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FTCE Reading K-12
Terms in this set (109)
theorist who believed that humans have an inborn or "native" propensity to develop language and knowledge of grammar
theorist of language development; disagreed with Skinner about language acquisition. LAD (1960s Language Acquisition Device)
creator of Transactional Theory of reading (30s-40s), where meaning comes from the readers transaction of the text
known theorist of reader-response/close reading
child development; investigated how culture & interpersonal communication guide development; zone of proximal development; play research
theorist of Social Development Theory: Social Interaction is necessary for development and learning. ZPD - Zone Proximal Development: distance between the student's ability to work with guidance & the ability to work independently. Teacher is collaborator rather than transmitter of knowledge. Social constructivist (theory): Knowledge adds on to other knowledge(scaffolding). Believer in the philosophy that collaboration among students is essential for learning.
theorist of the Pedagogy of the Oppressed, people already have true knowledge and expertise and do not need to be taught by an expert
Believes children encounter a series of developmental stages as they mature. Construct new ideas based on past or current knowledge. Discovery learning, scaffolding, constructivism.
Four stage theory of cognitive development: 1. sensorimotor, 2. pre-operational (age 2-7 concept of sequence), 3. concrete operational (logical and abstract thought age 7-12) and 4. formal operational. He said that the two basic processes work in tandem to achieve cognitive growth-assimilation and accommodation.
children's active efforts to construct literacy knowledge through informal experiences. Interacting with books, telling stories, writing.
incremental rehearsal (IR)
A technique that uses flash cards to teach unknown words (sight words).
Language Experience Approach (LEA)
Method for connecting oral language to written language. Speech written down. An integration of reading and writing approaches using students' personal experiences and oral language (words).
A reading approach based on highly regular spelling patterns. Such as: Nat the cat sat on the mat. Focuses on phonics and grammar rule.
BICS (Basic Interpersonal Communication Skills)
Equated with "social language". Learning second language skills through face to face interaction. Translation through speaking, listening and viewing.
(ELL term) Second language learners who have a positive attitude towards both first and second language learning.
a testing procedure that focuses on the process used in solving complex, real-life problems
Balanced Literacy Approach
Phonemic Awareness; phonics, word study, vocab development, read aloud, shared reading, guided reading, teach reading strategies, literacy centers, independent reading, shared/interactive/mediated writing; emphasize word identification in proportion to individual words; acknowledge L1, immerse and real world experiences with various purposes; enrich environment with print; accept and celebrate progress (w/errors); encourage at home
the ability to reflect on and manipulate the sound structure of spoken language. knowledge that words are made-up of small units segmented together. ability to rime and separate syllables
ability to identify component sounds within words, awareness of sounds functioning in words
the process of using familiar word parts (base words, prefixes, and suffixes) to determine the meaning of unfamiliar words.
Trying to identify unknown words and their meaning through the use of its context. Most appropriate for teaching multiple-meaning words.
One in which the teacher provides learners with the prerequisite knowledge, skill, or behavior needed to benefit from planned instruction. Helpful for low IQ students.
Syntactic working system (syntax)
word order, rules, grammar (structure of language), punctuation.
a concept or framework a person uses that organizes and interprets information. (Background knowledge, consciously and unconsciously used to process/comprehend reading)
2 vowels in which the sound begins at the first vowel and moves toward the sound of the second vowel (snout=ou/boy=oy)
A word-study activity in which words on cards are grouped according to designated categories, as by spelling or vowel patterns, or meanings, etc. Helps students make sense of new vocabulary
phrasing, using punctuation, reading expression, inflection. Rate, accuracy > to improve reading fluency. (ex. in poetry)
Informal Reading Inventory (IRI)
An informal instrument designed to help teachers determine a child's independent, instructional, frustration,& capacity levels. Designed to determine a student's reading instructional needs. Used to determine word recognition, word meaning, reading strategies, comprehension and decoding.
whole language approach
Teaching reading by encouraging early use of all language skills-talking and listening, reading and writing. Allows students to select their OWN READING MATTER and that emphasizes the use of recognition of words in every contexts.
