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Anatomy Ch. 19 - Endocrine

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Endocrine
_________cells are glandular secretory cells that release hormones directly into the interstitial fluids, lymphoid system, or blood.
Amino acid derivatives, Peptide hormones, Steroid hormones, eicosanoids
Hormones are organized into four groups based on chemical structure:
thyroid hormones
Thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3), hormones of the thyroid gland; hormones that stimulate tissue metabolism, energy utilization, and growth.
Peptide hormones
_________are chains of amino acids. This is the largest group of hormones; all pituitary gland hormones are _________
Steroid
_________ hormones, derived from cholesterol, are released by the reproductive organs and the suprarenal glands.
Eicosanoids
These compounds coordinate cellular activities and affect enzymatic processes (such as blood clotting) that occur in extracellular fluids.
(1) humoral stimuli (changes in the composition of the extracellular fluid), (2) hormonal stimuli (arrival or removal of a specific hormone), or (3) neural stimuli (the arrival of neurotransmitters at neuroglandular junctions)
endocrine reflexes are triggered by (3)
positive feedback
In this feedback (rare), the secretion of a hormone produces an effect that further stimulates hormone release
regulatory hormones
_________control the activities of endocrine cells in the adenohypophysis (anterior lobe)
Releasing hormones (RH)
_________stimulate production of one or more hormones at the adenohypophysis
inhibiting hormones (IH)
_________ prevent the synthesis and secretion of specific pituitary hormones.
neurohypophysis (posterior lobe)
the hormones ADH and oxytocin released at the _________
suprarenal (renal) medullae
The hypothalamus exerts direct neural control over the secretory activity of the _________
pituitary gland
The "master gland," situated in the sella turcica of the sphenoid bone and connected to the hypothalamus by the infundibulum; includes the posterior lobe (pars nervosa) and the anterior lobe (pars intermedia and pars distalis).
adenohypophysis
anterior lobe of the pituitary
neurohypophysis
posterior lobe of the pituitary
Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)
Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)
Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)
Luteinizing hormone (LH)
Prolactin (PRL)
Growth hormone (GH)
Melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH)
produced in the Anterior Lobe (7)
Antidiuretic hormone (ADH or vasopressin)
Oxytocin (OT)
produced in the Posterior Lobe (2)
Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)
Thyroid gland
Secretion of thyroid hormones
TSH
Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)
Suprarenal cortex (zona fasciculata) Glucocorticoid secretion
ACTH
Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)
Follicle cells of ovaries in female
Estrogen secretion, follicle development
-----
Nurse cells of testes in male
Stimulation of sperm maturation
FSH
Luteinizing hormone (LH)
Follicle cells of ovaries in female
Ovulation, formation of corpus luteum, Progesterone secretion (prepare for pregnancy)
--------
Interstitial cells of testes in male
Testosterone secretion
LH
Prolactin (PRL)
Mammary glands in female
Production of milk
PRL
Growth hormone (GH)
All cells
Growth, protein synthesis, lipid mobilization and catabolism
GH
Melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH) Melanocytes
Increased melanin synthesis in epidermis
the only hormone released by the pars intermedia
MSH
Antidiuretic hormone (ADH or vasopressin) Kidneys
Reabsorption of water; elevation of blood volume and pressure
ADH
Oxytocin (OT)
Uterus, mammary glands (females)
Labor contractions, milk ejection
-------------------
Ductus deferens and prostate gland (males) Contractions of ductus deferens and prostate gland; ejection of secretions
OT
neurosecretions
ADH and oxytocin are called _________because they are produced and released by neurons
ADH
decrease the amount of water lost at the kidneys.
_________also causes the constriction of peripheral blood vessels, which helps to elevate blood pressure.
oxytocin
______ stimulates the contractions of smooth muscle cells in the uterus and mammary glands.
In the human male, _________causes smooth muscle contractions in the prostate gland.
adenohypophysis
The anterior lobe of the pituitary gland, also called the anterior pituitary or the pars distalis.
hypothalamus
The production of hormones in the adenohypophysis is controlled by the _________
isthmus
The two lobes of the thyroid gland are united by a slender connection: _________
follicle cavity
follicular cells in thyroid surround a ______
thyroglobulin
follicular cells create a protein called
thyroid hormone
Thyroglobulin with the attachment of iodine becomes:
T3, T4
Two main thyroid created hormones:
Thyroxine (T4)
_________ (hormone) accounts for roughly 90 percent of all thyroid secretions.
calcitonin (CT)
C thyrocytes produce the hormone _________
parathyroid glands
Four small glands embedded in the posterior surface of the thyroid; responsible for parathyroid hormone secretion.
osteoclasts and osteoblasts (although osteoclast effects predominate)
PTH stimulates _________
thymus
Lymphoid organ, site of T cell formation.
thymosin
hormone secreted by thymus, _________ essential to the development and differentiation of T cells.
suprarenal cortex
corticosteroids
cortex of adrenal produces _________
(1) an outer zona glomerulosa;
(2) a middle zona fasciculata; and
(3) an inner zona reticularis
Deep to the capsule there are three distinct zones, in the cortex: _________
Epi, Norepi
medulla of adrenals produces _________
Cortisol and corticosterone
the most important glucocorticoids secreted by the suprarenal cortex (2)_________
pancreatic islets
Aggregations of endocrine cells in the pancreas
glucagon
Alpha cells produce the hormone _________
insulin
Beta cells produce the hormone _________
glucagon
Hormone secreted by the alpha cells of the pancreatic islets; elevates blood glucose concentrations.
insulin
Hormone secreted by the beta cells of the pancreatic islets; causes a reduction in blood glucose concentrations.
testosterone
The principal androgen produced by the interstitial cells of the testes.