provide a reward immediately following the child's correct response.
What can you use as an immediate reward in behavior therapy?
a social reward, token, point, or some signal of immediate recognition.
What is the Rule of Attention?
-Provide attention the way you would use a token, toy, or other form of recognition following a correct response-social reward. -Focus attention on POSITIVE behaviors to reinforce, not undesired
What is the Rule of Pairing Rewards?
-Anything paired or associated with a reward also acquires rewarding properties- aka=secondary reinforcer, talking to baby while feeding, talk assoc w/ food-reward, talk =reward too.
What is the rule of Continuous Reward?
At first when a behavior is being taught, reward each correct response
With Continuous Rewards when newly learned behavior is easier to produce, provide a reward ?
every other time.
What type of reinforcement serves to maintain the behavior better than the continuous reward?
the reduction in the schedule of reinforcement-decreasing the frequency of thr reward, never know when it's coming- Variable Ratio- like a slot machine
What is the Rule of Selective Reward?
Give a reward following the responses that are important for the child to learn. Reward for only correct productions not for unrelated stuff.
What is the Rule of Small Steps?
It is important to use small steps in establishing a complex behavior. Demand very little from child at first.
In Rule of Small Steps, what may clinician have to do several times?
model the desired behavior
What is the rule of Chaining?
One behavior leads to another in a chain leading to a complex behavior.
In the Rule of Chaining, it is important that the reward follow the behavior that occurs at the?
-End of the chain -Be careful that undesired behaviors are not included in the chain of desired behaviors
What is the Rule of Getting the Child's Attention?
Be sure to get the child's attention (looking, listening or both) when giving directions.
Looking and listening are important since children learn better when they are ?
What is the Rule of Imitation?
-Modeling desired behavior is important as a method of instruction. -we can improve learning by rewarding imitatiion of correct models of behavior
What is the Rule of Relevant cues?
It is important to use relevant cues when instructing children.
Cues provide children with a preparatory set to help them ?
-respond correctly, so they know when to perform or produce -"get ready," "watch me," "close your teeth when you say /s/" are example of Relevant Cues
What should be as well planned out as therapy?
What is generalization?
Generalization is the intermediate target of clinical intervention. It's what we do AFTER we've trained the target behavior.
In what contexts or situations should generalization occurr?
Either a temporary production of a recently learned response in different contexts and situations, or the production of new (untrained) responses based on recent or remote learning
What are 2 ways generalization can occur?
Might occur spontaneously or could be encouraged to happen
What should you do when generalizations occur?
Acknowledge- don't ignore them! They must be reinforced.
What are the 6 types of Generalization?
Untaught stimulus items- Across word positions- Across linguistic level Within sound classes- Across sound classes- Across Situations
Describe Generalization to Untaught Stimulus Items:
using the phoneme in new words
Describe Generalization Across Word Positions:
using the phoneme in new word positions
Describe Generalization Across Linguistic Levels:
using the phoneme in different levels: isolation, syllable, word, phrase, sentence, conversation
Describe Generalization Within Sound Classes:
transfering the learned continuant to other continuants, etc.
Describe Generalization Across Sound Classes:
Learning one sound class and suddenly another class kicks in
Describe Generalization Across Situations:
using what they learned in therapy in outside settings
What is Maintenance?
Maintenance is the production of the target objectives in the client's natural environment over time.
Where might maintenance occurr if acheived?
The occurrence of relevant Behaviors Under Different NONTRAINING Conditions.
What are the 5 Components of Maintenance?
1. Across language activities (What?) 2. Across conversational settings (Where?) 3. Across conversational partners (With Whom?) 4. Across associated activities? (While doing what?) 5. Across time ( How long?)
The reason we do maintenance is?
to prevent regresssion and to continue to produce correctly
You can discontinue therapy when clients can produce targeted sound correctly when?
In conversational speech with 85%-90% or better accuracy.
In what types of conversational speech should a client have 85% accuracy before you discharge them?
- In a lengthy conversational dialogue with clinician -Outside of the therapy room with clinician. - While engaged in some motor activity. (harder to produce correct speech when coloring, doing crafts, etc)
Give some examples of maintenance conversational settings:
In Clinic Room, In the Lunch Room
Give some examples of Maintenance Across Time:
"For 5 minutes before dinner? For 5 minutes before bed? For 30 minutes after therapy session? For 1 hour after school?During an entire T.V. show?During an entire Jazz game?"
Who should take primary responsiblity for child's progress during Maintainance stage?
The parent must be involved with the child's:
homework and maintenance activities
The parent must understand what 4 things:
1) the RATIONALE behind therapy. 2) that to change speech child must change MOTOR BEHAVIORS 3) what to EXPECT in terms of behavior change 4) TIMELINES involved in generating and maintaining complex speech changes
Who must be the 3rd member of the clinical team?
When should parents become involved?
Involve parents from the first session. Let them know they must be a partner.
What things should you explain to the parent before/after each session?
"Explain goals of each session prior to beginning.
Homework should have what 5 aspects: D C P S P
1) will be DONE 2) possible to do CORRECTLY 3) watch for signs of PROBLEMS 4) keep it SHORT 5) PRACTICE what is learned in therapy
To make sure that homework is done, you should do what 3 things: F A M
1) have client make homework FOLDER 2) give homework AFTER each session 3) MONITOR homework completion
How long should daily homework be?
5-15 min depending on age
The point of HW is to practice what has bee learned in?
What are 7 aspects of Reinforcement: IN NOR DR, Con Man, Rein, Self Mon & Con Prime.
1) use INTERMITTENT schedules 2) use conditioned/ NATURALLY OCCURRING REINFORCERS 3) DELAY REINFORCEMENT 4) Train Parents in CONTINGENCY MANAGEMENT 5) REINFORCE Generalized Responses 6) teach SELF-MONITORING 7) teach CONTINGENCY PRIMING-
What is Contingency Priming?
-child knows they did well and is improving, it should be recognized and rewarded