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To exclude from a church or a religious community

Pope Gregory VII

Thought popes should have the power to name bishops not the kings; excommunicated Henry IV because he spoke out against him

Emperor Henry IV

He fought against Pope Gregory VII over the power to choose church officials and was excommunicated; begged for forgiveness for three days in the cold in order to be let back in the church


A long series of wars between Christians and Muslims in Southwest Asia

Holy Land

It was the region where Jesus lived, preached, and died; modern-day Jerusalem and surrounding areas

Pope Urban II

Pope eager to regain the Holy Land from the Muslim Turks; he urged kings and nobles to join together to fight against the Muslim Turks

King Richard I

Known as Richard the "Lion Heart"; led Christian soldiers in the Third Crusade; earned respect of his enemies and Christian soldiers for his bravery and fairness; worked with Saladin


Muslim leader; held Jerusalem against King Richard I; known as kind and wise; reopened Jerusalem to Christian pilgrims


Church officials

religious order

Group of people who dedicate their lives to religion and follow common rules

Francis of Assisi

Son of wealthy merchant; renounced his wealth; spent his life traveling as he later founded the Franciscan Order


People who belonged to religious orders but lived and worked among the general public

Thomas Aquinas

Dominican philosopher; argued that rational thought could be used to support Christian beliefs; wrote argument to prove existence of God

natural law

A law that governs how the world operates

Magna Carta

Also known as "Great Charter"; document King John was forced to approve; limited the king's power and protected rights of the people


The lawmaking body that governs England today

Hundred Years' War

A long conflict between England and France that lasted from 1337 to 1453

Joan of Arc

French heroine and military leader inspired by religious visions to organize French resistance to the English and to have Charles VII crowned king; was later tried for heresy and burned at the stake

Black Death

Killed 25 million in Europe; spread by fleas on rats; also known as the Bubonic Plague; resulted in economic decline


Religious ideas that oppose accepted church teachings


The effort by Christian leaders to drive the Muslim Moors out of Spain; lasted from the 1100s until 1492.

King Ferdinand

Prince of Aragon who married Princess Isabella of Castile; ruled all of Spain; forced Jews in Spain to become Christians or leave and banned Islam

Queen Isabella

Princess of Castile; married Prince Ferdinand of Aragon; together they ruled all of Spain; they banned Islam and forced all Jews in Spain to become Christian or leave. She also helped pay for the voyages of Christopher Columbus

Spanish Inquisition

An organization of priests who looked for and punished non-Christians in Spain; torture and death common


The power or right to give orders or make decisions


A plan, set of rules, or way to act


Institution weakened by Hundred Years' War

Jews, Muslims and heretics

People who suffered increasing hostility

Bubonic Plague

Black Death

Habeas Corpus

Legal right that protects against unlawful imprisonment


Weapon that changed warfare

Social Class

Levels of society


City captured by First Crusaders


People who fought French in Hundred Years' War


This is what salvation means

Gothic Cathedral

Stained glass windows, flying buttresses, and high arches are characteristics

Seven Sacraments

Baptism, Reconcilliation, Eucharist, Confirmation, Marriage, Ordination, and Last Rites

Four Gospels

Matthew, Mark, Luke and John described Jesus' life in these


Blamed for the death of Jesus

Hierarchy of the Roman Catholic Church

Pope, Cardinal, Arch-Bishop, Bishop and Priest

3rd Crusade

Richard the Lion Heart and Saladin agree to let Christian pilgrims travel to Holy Land safely

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