Hormones are organized into four groups based on chemical structure:
Thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3), hormones of the thyroid gland; hormones that stimulate tissue metabolism, energy utilization, and growth.
_________are chains of amino acids. This is the largest group of hormones; all pituitary gland hormones are _________
_________ hormones, derived from cholesterol, are released by the reproductive organs and the suprarenal glands.
These compounds coordinate cellular activities and affect enzymatic processes (such as blood clotting) that occur in extracellular fluids.
(1) humoral stimuli (changes in the composition of the extracellular fluid), (2) hormonal stimuli (arrival or removal of a specific hormone), or (3) neural stimuli (the arrival of neurotransmitters at neuroglandular junctions)
endocrine reflexes are triggered by (3)
In this feedback (rare), the secretion of a hormone produces an effect that further stimulates hormone release
_________control the activities of endocrine cells in the adenohypophysis (anterior lobe)
Releasing hormones (RH)
_________stimulate production of one or more hormones at the adenohypophysis
inhibiting hormones (IH)
_________ prevent the synthesis and secretion of specific pituitary hormones.
neurohypophysis (posterior lobe)
the hormones ADH and oxytocin released at the _________
suprarenal (renal) medullae
The hypothalamus exerts direct neural control over the secretory activity of the _________
The "master gland," situated in the sella turcica of the sphenoid bone and connected to the hypothalamus by the infundibulum; includes the posterior lobe (pars nervosa) and the anterior lobe (pars intermedia and pars distalis).
Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) Follicle cells of ovaries in female Estrogen secretion, follicle development ----- Nurse cells of testes in male Stimulation of sperm maturation
Luteinizing hormone (LH) Follicle cells of ovaries in female Ovulation, formation of corpus luteum, Progesterone secretion (prepare for pregnancy) -------- Interstitial cells of testes in male Testosterone secretion
Prolactin (PRL) Mammary glands in female Production of milk
Growth hormone (GH) All cells Growth, protein synthesis, lipid mobilization and catabolism
Melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH) Melanocytes Increased melanin synthesis in epidermis the only hormone released by the pars intermedia
Antidiuretic hormone (ADH or vasopressin) Kidneys Reabsorption of water; elevation of blood volume and pressure
Oxytocin (OT) Uterus, mammary glands (females) Labor contractions, milk ejection ------------------- Ductus deferens and prostate gland (males) Contractions of ductus deferens and prostate gland; ejection of secretions
ADH and oxytocin are called _________because they are produced and released by neurons
decrease the amount of water lost at the kidneys. _________also causes the constriction of peripheral blood vessels, which helps to elevate blood pressure.
______ stimulates the contractions of smooth muscle cells in the uterus and mammary glands. In the human male, _________causes smooth muscle contractions in the prostate gland.
The anterior lobe of the pituitary gland, also called the anterior pituitary or the pars distalis.
The production of hormones in the adenohypophysis is controlled by the _________
The two lobes of the thyroid gland are united by a slender connection: _________
follicular cells in thyroid surround a ______
follicular cells create a protein called
Thyroglobulin with the attachment of iodine becomes:
Two main thyroid created hormones:
_________ (hormone) accounts for roughly 90 percent of all thyroid secretions.
C thyrocytes produce the hormone _________
Four small glands embedded in the posterior surface of the thyroid; responsible for parathyroid hormone secretion.
osteoclasts and osteoblasts (although osteoclast effects predominate)
PTH stimulates _________
Lymphoid organ, site of T cell formation.
hormone secreted by thymus, _________ essential to the development and differentiation of T cells.
cortex of adrenal produces _________
(1) an outer zona glomerulosa; (2) a middle zona fasciculata; and (3) an inner zona reticularis
Deep to the capsule there are three distinct zones, in the cortex: _________
medulla of adrenals produces _________
Cortisol and corticosterone
the most important glucocorticoids secreted by the suprarenal cortex (2)_________
Aggregations of endocrine cells in the pancreas
Alpha cells produce the hormone _________
Beta cells produce the hormone _________
Hormone secreted by the alpha cells of the pancreatic islets; elevates blood glucose concentrations.
Hormone secreted by the beta cells of the pancreatic islets; causes a reduction in blood glucose concentrations.
The principal androgen produced by the interstitial cells of the testes.