A way of acquiring insight into children's reading strategies by studying the mistakes they make when reading aloud. An examination of reading errors or substitutions (miscues) as the basis for determining the strengths and weaknesses of students' reading skills.
cases in which a student reads a word that is different from the one that is printed.
a tool for scoring and analyzing a student's developmental reading ability/level. Assess student with a provided text. Document errors to determine reading level.
Types of groupings
Databased, peer-tutoring, interest-based, heterogeneous ability grouping
The understanding that language is made up of a pattern of sounds - assess by rhyming. Teach students to recognize, orally the individual souns in words, teach students to blend sounds in words ex. b and l = bl_end
in language, the smallest distinctive sound unit (basic sounds that make up words)
A written representation of a sound using one or more letters. (a letter, group of letters, symbol)
in a language, the smallest unit that carries meaning; may be a word or a part of a word (such as a prefix)
A morpheme that must be "bound" with another to form a word. Ex: un, ish, es, ed, pre
recognition of the onset (all sounds prior to the vowel) and the rime (the rest of the syllable)
correspondence of sound between words or the endings of words - the VOWEL soud of a syllable. A syllable must have a vowel
Alphabetic Principle (graphophonemic awareness)
an understanding that letters and letter patterns represent the sounds of spoken words. Using the alphabet to represent sounds.
combining individual phonemes to form words or combining onsets and rimes to make syllables, then combining syllables to make words.
Two or more consecutive consonants which retain their individual sounds (e.g., /bl/ in block; /str/ in string) sounded together in such a way that each is heard.
graphophonic working system
decoding or sounding out words by letter, group of letters (see grapheme)
the ability to reflect on and manipulate the sound structure of spoken words, including: identifying & making rhymes, recognizing alliteration, identifying and working with syllables in spoken words identifying and working with onsets and rhymes in spoken syllables.
Also called the Alphabetic Principle, refers to the fact that each individual sound has a graphical representation of individual letters of letter blends. The second part of the correspondence between sounds and letters that leads to reading. Understanding that letters change and so do sounds. Blending. Common sight words. Recognizing symbols and sounds with phonics and visual cues.
Semantic working system
Meaning comes first - background knowledge ad context clues and picture clues
Use of knowledge about the subject of the text and words associated with that subject to identify an unknown word within a text: meaning cues from each sentence and the evolving whole
Syntactic working system
word order, rules, grammar(structure of language), punctuation (syntax)
grammatical cues like word order, function words, and word endings
Lexical working system
word parts (roots, prefixes, suffixes)
Independent Reading Level (IRL)
The level at which a reader can read text with 95% accuracy (i.e., no more than one error per 20 words read). Independent reading level is relatively easy text for the reader.
Instructional Reading Level
Reading level at which a student recognizes and comprehends words well enough to avoid frustration, but still requires some assistance or guidance from teacher. 90-95% accuracy and ~80% comprehension
Frustration Reading Level
the level at which a reader reads at less than 90% accuracy
Vocabulary Tier 1
Tier of Basic Words - everyday language
Vocabulary Tier 2
Mature Words with multiple meanings - require direct instruction
Vocabulary Tier 3
low frequency words that are content specific; technical terms; ex: meteorologist, anemometer, gauge, propeller
Areas of Fluency
Rate, Phrasing, Accuracy, Expression, Automaticity
fluency without effort (but not expression)
Survey, Question, Read, Recite, Review
Question-answer relationship; readers learn how to answer questions, delineate between explicit and implicit information, and draw on background knowledge: "right there," "think and search," "author and you," and "on your own" questions.
Stands for "What I KNOW, what I WANT to know, and what I LEARNED. It is is a type of graphic organizer to assist students in monitoring their reading comprehension
A graphic organizer that uses lines and circles to organize information according to categories. Previewing vocabulary, Spider Map, Draw meaning from words
assess conceptual knowledge through graphic representations, downward, hierachy, shows relation across.
takes place when a group of students or an entire class reads out loud.
Large, oversized books used in shared reading, usually at the emergent reading level.
small, temporary, and heterogeneous groups of student that gather together to discuss a book that each of them are reading with the goal of enhancing comprehension.
