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_________cells are glandular secretory cells that release hormones directly into the interstitial fluids, lymphoid system, or blood.

Amino acid derivatives, Peptide hormones, Steroid hormones, eicosanoids

Hormones are organized into four groups based on chemical structure:

thyroid hormones

Thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3), hormones of the thyroid gland; hormones that stimulate tissue metabolism, energy utilization, and growth.

Peptide hormones

_________are chains of amino acids. This is the largest group of hormones; all pituitary gland hormones are _________


_________ hormones, derived from cholesterol, are released by the reproductive organs and the suprarenal glands.


These compounds coordinate cellular activities and affect enzymatic processes (such as blood clotting) that occur in extracellular fluids.

(1) humoral stimuli (changes in the composition of the extracellular fluid), (2) hormonal stimuli (arrival or removal of a specific hormone), or (3) neural stimuli (the arrival of neurotransmitters at neuroglandular junctions)

endocrine reflexes are triggered by (3)

positive feedback

In this feedback (rare), the secretion of a hormone produces an effect that further stimulates hormone release

regulatory hormones

_________control the activities of endocrine cells in the adenohypophysis (anterior lobe)

Releasing hormones (RH)

_________stimulate production of one or more hormones at the adenohypophysis

inhibiting hormones (IH)

_________ prevent the synthesis and secretion of specific pituitary hormones.

neurohypophysis (posterior lobe)

the hormones ADH and oxytocin released at the _________

suprarenal (renal) medullae

The hypothalamus exerts direct neural control over the secretory activity of the _________

pituitary gland

The "master gland," situated in the sella turcica of the sphenoid bone and connected to the hypothalamus by the infundibulum; includes the posterior lobe (pars nervosa) and the anterior lobe (pars intermedia and pars distalis).


anterior lobe of the pituitary


posterior lobe of the pituitary

Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)
Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)
Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)
Luteinizing hormone (LH)
Prolactin (PRL)
Growth hormone (GH)
Melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH)

produced in the Anterior Lobe (7)

Antidiuretic hormone (ADH or vasopressin)
Oxytocin (OT)

produced in the Posterior Lobe (2)

Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)
Thyroid gland
Secretion of thyroid hormones


Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)
Suprarenal cortex (zona fasciculata) Glucocorticoid secretion


Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)
Follicle cells of ovaries in female
Estrogen secretion, follicle development
Nurse cells of testes in male
Stimulation of sperm maturation


Luteinizing hormone (LH)
Follicle cells of ovaries in female
Ovulation, formation of corpus luteum, Progesterone secretion (prepare for pregnancy)
Interstitial cells of testes in male
Testosterone secretion


Prolactin (PRL)
Mammary glands in female
Production of milk


Growth hormone (GH)
All cells
Growth, protein synthesis, lipid mobilization and catabolism


Melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH) Melanocytes
Increased melanin synthesis in epidermis
the only hormone released by the pars intermedia


Antidiuretic hormone (ADH or vasopressin) Kidneys
Reabsorption of water; elevation of blood volume and pressure


Oxytocin (OT)
Uterus, mammary glands (females)
Labor contractions, milk ejection
Ductus deferens and prostate gland (males) Contractions of ductus deferens and prostate gland; ejection of secretions



ADH and oxytocin are called _________because they are produced and released by neurons


decrease the amount of water lost at the kidneys.
_________also causes the constriction of peripheral blood vessels, which helps to elevate blood pressure.


______ stimulates the contractions of smooth muscle cells in the uterus and mammary glands.
In the human male, _________causes smooth muscle contractions in the prostate gland.


The anterior lobe of the pituitary gland, also called the anterior pituitary or the pars distalis.


The production of hormones in the adenohypophysis is controlled by the _________


The two lobes of the thyroid gland are united by a slender connection: _________

follicle cavity

follicular cells in thyroid surround a ______


follicular cells create a protein called

thyroid hormone

Thyroglobulin with the attachment of iodine becomes:

T3, T4

Two main thyroid created hormones:

Thyroxine (T4)

_________ (hormone) accounts for roughly 90 percent of all thyroid secretions.

calcitonin (CT)

C thyrocytes produce the hormone _________

parathyroid glands

Four small glands embedded in the posterior surface of the thyroid; responsible for parathyroid hormone secretion.

osteoclasts and osteoblasts (although osteoclast effects predominate)

PTH stimulates _________


Lymphoid organ, site of T cell formation.


hormone secreted by thymus, _________ essential to the development and differentiation of T cells.

suprarenal cortex


cortex of adrenal produces _________

(1) an outer zona glomerulosa;
(2) a middle zona fasciculata; and
(3) an inner zona reticularis

Deep to the capsule there are three distinct zones, in the cortex: _________

Epi, Norepi

medulla of adrenals produces _________

Cortisol and corticosterone

the most important glucocorticoids secreted by the suprarenal cortex (2)_________

pancreatic islets

Aggregations of endocrine cells in the pancreas


Alpha cells produce the hormone _________


Beta cells produce the hormone _________


Hormone secreted by the alpha cells of the pancreatic islets; elevates blood glucose concentrations.


Hormone secreted by the beta cells of the pancreatic islets; causes a reduction in blood glucose concentrations.


The principal androgen produced by the interstitial cells of the testes.

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