APUSH Chapter 33 Key Terms
Key terms from chapter 33 in APUSH.
Terms in this set (37)
Reconstruction Finance Corporation
RFC was an independant agency of the United States government. It granted over 2 billion dollars to the local and state governments. It was charted under the Herbert Hoover administration.
Part of the Emergency Banking Act under FDR; plan to close down bankrupt banks and reorganize and reopen those banks strong enough to survive
As senator in 1932 of Washington preached his "Share Our Wealth" programs. It was a 100% tax on all annual incomes over $1 million and appropriation of all fortunes in excess of $5 million. With this money Long proposed to give every American family a comfortable income, etc
A Catholic priest from Michigan who was critical of FDR on his radio show. His radio show morphed into being severly against Jews during WWII and he was eventually kicked off the air, however before his fascist rants, he was wildly popular among those who opposed FDR's New Deal.
Townshend was a retired physician who developed a plan in which the government would give monetary resources to senior citizens ages sixty and over He and other demagogues pushed FDR to move the New Deal to help people directly and laid the foundations of the creation of Social Security.
United States writer noted for his novels about agricultural workers. Wrote "The Grapes of Wrath" and "Of Mice and Men".
Indian Reorganization Act
Government legislation that allowed the Indians a form of self-government and thus willingly shrank the authority of the U.S. government. It provided the Indians direct ownership of their land, credit, a constitution, and a charter in which Indians could manage their own affairs.
Social Security Act
August 14, 1935- The Social Security Act was drafted by President Roosevelt's committee on economic security, under Edwin Witte. The Act provided benefits to retirees and the unemployed, and a lump-sum benefit at death. Payments to retirees were financed by a payroll tax on current workers' wages, half directly as a payroll tax and half paid by the employer.
In 1933 President Franklin D. Roosevelt launched his New Deal to deal with the Great Depression. The administrative style was to create new agencies. Some were set up by Congress (such as TVA) and others by Roosevelt's Executive Order (such as WPA). The agencies were also referred to as "alphabet soup".FIB,CIA,EPA,etc.
Agricultural Adjustment Administration
Restricted agricultural production in the New Deal era by paying farmers to reduce crop area. Its purpose was to reduce crop surplus so as to effectively raise the value of crops, thereby giving farmers relative stability again.
Civilian Conservation Corporation
Provided employment in fresh air government camps for about 3 million workers, which helped in reforestation, firefighting, flood control, and swamp drainage. Income were mandatorily sent back to their parents. Critiics of this policy called it "militarizing" nation's youth
Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation
Created by the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation, insured individual deposits up to $5000, thereby decreasing the amount of bank failures and restored faith in the banks. Created by Glass-Steagall Reform Act. It insures up to $100,000 for bank deposits, thus helping put faith back into the banks.
Federal Emergency Relief Corporation
Federal Emergency Relief Administration (1933)- Relief, Recovery- Combined cash relief to needy families with work relief; superseded in early 1935 by the extensive work relief projects of the WPA and unemployment insurance established by Social Security.
Federal Housing Administration
United States government agency created as part of the National Housing Act of 1934. Insured loans made by banks and other private lenders for home building and home buying. The goals of this organization are: to improve housing standards and conditions; to provide an adequate home financing system through insurance of mortgage loans; and to stabilize the mortgage market.
National Labor Relations Board
Created by the National Labor Relations Act, also known as the Wagner Act it was created in the 1930's by congressman Wagner who was sympathetic to labor unions. The National Labor Relation Board was an administrative board that gave laborers the rights of self-organization and collective bargaining.
1935; established National Labor Relations Board; protected the rights of most workers in the private sector to organize labor unions, to engage in collective bargaining, and to take part in strikes and other forms of concerted activity in support of their demands.
National Recovery Administration
Government agency that was part of the New Deal and dealt with the industrial sector of the economy. It allowed industries to create fair competition which were intended to reduce destructive competition and to help workers by setting minimum wages and maximum weekly hours.
National Youth Administration
(FDR) , (NYA) 1935, Provided education jobs counseling and recreation for young people. part time positions at schools for students allowed for aid in High School, college, and grad school. Gave part time jobs to drop outs.
Public Works Administration
(FDR) , 1935 Created for both industrial recovery and for unemployment relief. Headed by the Secretary of Interior Harold L. Ickes, it aimed at long-range recovery and spent $4 billion on thousands of projects that included public buildings, highways, and parkways.
Tennessee Valley Authority
A New Deal agency created to generate electric power and control floods in a seven-U.S.-state region around the Tennessee River Valley . It created many dams that provided electricity as well as jobs. Was a relief, recovery, and reform effort that gave 2.5 million poor citizens jobs and land. It brought cheap electric power, low-cost housing, cheap nitrates, and the restoration of eroded soil.
