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document that permitted colonists to settle on land claimed by their ruler


a person who journeys for religious purposes


a person whose views differ from others


shares in company often sold to raise money for the colony

Mayflower Compact

Pilgrim's written plan of government for their colony

cash crop

crop grown for profit

Northwest Passage

Waterway connecting the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans


person who owes money


unjust treatment to a person because of his or her beliefs

indentured servant

a person who agreed to work for someone for a certain amount of time in exchange for the cost of the ocean voyage to North America


group from England who wanted to purify, or reform, the Church of England


person who wanted to seperate from the Church of England



House of Burgesses

the first law making assembly in an English colony

White returned to England seeking aid for the colonists in Roanoke. he arrived in to find Spain and England at war and England with no ships to send supplies to the colonists.

White returned to Roanoke only to find that the colonists had mysteriously disappeared.

English ships were smaller than Spanish ships and could move faster. The English had more powerful guns than the Spanish.

The English won the Battle of the Spanish Armada and became one of the world's most powerful nations.

Jamestown was located on low, swampy land where disease-carrying mosquitoes lived. The water was not healthy to drink.

Jamestown settlers began to die almost as soon as they arrived.

The men at Jamestown spent their days searching for gold. They did not plant crops or build housing.

Men died of starvation and disease. John Smith took over, and under his guidance the colonists survived.

Tobacco grew well in Virginia and became a cash crop as exports rose.

Jamestown grew rapidly.


Samuel de Champlain

beaver fur trading


Henry Hudson


Hudson River


Huron Indians






New Amsterdam


New France


New Netherland




St. Lawrence River


New England, Middle, and Southern Colonies

The three regions of the 13 colonies

Thick woods provided excellent timber for homes; coastal waters were rich in fish.

New England colonies

Breadbasket of colonies

The Middle Colonies

Rich soil produced valuable crops such as tobacco and rice

The Southern Colonies

Roger Williams

Dissenter forced by Puritans to leave Massachusetts; found of Rhode Island

England renamed New Netherland and New Amsterdam

New York and New York City

William Penn, a Quaker

Founder of Pennsylvania

Large section of land north of Virginia, given to a Catholic landowner, for a colony


James Oglethorpe found last English colony in North America with debtors; helped protect the Carolinas from the Spanish in Florida


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