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Chapter 13: A House Divided, 1840-1861
Terms in this set (32)
In the Supreme Court decision of Dred Scott v. Sandford (1857), Chief Justice Roger B. Taney issued a majority decision that defined who could be considered an American citizen. Which of the following arguments did Taney make when defining citizenship?
the founding fathers did mot include, nor intend to include African Americans in their definition of citizenship; therefore, African Americans are not entitled to claim the rights of being an American citizen
The first part of Mexico to be settled by large numbers of Americans was Tijuana.
Ralph Waldo Emerson predicted what the future of the United States would look like if the country tried to take over part of Mexico. Which of the following quotes resonates with his ideas?
"It will be as the man who swallows arsenic . . . Mexico will poison us."
Why did Abraham Lincoln oppose Senator Crittenden's plan to save the Union?
-Lincoln refused to compromise on the issue of the expansion of slavery.
-Lincoln feared that Crittenden's reference to land "hereafter acquired" offered the South a thinly veiled invitation to demand the acquisition of Cuba, Mexico, and other territory suited to slavery.
As the Union unraveled, most political leaders sought for possible solutions to resolve the crisis. Among them, Senator John J. Crittenden of Kentucky offered a widely supported compromise plan. Identify the elements of Crittenden's plan to save the Union.
-It guaranteed slavery in states where it already existed.
-It would extend the Missouri Compromise line to the Pacific, dividing territory "now held, or hereafter acquired" between slavery and free soil states.
The Supreme Court ruling Dred Scott v. Sandford held out hope of settling the slavery controversy once and for all. Scott had accompanied his owner to Illinois and Wisconsin where slavery was [...]. Scott sued for his freedom, claiming that residence on [...] made him free. The Supreme Court ruled that [...] could be citizens of the United States
2. free soil
3. only white persons
Identify the statements that describe westward migration and the factors that contributed to the movement in the 1840s.
-A severe economic depression in 1837 sparked a large migration westward in search of opportunity.
-Between 1840 and 1860, hundreds of thousands of men, women, and children emigrated to Oregon and California.
According to the video, how were the outcomes of the gold rushes in California and Australia similar?
not an outcome:
-Immigrant populations were able to improve their social standing because of the wealth acquired quickly during these gold rushes.
-The diverse populations of gold rush towns resulted in racial tensions.
-They led to the massive influx of people from all over the world to Australia and California.
The Republican Party of the 1850s stood for "free labor" and "free soil." Which of the following statements describe the Republican stance on slavery and labor?
-Republicans were not abolitionists; they focused on preventing the spread of slavery, not attacking it where it already existed.
-Republicans acknowledged that it was difficult for some white northern laborers to improve their lives and promised to help create more opportunities for them.
South Carolina's Declaration of Secession argued that South Carolina seceded from the Union because northerners have [...] runaway slaves, elected a president [...] to slavery and its expansion, and worked to [...] the power of slave-holding states.
Which of the following are valid statements about the election of 1844?
-President John Tyler used Texas annexation to facilitate his campaign and gain support from southerners.
-Whig candidate Henry Clay rejected annexation of Texas because he did not want to inflame sectional tensions.
John Brown raided the federal arsenal at Harper's Ferry, Virginia, in the hopes of starting a slave revolt. Brown became a public figure and conducted himself with great courage and dignity, winning admiration even from those who opposed his violent deeds. Which of the following statements about John Brown are true?
-During the Kansas civil war, Brown murdered five proslavery settlers at Pottawatomie Creek in revenge for the attack on free soil.
-Brown was executed by the state of Virginia.
-Brown's force that attacked Harper's Ferry on October 16, 1859, numbered only twenty-one men, five of whom were black.
Click on the areas of the map that were open to slavery by popular sovereignty in the 1850s.
-New Mexico territory
The path leading the nation to civil war culminated in the firing on Fort Sumter in April 1861. This chapter outlines the pivotal events between 1840 and 1861 leading to civil war. Place the following key events in chronological order.
1. The Mexican war
2. the compromise of 1850
3. the Dred Scott decision
4. the election of Abraham Lincoln
Texas annexation was not at the forefront of American politics until President John Tyler used it as a rallying cry for his bid for reelection in 1844. Identify the statements that correctly describe the reactions to the annexation of Texas.
-A letter by Secretary of State John C. Calhoun to President Tyler linked the idea of absorbing Texas directly to the goal of strengthening slavery in the United States.
-Prospective presidential candidates, Henry Clay and Martin Van Buren, met and agreed to reject the immediate annexation of Texas on the grounds it might lead to war with Mexico.
In this cartoon, the cat, depicted as [...], seeks to catch the mice, representing the [...], whereas the rat, symbolizing the [...] lies dead, underscoring the futile effort to hold the nation together.
1. Abraham Lincoln
2. Seceded states
What does the map reveal about continental expansion through 1853?
-Northern Maine was acquired from Great Britain in 1842.
-Florida was purchased in 1819. It became a territory of the United States in 1822 and a state by 1845.
-The territory of Texas extended beyond the contemporary state boundaries into present-day New Mexico and Colorado when it was annexed in 1845.
In June of 1858, Abraham Lincoln accepted the Illinois Republican Party's nomination to run against Senator Stephen Douglas. The Senate race turned the unknown Lincoln into a national political figure as he challenged, arguably, the most powerful senator in the United States. Which of the following statements describe Lincoln and his platform?