Securities and Exchange Commission
Government agency having primary responsibility for enforcing the Federal securities laws and regulating the securities industry. It protected investors, listened to complaints, issued licenses and penalized fraud.
Works Progress Administration
May 6, 1935- Began under Hoover and continued under Roosevelt but was headed by Harry L. Hopkins. Provided jobs and income to the unemplyed but couldn't work more than 30 hours a week. It built many public buildings and roads, and as well operated a large arts project.
Was the U.S. Secretary of Labor from 1933 to 1945, and the first woman ever appointed to the US Cabinet. As a loyal supporter of her friend Franklin D. Roosevelt, she helped pull the labor movement into the New Deal coalition. She and Interior Secretary Harold Ickes were the only original members of Roosevelt's cabinet who remained in offices for his entire Presidency
This is the nickname for the day the stock market crashed (October 29, 1929). People who had unwisely borrowed money to buy high-priced stocks (intending to sell the stocks at a profit and repay lenders), went bankrupt. Black Tuesday marked the beginning of the Great Depression, a period of economic hardship in the United States lasting from 1929 to 1939.
October 24, 1929. Stock prices fluctuated greatly for several weeks, but panic did not start until this day.There was an extremely lartge volume of selling on Wall Street and the stock prices plunged. A group of bankers bought millions of stocks to try to stabalize the prices, but it only worked for a day.
Parts of Oklahoma, Kansas, Colorado, New Mexico, and Texas that were hit hard by dry topsoil and high winds that created blinding dust storms; this area of the Great Plains became called that because winds blew away crops and farms, and blew dust from Oklahoma to Albany, New York.
Hoover Dam; A dam on the Colorado River built during the Great Depression as part of a public-works program indented to stimulate buisness and provide jobs. Named Hoover Dam after its completion to honor President Hoover.
Franklin Delano Roosevelt
The 32nd president of the United States. He was president from 1933 until his death in 1945 during both the Great Depression and World War II. He is the only president to have been elected 4 times, a feat no longer permissible due to the 22nd Amendment to the Constitution.
President Franklin Roosevelt's precursor of the modern welfare state (1933-1939); programs to combat economic depression enacted a number of social insureance measures and used government spending to stimulate the economy; increased power of the state and the state's intervention in U.S. social and economic life.
Mary McLeod Bethune
Mary McLeod Bethune was a leader in the struggle for women's and black equality. She founded a school for black students that eventually became Bethune-Cookman University. She also served as an advisor to President Franklin D. Roosevelt
Many of the advisers who helped Roosevelt during his presidential candidacy continued to aid him after he entered the White House. A newspaperman once described the group as "Roosevelt's Brain Trust." They were more influential than the Cabinet. The group of expert policy advisers who worked with FDR in the 1930s to end the great depression
Congress of Industrial Organization
A federation of labor union for all unskilled workers. It provided a national labor union for unskilled workers, unlike the AFL, which limited itself to skilled workers. Included skilled and unskilled workers; open to women and minorities
Court Packing Proposal
In the wake of Supreme Court decisions that declared key pieces of New Deal legislation unconstitutional, Roosevelt proposed increasing the number of justices. If a justice did not retire at age 70, the president could appoint an additional justice up to a maximum of 6.
The practice where a government spends more money that it receives as revenue. Usually refers to the conscious effort to stimulate economic growth by lowering taxes or increasing government expenditures. FDR's admnistration was based on this concept. It involved stimulating consumer buying power, business enterprise, and ultimately employment by pouring billions of dollars of federal money into the economy even if the government didn't have the funds, and had to borrow money.
Little huts made out of cardboard and trashy components. People were forced to live in them for houses during the Depression, and people called the neighborhoods of "broken houses" Hoovervilles because they thought President Hoover did not care about the economic situation
The House and the Senate met for 100 days between March-June 1933. FDR's new deal which changed the way American government operates., March 9th to June 16th 1933. Congress passed more then 15 pieces of legislation. Laws and others that followed that expanded the federal governemnts role in the nations economy
Share the Wealth
a program advocated by Louisiana Senator Huey P. Long that appealed to desperate lower middle class Americans during the Great Depression. One version proposed confiscating large personal fortunes, guaranteeing every family a cash grant of $5,000 and every worker an annual income of $2,5000, providing pensions to the aged, reducing work hours, paying veterans' bonuses and ensuring college education for every qualified student. The figures didn't add up and offered little to promote economic recovery.
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