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41 terms

The Later Middle Ages

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excommunicate
To exclude from a church or a religious community
Pope Gregory VII
Thought popes should have the power to name bishops not the kings; excommunicated Henry IV because he spoke out against him
Emperor Henry IV
He fought against Pope Gregory VII over the power to choose church officials and was excommunicated; begged for forgiveness for three days in the cold in order to be let back in the church
Crusades
A long series of wars between Christians and Muslims in Southwest Asia
Holy Land
It was the region where Jesus lived, preached, and died; modern-day Jerusalem and surrounding areas
Pope Urban II
Pope eager to regain the Holy Land from the Muslim Turks; he urged kings and nobles to join together to fight against the Muslim Turks
King Richard I
Known as Richard the "Lion Heart"; led Christian soldiers in the Third Crusade; earned respect of his enemies and Christian soldiers for his bravery and fairness; worked with Saladin
Saladin
Muslim leader; held Jerusalem against King Richard I; known as kind and wise; reopened Jerusalem to Christian pilgrims
clergy
Church officials
religious order
Group of people who dedicate their lives to religion and follow common rules
Francis of Assisi
Son of wealthy merchant; renounced his wealth; spent his life traveling as he later founded the Franciscan Order
friars
People who belonged to religious orders but lived and worked among the general public
Thomas Aquinas
Dominican philosopher; argued that rational thought could be used to support Christian beliefs; wrote argument to prove existence of God
natural law
A law that governs how the world operates
Magna Carta
Also known as "Great Charter"; document King John was forced to approve; limited the king's power and protected rights of the people
Parliament
The lawmaking body that governs England today
Hundred Years' War
A long conflict between England and France that lasted from 1337 to 1453
Joan of Arc
French heroine and military leader inspired by religious visions to organize French resistance to the English and to have Charles VII crowned king; was later tried for heresy and burned at the stake
Black Death
Killed 25 million in Europe; spread by fleas on rats; also known as the Bubonic Plague; resulted in economic decline
heresy
Religious ideas that oppose accepted church teachings
Reconquista
The effort by Christian leaders to drive the Muslim Moors out of Spain; lasted from the 1100s until 1492.
King Ferdinand
Prince of Aragon who married Princess Isabella of Castile; ruled all of Spain; forced Jews in Spain to become Christians or leave and banned Islam
Queen Isabella
Princess of Castile; married Prince Ferdinand of Aragon; together they ruled all of Spain; they banned Islam and forced all Jews in Spain to become Christian or leave. She also helped pay for the voyages of Christopher Columbus
Spanish Inquisition
An organization of priests who looked for and punished non-Christians in Spain; torture and death common
authority
The power or right to give orders or make decisions
policy
A plan, set of rules, or way to act
feudalism
Institution weakened by Hundred Years' War
Jews, Muslims and heretics
People who suffered increasing hostility
Bubonic Plague
Black Death
Habeas Corpus
Legal right that protects against unlawful imprisonment
Longbow
Weapon that changed warfare
Social Class
Levels of society
Jerusalem
City captured by First Crusaders
English
People who fought French in Hundred Years' War
Saving
This is what salvation means
Gothic Cathedral
Stained glass windows, flying buttresses, and high arches are characteristics
Seven Sacraments
Baptism, Reconcilliation, Eucharist, Confirmation, Marriage, Ordination, and Last Rites
Four Gospels
Matthew, Mark, Luke and John described Jesus' life in these
Jews
Blamed for the death of Jesus
Hierarchy of the Roman Catholic Church
Pope, Cardinal, Arch-Bishop, Bishop and Priest
3rd Crusade
Richard the Lion Heart and Saladin agree to let Christian pilgrims travel to Holy Land safely