-Lincoln hated slavery but was not an abolitionist.
-While Lincoln did not think blacks were the equal of white men in all respects, he believed they deserved to enjoy the fruits of their labor.
-Lincoln began running for public office at the age of twenty-one and served four terms as a Whig in the state legislature and one term in Congress.
After analyzing the following presidential election map, determine which statements accurately reflect the election of 1860.
-Among the states that the Republicans lost in 1856, but won in 1860, were California and Pennsylvania.
-Upper South states, such as Tennessee and Virginia, supported a moderate candidate like John Bell.
The Free Soil Party wanted to stop the expansion of slavery into the West. Identify the reasons people supported the Free Soil Party platform.
-Northerners saw moving West as a form of economic betterment, so if the Free Soil Party blocked slavery's expansion, ordinary Americans wouldn't have to compete with plantations to have access to the land.
-The Free Soil platform appealed to racist thinking in the North as it did not include emancipation or equal rights.
-The Free Soil Party would create more free states, which would break southern domination of the federal government.
Before Lincoln assumed office on March 4, 1861, seven northern states had formed the Confederate States of America, adopted a constitution, and chosen a new president.
The Compromise of 1850 removed the slavery question from congressional debate. Yet, the new Fugitive Slave Act made further controversy inevitable. Which of the following provisions of the Fugitive Slave Act proved controversial?
- Fugitive slaves who were apprehended in the North were now subject to federal commissions that decided their fate outside the control of local and state laws.
-The Fugitive Slave Act now prohibited state and local governments from intervening on behalf of fugitive slaves within their jurisdictions.
Senator Stephen A. Douglas hoped to apply the principle of popular sovereignty to the Kansas-Nebraska Act. Identify what "popular sovereignty" means and how it was used in Douglas's reasoning.
-Popular sovereignty is the principle that people should rule, and as such, the status of slavery should be determined by the votes of local settlers and not Congress.
-Popular sovereignty was seen as a political middle ground on the issue of slavery.
Identify the statements that describe the U.S. railroad system in the 1850s.
-Most of the new railroad construction in the 1850s occurred in Ohio, Illinois, and other states in the Old Northwest Territory.
-Between 1848 and 1860, railroad workers added thousands of miles of new tracks.
-The railroads completed the reorientation of the Northwest's trade from the South to the East.
Slavery had a disruptive impact on the traditional political parties and immediately caused political transformation in the mid-1850s. Identify the economic and social changes that led to the rise of the Republican Party.
-mass immigration from Europe
-completion of the market revolution and industrialization
Identify the arguments made by these American political figures during the Great Debate that led to the Compromise of 1850.
wanted to abandon the Wilmot Proviso if it meant sectional peace
- Daniel Webster
rejected any idea of compromise on slavery
-John C. Calhoun
argued that a "higher law" than the Constitution—the law of morality—condemned slavery, and so southerners had no right to claim that abolition was a violation of their constitutional rights
-William H. Seward
Which of the following events that took place between 1855 and 1856 helped fuel the rise of the Republican Party?
-Stephen Douglas's policy of "popular sovereignty" was discredited by "Bleeding Kansas."
-the brutal caning of Charles Sumner
What arguments did southerners advocating secession from the Union put forth?
-They were concerned that Republicans would extend their party into the South by appealing to non-slaveholders.
-They were concerned about a Republican-dominated government and what it would mean for the South.
The Free Soil Party opposed the expansion of slavery into the newly acquired territories from Mexico. Previous attempts had been made to limit slavery. Which of these efforts provided the Free Soil Party with a strong basis to argue for congressional action?
-the Northwest Ordinance
-the Missouri Compromise
In 1846, Congressman David Wilmot of Pennsylvania proposed a resolution that came to be known as the Wilmot Proviso. Identify the statements that correctly describe the Wilmot Proviso.
-The failure of the Wilmot Proviso led to the creation of the Free Soil Party, which opposed the expansion of slavery.
-It proposed that slavery be prohibited in the territories acquired from Mexico.
By 1856, the Republican Party was a coalition of antislavery Democrats, northern Whigs, Free Soilers, and Know-Nothings. The Republicans were a mixed group, but they quickly rose as the major alternative to the Democratic Party throughout the North. What was the Republican Party's platform and beliefs regarding slavery?
-Republicans believed that "the Slave Power," the proslavery political leadership of the South, posed a greater danger to American liberty and aspirations than immigrants and Catholicism.
-"Free labor" northern society offered opportunity to move up in life by allowing the laborer to move up to the status of landowner or craftsman.
-Slavery spawned a social order consisting only of degraded slaves, poor whites with no hope of advancement, and idle aristocrats.
The Texas Revolt of 1835 was a chaotic affair that eventually led to the independent Republic of Texas in 1836. Identify the main battles and protagonists in relation to the Texas Revolt.
Battle of the Alamo:
- Mexican victory over the forces of Texas
Battle of San Jacinto:
- Texan victory over Santa Anna
General Antonio López de Santa Anna:
- president and general of the Mexican Republic
- first president and general of the Republic of Texas
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
Chapter 11: The Peculiar Institution
Chapter 12: An Age of Reform, 1820—1840
Inquisitive Ch 14
Chapter 13: A House Divided, 1840-1861
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