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Pope Gregory VII
Thought popes should have the power to name bishops not the kings; excommunicated Henry IV because he spoke out against him
Emperor Henry IV
He fought against Pope Gregory VII over the power to choose church officials and was excommunicated; begged for forgiveness for three days in the cold in order to be let back in the church
It was the region where Jesus lived, preached, and died; modern-day Jerusalem and surrounding areas
Pope Urban II
Pope eager to regain the Holy Land from the Muslim Turks; he urged kings and nobles to join together to fight against the Muslim Turks
King Richard I
Known as Richard the "Lion Heart"; led Christian soldiers in the Third Crusade; earned respect of his enemies and Christian soldiers for his bravery and fairness; worked with Saladin
Muslim leader; held Jerusalem against King Richard I; known as kind and wise; reopened Jerusalem to Christian pilgrims
Francis of Assisi
Son of wealthy merchant; renounced his wealth; spent his life traveling as he later founded the Franciscan Order
Dominican philosopher; argued that rational thought could be used to support Christian beliefs; wrote argument to prove existence of God
Also known as "Great Charter"; document King John was forced to approve; limited the king's power and protected rights of the people
Joan of Arc
French heroine and military leader inspired by religious visions to organize French resistance to the English and to have Charles VII crowned king; was later tried for heresy and burned at the stake
Killed 25 million in Europe; spread by fleas on rats; also known as the Bubonic Plague; resulted in economic decline
The effort by Christian leaders to drive the Muslim Moors out of Spain; lasted from the 1100s until 1492.
Prince of Aragon who married Princess Isabella of Castile; ruled all of Spain; forced Jews in Spain to become Christians or leave and banned Islam
Princess of Castile; married Prince Ferdinand of Aragon; together they ruled all of Spain; they banned Islam and forced all Jews in Spain to become Christian or leave. She also helped pay for the voyages of Christopher Columbus
An organization of priests who looked for and punished non-Christians in Spain; torture and death common
Baptism, Reconcilliation, Eucharist, Confirmation, Marriage, Ordination, and Last Rites
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