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Elements of a Short Story.
Terms in this set (20)
Elements of a short story
Point of view
Information about the story before the story begins. (characters and setting)
All events that lead up to the climax
The turning point of the story
All events that happen after the climax
Denouement or Resolution
How the story is resolved. (idea about the future)
Defined-A struggle with a force outside one's self.
Kinds of External Conflict
Man vs Man
a physical struggle against other men, forces of nature or animals
Man vs Circumstances
a struggle against fate or circumstances of life facing the main character
Defined-A struggle within one's self
Kinds of Internal Conflict
Man vs Society-a struggle against ideas, practices, or customs of other people
Man vs Himself/Herself- a struggle with his/her own soul, ideas of right or wrong, physical limitations, choices, etc.
Categorizing the development of a character
How the author reveals the characters to his/her audience.
A well developed character. You know a lot of information about them.
(i.e. Lightning McQueen)
A character we know very little about
(i.e. Cinderella's step sisters)
A character that does not go through a significant change throughout the story.
(i.e. Chick Hicks)
A character that changes significantly throughout the story.
(i.e. Lightning McQueen)
A character that is used to enhance another character. Typically they are reflected opposites.
(i.e. Cinderella/Wicked Stepmother)
A flat character that is instantly recognizable to most readers.
(i.e. "car salesman", "dumb jock" "shushing librarian")
The main character of the story. Usually the character the audience (you) emphasizes with. They may not always be a good person.
(i.e. Lightning McQueen,
A character that causes conflict for the main character. They oppose the main character. Without this character there would be no plot line.
(i.e. Chick Hicks)
How the author reveals the characters to the reader
Four basic questions to ask about the character(s)
What do others think about the character?
What are the thoughts of the character?
What are the actions of the character?
What is the appearance of the character?
Defined-Time and Place of the story
Time-When does the story take place?
i.e 21st century, present, Tuesday morning, January 31st, 1916...
Place-Where does the story take place?
i.e. Phoenix, Arizona, The middle of the ocean...
Point of View
Defined: The perspective that the author writes the story from.
3rd Person Limited
3rd Person Omniscient
First Person Point of View
Definition: In the first-person point of view, the story is told by one of the characters:
Example: Stargirl by Jerry Spinelli is told in the first-person:
At the time I simply considered the episode a mystery. It did not occur to me that I was being watched. We were all being watched. (2)
David Sedaris also writes using first-person in his essay "Go Carolina": from Me Talk Pretty One Day
The agent came for me during geography lesson. She entered the room and nodded at my fifth-grade teacher, who stood frowning at the map of Europe. What would needle me later was the realizing that this had all been prearranged. My capture had been scheduled to go down at exactly 2:30 on a Thursday afternoon. (4)
Third Person Limited Point of View
Definition: Third-person limited point of view is when you tell the story from the point of view of someone who is outside the story.
Example: The Pearl by John Steinbeck uses third-person point of view.
Kino awakened in the near dark. The stars still shown and the day had drawn only a pale wash of light in the lower sky to the east. The roosters had been crowing for some time, and the early pigs were already beginning their ceaseless turning of twigs and bits of wood to see whether anything to eat had been overlooked. (1)
Third Person Omniscient (All knowing)Point of View
Definition: Third-person omniscient point of view is when the story is written from an outside source who knows what everyone is thinking and feeling. When you use third-person omniscient, you can reveal the innermost feelings and thoughts of multiple characters as with Kira in Lois Lowery's Gathering Blue.
Example: Gathering Blue by Lois Lowery
The chief guardian stood. "Do you wish to speak?" he asked Kira for the third time. For the third time she shook her head no. She felt terribly tired. (37)
Defined: A difference between the way something appears and what is actually true.
This is the contrast between what is said and what is meant. Most sarcastic comments are ironic.
For instance, the person who says, "Nice going, Einstein," isn't really paying anyone a compliment.
This is when we the reader/viewer know what is going to happen and the character does not
For example: It's when you know the boogeyman is hiding in the attic, but the hero of the movie doesn't know that.
It is the contrast between what happens and what was expected. Irony of situation is often humorous, such as when a prank backfires on the prankster.
For example: A person goes to spray shaving cream in his friend's face, and he ends up spraying his own face.
Mrs. G's daughter says that she is going to take smaller bites, but then proceeds to put a giant meatball in her mouth.
The central topic, subject or concept the author is trying to point out.
(i.e. Courage, Fear, Love)
It is NOT the main message the author wants the reader to understand
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