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Practice Exam I
Terms in this set (31)
Structures as different as human arms, bat wings, and dolphin flippers contain many of the same bones, which develop from. similar embryonic tissues. These are structural similarities are an example of:
C. Convergent evolution
D. The evolution of common structure as a result of common function
E. the evolution of similar appearance as a result of common function
All of the following are correct about evolution by natural selection EXCEPT:
A. Attributes the unity of life to the descent of all organisms from a single ancestral cell that lived in the remote past.
B. Requires individuals in a population to vary in their heritable characteristics.
C. Requires organisms in a population to produce more offspring than the environment can support.
D. Requires that individual organisms pass on characteristics that they acquire through use or disuse during their lifetime to their offspring.
E. Attributes the diversity of life to ancestral organisms that lived in various habitats, with those populations gradually acquiring modifications, or adaptations, that improve their reproductive fitness.
Requires that individual organisms pass on characteristics that they acquire through use or disuse during their lifetime to their offspring.
Which of the following are NOT necessary for terminating the effect of epinephrine on liver cells?
A. Protein phosphatases.
C. Phospholipase C.
D. The regulatory subunits of protein kinase A.
E. GTPase activity in the alpha subunit of the G-protein.
In response to insulin, monomers of the receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) that binds insulin:
A. Phosphorylates a G-protein.
B. Forms a trimeric complex with Ras.
C. Forms a dimer with another RTK molecule.
D. Is phosphorylated.
E. Triggers increased glucose uptake into the cell. F) A, B, and C.
G. C, D, and E.
C, D, and E
When proteins are phosphorylated by a kinase, from where does the phosphate group come that is transferred to the protein target?
A. From a phosphorylated residue on the kinase.
B. From a phosphorylated residue on a phosphatase.
C. From a phosphorylated but different residue on the target protein.
D. From ATP.
E. From DNA.
F. From the mRNA that encodes the target protein.
Which of the following is NOT generally true of cell communication systems?
A. Cell signaling was an early event in the evolution of life.
B. Communicating cells may be far apart or close together.
C. Most signal receptors are bound to the outer envelope of the nuclear membrane.
D. Protein phosphorylation is a major mechanism in many signal transduction cascades.
E. In response to a signal, the cell may engage in a cellular response and/or in the transcription of RNA.
most signal receptors are bound ot the outer envelope of the nuclear membrane
A new antagonist molecule has been discovered that binds to and blocks plasma membrane receptors. What effect will this antagonist have on the action of the steroid hormone, testosterone?
A. It will block testosterone from binding to its receptor.
B. It will block testosterone from activating cAMP signaling.
C. It will increase testosterone-mediated signaling.
D. It will not affect testosterone-mediated signaling.
E. It will irreversibly activate the testosterone signal transduction pathway.
it will not affect testosterone-mediated signaling
Which of the following hormones in NOT produced by the anterior pituitary?
B. Growth hormone (GH).
D. Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH).
E. Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH).
Which of these hormone pairs have opposing functions?
A. Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and Luteinizing hormone (LH).
B. Insulin and glucagon.
C. Vasopressin and Anti-diuretic hormone (ADH).
D. Oxytocin and Prolactin.
E. Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and Cortisol.
F. Thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) and Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH).
insulin and glucagon
A person is reading in a temperature-controlled room at a comfortable temperature. Then, the temperature in the room suddenly decreases to an uncomfortably chilly temperature. What will happen to the hormone levels in this person?
A. Testosterone levels will increase.
B. Thyroid hormone levels will increase.
C. Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels will increase.
D. Thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) levels will decrease.
E. Growth hormone levels will decrease.
F. More than one of the above (A-E).
G. None of the above (A-F).
More than one of the above (B,C).
Which of the following happens by the conclusion of FIRST cycle of meiosis (Meiosis I) ?
A. Homologous chromosomes of a pair are separated from each other.
B. The number of chromosomes in each daughter cell is the same as the number of chromosomes in the parental cell.
C. Sister chromatids are separated.
D. Chromosomes remain held together by the synaptonemal complex.
E. Four daughter cells are formed.
homologous chromosomes of a pair are separated from each other
During fertilization in sea urchins, the acrosomal contents:
A. Directly block polyspermy.
B. Help propel more sperm toward the egg.
C. Digest protective coatings on the surface of the egg.
D. Trigger the completion of meiosis by the sperm.
E. Form the fertilization envelope.
F. Are unevenly partitioned during cleavage.
Digest protective coatings on the surface of the egg
In the reproductive cycle of the human female, the trigger for ovulation is:
A. A sharp drop in estradiol (estrogen) released from the corpus luteum.
B. A surge in progesterone released from the anterior pituitary.
C. Sexual intercourse.
D. The completion of meiosis in the developing oocyte.
E. None of the above.
none of the above
the process of cellular differentiation is a direct result of:
A. Different genes being expressed in different cells.
C. Cell division.
E. Different cellular genomes (i.e., the presence or absence of genes) in different tissues.
different genes being expressed in different cells
You buy a pie that contains a mixture of cherries and blueberries. When you cut the pie, you notice that some slices have more blueberries than cherries and other slices have more cherries than blueberries. This uneven distribution of cherries and blueberries is most like the uneven distribution of:
A) Nucleus in a frog egg.
B) Nuclei in a frog zygote
C) Nuclei in a frog gastrula.
D) Cytoplasmic determinants in a frog zygote.
E) Cytoplasmic determinants in a frog gastrula.
cytoplasmic determinants in a frog zygote
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