A kind of book that is used to teach reading. Text Book
1. ID most high frequency words. 2. Use pics & patterns to confirm meaning . 3. Use Syntax & Phonics to figure out most simple words. 4. Use spelling patterns to figure out words. 5. They are gaining control of reading strategies. 6. Use their own experiences & background info for meaning. CVC words
Independent Reading Level
the level at which students are able to read on their own (reading for pleasure). This is also a good way to improve reading fluency.
ID most words, read chapter books with good comprehension, consistently monitor cross-check and self, correct reading. They can offer their own interpretations of text based on personal experience and prior reading.
Components of a Reading Program
1.Reading-engagement of the written word 2.Oral Language-connection between oral & written 3.Writing-allow students to practice 4.Spelling- correlates w ability to identify words
1. Phonological -sound
2. Syntactic- structural, organization (grammar) of language dictates how words are combined into sentences; word order, capitalization, punctuation, morphemes - smallest meaningful unit in grammar,. By age 4-5 children should have the same grammar as their surrounding family
3. Semantic- The meaning; vocabulary, synonyms, antonyms, idioms
4. Pragmatic- Social and cultural and how it varies
A brief story that leads to a moral, often using animals as characters
a traditional story, especially one concerning the early history of a people or explaining some natural or social phenomenon, and typically involving supernatural beings or events.
story of a person's life written by another person
intended to explain or describe something
a narrative handed down from the past, containing historical elements/facts that have been exaggerated, tend to mention real people and real events
letter cues are added to context cues in the decoding of print. Knows names and sounds of major consonants. rely on context and initial letters to figure out words
early literacy skill acquisition
naming letters with phonological awareness and sounds is and effective method
Early Literacy Development
preschoolers understanding of written language begins before they learn to read or write
text that meets the complexity demands of the standards, students should have the necessary comprehension, vocabulary and word recognition skills to read independently
interpretation of the language and symbols sent by the source through a channel
the use of word patterns to read unfamiliar words
Approach to instruction in which students work with a small group of peers to achieve a common goal and help one another learn.
An instructional strategy that emphasizes group instruction . The instruction offered should include a great deal of teacher-student interactivity.
the conventional spelling system of a language (system of written language)
a term used by sociologists to describe the notion that certain scientific results get more notoriety and influence based on the existing prestige of the researchers involved. Skilled decoders get better at reading while poor decoders tend to fall further behind.
Trying to identify unknown words by the sense of the sentence, search for the meaning of an unknown word through an examination of its context.
An assessment that compares a student's performance to a sample of that student's peers. (ex. against national test takers)
an assessment procedure in which a student's performance is compared to a particular level of mastery/standards. Teacher attempts to measure each student against uniform objectives.
Assessment used throughout teaching of a lesson and/or unit to gauge students' understanding and inform and guide teaching
Assessment data collected after instruction to evaluate a student's mastery of the curriculum objectives and a teacher's effectiveness at instructional delivery.
grade equivalent score
Test score indicating the grade level of students to whom a test taker performed most similarly.
Analysis based on the overall quality of a performance or product. Assessing performance across multiple standards/criteria.
occurs in a more casual manner and may include observation, inventories, checklists, rating scales, rubrics, performance and portfolio assessments, participation, peer and self evaluation, and discussion
books organized according to their difficulty so that they can be matched to students reading at that level→ important for fluency instruction
reliabilty of a test
the degree to which a test measures the same thing consistently
The ability of a test to measure what it is intended to measure
finding word meanings, orthography, phonology
a balanced literacy term for a book that is purposely read repeatedly and used as part of both the reading and writing workshop
Two consecutive consonants that represent one phoneme, or sound (e.g., /ch/, /sh/, /ph/).
The reading of instructions, recipes, coupons, classified ads, notices, signs, and other documents which we have to read and correctly interpret in school and in society.
the study of the conventional spelling system of a language
the sounds that letters make and the letters that are used to represent sounds. relationships between phonemes and graphemes.
teaching approach: look at the beginning of the word, connect the beginning letter to the text and think what word would make sense there.
the study of speech sounds in language
Using images, color, or layout to help readers
An alternative assessment method based on a student's performance of a skill based on a real-life situation.
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