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BSC116 Test 4
Terms in this set (305)
4 key stages to animal development
fertilization, cleavage (embryonic cell division), gastrulation, organogenesis
fruit fly, nematode, purple sea urchin, frog, chick
easily available or can be bred in the lab; has properties that make it useful for studying some biological process; from a species that we don't mind killing
union of sperm and egg; n + n = 2n
extracellular matrix in unfertilized egg
protects egg and attracts sperm in unfertilized egg
vesicle at sperm tip with hydrolytic enzymes break down jelly
structure w/ proteins that bind receptors on eggs
fusion leads to change in membrane potential
Cells divide to form a ___________.
earliest divisions, rapid
hollow ball of cells with a blastocoel
proteins, mRNA, etc. in specific places
the process by which adult germ tissues are formed
Gastrulation starts at the _______________.
skin, nervous system, & others
skeleton, muscles, circulatory system, excretory system, lining of body cavity, & others
lining of digestive tract, respiratory system, & others
the differentiation of tissues into organs
condensation of dorsal cells above archenteron
cells curve inward to form neural tube, which becomes central nervous system
neural crest cells
migrate to form other nerves
encloses embryo in fluid
sequesters waste products
outer epithelium; initiates implantation
inner mast cells
part that will become the embryo
The human gestational period is typically ____ weeks.
forms from embryonic and material tissue
cells changing shape and moving relative to each other
mesh of macromolecules outside of cells
As cleavage proceeds, cells ____________.
changes in gene expression based upon cell-cell interactions (cell-cell contact and/or signaling molecules)
nematode that is very useful for studying the diversification of cells
As cell lines develop, they lose their ____________________.
apical ectodermal ridge (AER)
at tip of bud
zone of polarizing activity (ZPA)
posterior, proximal location
cells that conduct and store information in the nervous system
houses most of cytoplasm, nucleus, etc.
branched extensions at receiving end
extends from neuron to cell it acts on
voltage difference across cell membrane
membrane potential of a neuron that isn't excited
gated ion channels
respond to some stimulus by opening/closing
voltage-gated ion channels
respond to change in membrane potential
______________ of membrane potential activates voltage-gated Na+ channels.
leads to further depolarization and more Na+ channels opening
massive, rapid depolarization
voltage-gated channels for Na+
During the falling phase and undershoot, _____________________________ inactivated.
time between action potentials
Vertebrate neurons are insulated by ____________.
glial cells in CNS; myelinate axons in the CNS
glial cells in PNS; myelinate axons in the PNS
nodes of Ranvier
gaps in myelin sheath
excitatory postsynaptic potentials
depolarize membrane (a little)
inhibitory postsynaptic potentials
hyperpolarize membrane (a little)
series of potentials from same synapse
potentials from different synapse
central nervous system (CNS)
brain + nerve cord(s) running body length
peripheral nervous system (PNS)
ganglia (cell bodies) and nerves outside CNS
is where all stimulus and voluntary (and involuntary) behavior is processed
carries impulses to & from brain
embryonic glia that form tracks along which newly formed neurons migrate from the neural tube, the structure that gives rise to the CNS
facilitate information transfer at synapses and sometimes release neurotransmitters; initiates formation of the blood-brain barrier during embryonic development
radial glia and astrocytes
can act as stem cells, generating new neurons in glia
immune cells that protect against pathogens
line ventricles and promote circulation of cerebrospinal fluid
connect brain with head
connect spinal cord to rest of body
bring information to the CNS
carry information from CNS
skeletal muscles; voluntary (& reflexes)
autonomic nervous system
smooth & cardiac muscle, glands, etc; involuntary
arousal, "fight or flight"
calming, "rest and digest"
midbrain + pons + medulla
coordinates movement, hand-eye coordination; proprioceptors
diencephalon: thalamus + hypothalamus + epithalamus
center for information processing in mammals
a diffuse network of neurons in the core of the brain stem; filters incoming information and determines what reaches the cerebral cortex
regulates sleep cycles, coordinated by a group of neurons in the hypothalamus and melatonin from the pineal gland
borders the brainstem, responsible for emotions, includes amygdala, hippocampus, and thalamus
two hemispheres are not identical in function
bind molecules, initiate change in membrane potential
deformed or moved to sense pressure, stretch, motion, etc.
detect light, electricity, magnetism, etc.
detect heat and cold
detect "pain", like extreme pressure, chemicals, etc.
step 1 to getting a stimulus to the brain; sensory cell detects stimulus
step 2 to getting a stimulus to the brain; conversion of stimulus to receptor potential
step 3 to getting a stimulus to the brain; if receptor potential initiates action potential
step 4 to getting a stimulus to the brain; CNS (brain) processing of input from sensory neurons
strengthening the stimulus; adding energy
become unresponsive to constant stimulation
Sound stimulus has both _______ and _________.
