How does air move?air moves from areas of higher pressure to areas of lower pressurewhy does pressure vary?-warm air rises, creating lower pressure at the surface and higher pressure aloft.
-monsoonsWhy does air move?-solar radiation warms the surface
-air heats up and rises, surface air with lot of moisture
-as the air rises, it cools and water condenses
-rain condenses, releases heat and warms the air
-dry air descends back to the groundtrace gasesGases such as hydrogen, helium, carbon dioxide and argon that exist in very small quantities in the atmosphere 1%inert gaseslimited ability to react with other chemicals under normal conditions.
N2 and ArChemically reactive-large number of gases in the atmosphere are chemically reactive
-O2, O3, OH-Radiatively activeA property of gases that absorb incoming solar radiation or outgoing infrared radiation and which, thereby, alter the amount of heat present in the atmosphere.
CO2Atmospheric pressurethe pressure caused by the weight of the atmosphereatmospheric circulation cellA pattern of large-scale movement of air around the planet caused by the unequal heating of Earth's surface.Hadley cellthe rising air from the tropics is replaced by a surface flow of cooler air from the higher latitudes in an atmospheric circulationpolar cellsdriven by large temperature differences between the poles and the surrounding landmasses.Ferrel cellin response to the inflow of winds from the other two cells.Coriolis effectapparent clockwise deflection of winds in the Northern hemisphere and an apparent counterclockwise deflection in the Southern hemispherejet streama narrow band of winds that flow from east to west; this type of wind occurs near the top of the troposphere at the intersection of air masses with different properties.stormis a disturbance in the normal condition of the atmosphere that is characterized by the formation of an area of low atmospheric pressure.monsoonseasonal reversal of wind direction associated with large continents, especially Asia; In winter, the wind blows from land to sea. In summer, the wind blows from sea to land.droughtswhich occurs when there is a lack of precipitation for an unusually long period of timefloodingextremely high rain or snowfall can lead to water overflowing onto land that is usually dry.acid precipitationConversion of sulfur oxides and nitrogen oxides to acids that return to Earth as rain, snow, or fogparticulate pollutionmaterials of varying chemical composition, from mineral dust derived from particles of soil to very small organic particles emitted from fossil fuel combustion.Leada metal that is found in the atmosphere in the form of particulate air pollution.Carbon monoxidea colorless, odorless, and poisonous gasresidence timethe time an element or compound spends in a particular reservoirwet depositionchemicals that dissolve into water and fall out of the atmospheredry depositionchemicals that are directly deposited on land without rainozone layerProtective layer in atmosphere that shields earth from UV radiation.types of pollutants-primary: released directly from the source: SOx
-Secondary: modified to hazardous form after entering the air and mixing with other components: Ground level ozone
-Fugitive: do not go through smoke stakes (escapes): Methane from fracking
-point source and nonpoint source: coal fired power plant, automobilesFormation of ground level ozoneoxides of nitrogen (NOx)+volatile organic compounds (VOC)+Heat and sunlightClean air act: criteria air pollutants-sulfur oxides
-Ground level ozoneProblems with sulfur oxiderespiratory problems, acid rainThe release of sulfur oxides into the atmosphere results in the formation ofSulfuric acid and acid rainTropospheric ozone causes health problems. It is not emitted directly but is formed in the atmosphere. This makes it_______________________.a secondary pollutantWhich of the following is NOT a criteria air pollutant regulated by the Clean Air Act of 1970?
a. Particulate matter (PM 10 and PM 2.5 )
b. Lead (Pb)
c. Methane (CH 4 )
d. Ground level ozone (O 3 )
e. Answers a and d are both true.Methane (CH4)What industry created an agreement in 2011 that resulted in voluntary changes to reduce sulfur oxides (SOx) emissions?Shipping industryWhich of the following is NOT considered a greenhouse gas (GHG)?
a. Nitrous oxide (N 2 O)
b. Carbon dioxide (CO 2 )
c. Methane (CH 4 )
d. Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs)
e. Stratospheric ozone (O3)stratospheric ozone (O3)