-A and Anti-B antibodies
What antibodies can be found in the blood of a person with blood type O?
Rh+
If the Rh factor is on red blood cells, the person has __________ blood.
Rh-
If the Rh factor is not on red blood cells, the person has __________ blood.
No
Can a person with Rh+ blood donate blood to a person with Rh- blood?
Yes
Can a person with Rh- blood donate blood to a person with Rh+ blood?
pericardium
layer that encloses the heart
left
direction in which the heart points
visceral pericardium
layer also known as the epicardium
parietal pericardium
separated from the epicardium by the pericardial cavity
epicardium
layer that protects the heart by reducing friction
myocardium
thick middle layer of the wall of the heart; composed of smooth, cardiac muscle
endocardium
inner layer of the heart wall consisting of epithelium and connective tissue as well as some specialized muscle tissue
atria
receive blood from lungs and body
ventricles
receive blood from atria and force into body
septum
separates right and left sides of heart
tricuspid valve
between right atrium and ventricle
chordae tendinae
fibers attatched to the tricuspid valve which pull it closed when papillary muscles contract, preventing backwash of blood
papillary muscles
responsible for pulling the atrioventricular valves closed by means of the chordae tendineae
pulmonary valve
link between right ventricle and artery extending from it
bicuspid (mitral) valve
between left atrium and ventricle
aorta
largest artery in the body
aortic valve
between the left ventricle and the largest artery in the body
semilunar valves
pulmonary valve and aortic valve
skeleton of the heart
rings of dense connective tissure surrounding the pulmonary trunk and aorta
coronary arteries
first two branches of the aorta; feed the heart
agina pectoris
extreme chest pain caused by blockage (thrombus) of coronary arteries
coronary thrombosis
blood clot completely blocking a coronary artery, causes a heart attack
myocardial infarction
another name for heart attack
coronary sinus
enlarged vein from junctions of coronary veins which empty into the right atrium
systole
contraction of heart muscle
diastole
relaxation of heart muscle
cardiac cycle
atrial systole/ventricular diastole, ventricular systole/atrial diastole, brief complete diastole
functional syncytium
mass of merging cells that function as a unit
cardiac conduction system
fibers of cardiac muscle tissue which distribute impulses over the entire heart
sinoatrial node
small, elongated mass of specialized cardiac muscle tissue just beneath the epicardium in the right atrium near the opening of the superior vena cava-starts impulses
pacemaker
common name for S-A node
atrioventricular node
only normal conduction pathway between the atrial and ventricular syncytia
A-V bundle
group of fibers which receive impluse from the atrioventricular node; also known as the bundle of His
Purkinje fibers
extend from branches of A-V bundle, stimulate muscle fibers in the ventricular walls
electrocardiogram (ECG)
recording of the electrical changes that occur in the myocardium during a cardiac cycle
waves
deflection in a ECG
P wave
in an ECG corresponds to depolarization of the atrial fibers (leads to contraction
QRS complex
in ECG corresponding to depolarization of ventrical membranes, much stronger!!
T wave
in ECG last wave of cardiac cycle corresponding to repolarization
acetylcholine
decreases S-A and A-V nodal activity; leads to heart rate decrease
baroreceptors
detect changes in blood pressure
auricle
expandable extension of the atruim
coronary sulcus
groove that marks border between atria and ventricles
interatrial septum
separates the two atria
interventricular septum
separates the two ventricles
pectinate muscles
prominent muscular ridges along the inner surface of the auricle and across the adjacent anterior atrial wall
foramen ovale
penetrates interatrial septum from fifth week of embryonic development until birth
fossa ovalis
small depression of site of prior foramen ovale
trabeculae carneae
muscular ridges on the internal surface of the ventricles
heart
hollow, muscular organ in the center of the chest that pumps blood throughout the body
septum
a wall of tissue that separates the left and right sides of the heart
blood vessels
hollow tubes that transport blood through the body
arteries
take blood away from the heart
capillaries
smallest blood vessels; materials are exchanged between the blood and the body's cells
veins
carry blood back to the heart
blood
connective tissue that includes plasma, red and white blood cells and platelets
atria
upper chambers of the heart that receive blood that comes into the heart