the magnitude of the vibrations
frequency: basilar of varying thickness; different parts vibrate in response to different pitches
lateral line system
mechanoreceptors for detecting low-frequency vibrations
chamber surrounded by ciliated cells
simple cup of photoreceptors
white, protective layer made of collagen and elastic fiber
layers of neurons & photoreceptor
transparent area of sclera; surrounded by iris; moves to adjust to regulate light
the actual hole for light
sensitive to light but not colors
distinguish colors, but not very light sensitive
Intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (iPRGCs)
signal environmental light level to the central circadian clock and contribute to the pupil light reflex
visual pigment in rods
basic contractile unit of myofibril
middle of myosin fibers lined up
ends of actin fibers line up at ends:
muscles contract by actin and myosin sliding past each other
coils around actin
arranged along tropomyosin
all fibers controlled by one neuron
multiple planes of movement
one plane of movement
secrete bone matrix
reasorb bone components
sum of all of an organism's responses to stimuli
study of animal behavior in natural environments
What stimulus leads to the response?
What is the evolutionary history of this trait?
moving toward or away from a stimulus
fixed action patterns
some trigger leads to a behavior; must be carried to completion
one animal's signal leads to another's response
traits that are fixed by genotype and development
modifying behavior based upon experience
like sensory adaptation; stop responding to stimulus that requires no response
many birds "learn" who their mother is during a brief period after birth
associated one stimulus with another
arbitrary stimulus leads to certain response
maintaining an internal "map"
requires being able to see solutions past obstacles
offspring of one species raised by another
look at identical twins placed with different foster families
Genetic variation in a population can lead to ____________ variation.
Because there is genetically-based variation in these traits in these populations, ___________________ can act on them.
maximize benefit, minimize cost
long-term pair- bonding
multiple, long- term pair-bonding
one male, multiple females
one female, many males (uncommon)
males aren't aware of certainty of paternity; selection has favored males with behaviors that increase likelihood that their energy is spent on their own offspring
result of differential mating success when there is competition for mates
a branch of mathematics that deals with frequency dependent
doing something that lowers your own fitness but increases someone else's
fitness (representation of your genes in the next generation) depends on your reproduction and that of your close relatives
organisms aren't aware of Hamilton's rule, but natural selection will favor these behaviors if they increase inclusive fitness
the study of how organisms interact with each other and their environments
groups of the individuals of the same species
groups of populations
groups of communities
groups of ecosystems
populations change to adapt to their environments
response of organisms, populations, etc. to their environments
focuses on how the organism reacts to environment
focuses on how and why populations changes over time
focuses on interactions between species and their populations
focuses on energy/nutrient flow between communities and their environment (emergent properties)
focuses on changes in energy, nutrients, and organisms across ecosystems
focuses on how components of the biosphere interact to influence global change
movement of individuals to new areas
Species' ___________ are often limited by other species.
long-term prevailing weather conditions
areas away from equator get less intense sunlight
major habitat types, determined by both biotic and abiotic factors
areas of transition between biomes
___________ leads to community variation, patchiness.
Aquatic biomes are characterized by ________ and _________.
_______________ and ______________ are major abiotic drivers.
conspecific individuals occurring in a particular area
number of individuals per unit area (or volume)
pattern of spacing among individuals
aggregated in patches; attracted to resources
evenly spaced; repulsed by each other, as with territories
independent of other individuals
age- and sex-structure of the the population
pattern of reproduction and survival
_________________________ are a graphical way to express the same information.
repeated reproduction: multiple reproductive periods
"big-bang reproduction": all reproduction concentrated in a single effort
As long as there are more births than deaths, a population will _________.
If growth is unchecked, it can lead to _______________________.
number of individuals that a habitat can sustain
logistic population growth model
incorporates carrying capacity
for traits that are helpful at high densities
for traits that are helpful at low densities
pathogens spread easier in crowded conditions
predator preferences my change at high prey numbers
accumulation of wastes
large population may produce waste faster than it degrades
physiological responses to crowding
Properties of a population can change with ________________ due to more interactions.
successful pops., lots of emigration to sinks
less successful pops., lots of immigration from sources
is when there is a +/- relationship; includes predation, herbivory, and parasitism
+/- one animal eats another; predator adapted to locate, subdue prey; prey adapted to hide, escape
brightly colored, warning; generally poisonous, venomous, etc.
harmless resembling venomous, etc. animal
two venomous, etc. resembling each other
special case of predation; animal eats a plant/alga
+/- parasite lives off the host
+/+ both species benefit; we have already discussed lots of examples
+/0 one benefits, other not affected
Competition results from species have _______________.
