27 terms

Middle East Study Guide

STUDY
PLAY
Jihad
Islamic holy war
Refugees
people who flee their country because of persecution or danger
Ishmael
Abraham's son by Hagar, Sarah's servant. The founder of the Arab tribes
Torah
Jewish Holy Book
Koran
Holy book of Islam
West Bank
an area between Israel and Jordan on the west bank of the Jordan river populated largely by Palestinians
Gaza Strip
a coastal region at the southeastern corner of the Mediterranean bordering Israel and Egypt
OPEC
Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries; formed in 1961 to agree on a common policy for the production and sale of petroleum
Abraham
the first of the great Biblical patriarchs, father of Isaac, and traditional founder of the ancient Hebrew nation: considered by Muslims an ancestor of the Arab peoples through his son Ishmael.
Muhammad
the Arab prophet who founded Islam (570-632)
Martyrs
People who suffer or die for their beliefs
Jerusalem
the current capital of Israel; A city in the Holy Land, regarded as sacred by Christians, Muslims, and Jews.
Intifada
An uprising by Palestinian Arabs (in both the Gaza Strip and the West Bank) against Israel in the late 1980s and again in 2000 noun
Ex. "the first intifada ended when Israel granted limited autonomy to the Palestine National Authority in 1993"
Christianity
A Monotheistic system of beliefs and practices based on the Old Testament and the teachings of Jesus as embodied in the New Testament and emphasizing the role of Jesus as savior
Judaism
The Monotheistic religion of the Jews having its spiritual and ethical principles embodied chiefly in the Torah and in the Talmud
Diaspora
the dispersion or spreading of something that was originally localized (as a people or language or culture)
Ex. from the destruction of the temple in Jerusalem in 587-86 BC when they were exiled to Babylonia up to the present time
Islam
A religion based on the teachings of the prophet Mohammed which stresses belief in one god (Allah), Paradise and Hell, and a body of law written in the Quran. Followers are called Muslims.
Secular
Worldly; not connected with a church or religion
5 Pillars of Islam
1. belief in one God, Allah, and Muhammad his prophet
2. daily prayer; pray 5 times a day facing Mecca
3. alms (offering) for the poor; charity
4. fasting (sunrise to sunset) during Ramadan (Sept-Oct.)
5. hajj- pilgrimage to Mecca at least once in your lifetime (and visit Kaaba)
Palestinian Liberation Organization (PLO)
the group of Palestinians dedicated to regaining from Israel their homeland in Palestine
Persian Gulf War
a 1991 war in which the United States and its UN allies drove invading Iraqi forces out of neighboring Kuwait
Iran-Iraq War
Fought over religious differences, this war lasted many years, from 1980 to 1988. Saddam Hussein attempted to gain more land. The US backed Iran. Both sides lost cities, ports, and oil fields.
Dead Sea
a saltwater lake on the border between Israel and Jordan; its surface in 1292 feet below sea level. So salty that only bacteria can live in it.
Canaan
The ancient region lying between the Jordan, the Dead Sea, and the Mediterranean: The land promised by God to Abraham. Was divided between the twelve tribes after the Israelites settled the Promised Land.
Ex. A place of pilgrimage for Christianity and Islam and Judaism.
Mecca
City in western Arabia; birthplace of the Prophet Muhammad, and ritual center of the Islamic religion.
Yassar Arafat
Former leader of the PLO, now dead, who sought to restore a nation of Palestine in the Middle East
Ariel Sharon
former Israeli Prime Minister; mainly responsible, in 2004, for the unilateral withdrawal of Israeli forces from the Gaza Strip and the evacuation of Jewish settlements there.