-/- species compete for resources needed for growth, reproduction, etc.
sum of the biotic and abiotic needs of a species; it's place/role in a habitat
Wide niche overlap leads to _______________.
Narrow niche overlap leads to _________________.
resource partitioning leads to morphological differences
___________ and ____________ are both aspects of community diversity.
number of different species
proportion of individuals that belongs to each species
____ is skewed toward smaller proportions.
feeding relationships among species
producers (plants) ® 1° consumers (herbivores) ® 2° consumers (carnivores) ® ...
inefficiency of energy transfer between levels, ca. 10%
dynamic stability hypothesis
longer chains less stable than shorter
most abundant or greatest biomass (total mass of entire population)
key niches maintaining community structure; not necessarily dominant
V -> H -> C
V <-H <- C
Species richness is maintained by ________________.
intermediate disturbance hypothesis
some disturbance increases species diversity
first colonizers replaced by other species, which are replaced by other species
beginning without soil; e.g., after a volcanic eruption, glacier
with soil; e.g., fire burns forest
more species closer to the equator; higher tropical diversity
island equilibrium model
island size, distance away determine number of species
_____________ alters island equilbrium.
sum of biotic and abiotic interactions in an area
flow of energy
energy (usually sunlight) transformed to chemical energy by autotrophs, all eventually lost as heat
cycling of nutrients
elements continually recycled; move between ecosystems
autotrophs; e.g., plants
herbivores that producers
carnivores that eat herbivores
carnivores that eat carnivores
get energy from detritus (non- living organic material)
amount of light energy converted to chemical energy in a given span of time
gross primary production (GPP)
total 1° production for an ecosystem
net primary production (NPP)
part stored as organic matter
new biomass added to consumers; amount of 1° production converted to consumer
% production transferred up to the next level
if adding a nutrient increases productivity, then it is limiting
increased algal production due to pollution (sewage, fertilizer)
_________________ is vital to biogeochemical cycles.
Burning fossil fuels creates _______________.
becomes more concentrated in higher trophic levels
Excess _____ in atmosphere associated with increasing global temperatures.
the use of organisms to add missing nutrients/materials to an ecosystem
the use of organisms to clean up pollutants
The goal of conservation biology is to conserve __________, and mitigate negative effects of humans on ecosystems.
(human caused) ecosystem modification is causing increased extinction rates
threats to biodiversity
habitat loss and destruction, introduced/exotic species, overexploitation, global change
minimal viable population (MVP)
the lowest N where a population can sustain its numbers
effective population size
population size adjusted for breeding potential
biodiversity hot spots
smaller areas with lots of diversity
________________________ creates smaller populations.
have surround by "buffers" that separate
considers close relationships of humans and other organisms
becomes more concentrated in higher trophic levels
an introduced species that establishes, expands its range, and has a substantial impact on native organisms & ecosystems
______________ have become devastatingly invasive.
The earliest cell divisions of a zygote are referred to as what?
The deuterostome developmental stage that looks like a hollow ball of cells is called what?
The blastocyst is the...
positively, sodium (Na)
During an action potential, the inside of the neuron becomes more _____ charged because of a large influx of _____.
the specific neurons that carry the action potentials
Action potentials generated from different stimuli are distinguished in the brain by...
The establishment of differences in cortical hemisphere function is called _____.
Hearing is based upon which kind of sensory receptor?
Active contraction only and being arranged in antagonistic pairs
Changes in the activity of skeletal muscles allows for the movement of bones in opposite directions by...
Myosin cannot bind to actin
If calcium ions are not present in the sarcomere, muscle contraction cannot occur because...
Test individuals with the same genotype in different environments
In order to determine the environmental component of a behavior, we need to:
males raising offspring
Which trait would NOT be the product of sexual selection?
Female sandpipers aggressively court males and, after mating, leave the clutch of young for the male to incubate. This sequence may be repeated several times with different males. Which of the following terms best describes this behavior?
"altruism" in nature is a selfish act to give your own genes an advantage
Which term refers to the spatial patterning of individuals in a population?
availability of pollinators
Which is an example of a biotic factor that could limit species distributions?
global wind and heating patterns affect where rain falls
One reason that deserts tend to be found at 30 N and 30 S latitudes is that...
A population of deer grows from 100 to 200 to 600, and when it gets to 600, it levels off. This population must have reached...
Slight variations in niche allow similar species to coexist
Which of the following best describes resource partitioning?
Individuals will be found only in the realized niche
What is one difference between the fundamental niche and the realized niche?
What trophic level of a food web is occupied by herbivores?
Total primary production minus respirationcheck
Which of the following best describes "net primary production"?
hey are typically highly territorial
Why are big, predatory animals rare? Most big, predatory animals are tertiary consumers, which implies that...
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