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ch 9 psych
Terms in this set (27)
Body Mass Index (BMI)
A measure of body fat based on weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared (kg/m2).
In children, defined as having a body mass index at or above the 95th percentile for height and age.
Body Image Dissatisfaction
Dissatisfaction with one's physical appearance as shown by a discrepancy between one's ideal body figure and actual body figure.
Concrete Operational Stage of Reasoning
Piaget's third stage of reasoning, from about 6 to 11, in which thought becomes logical and is applied to direct tangible experiences but not to abstract problems.
The ability to organize things into groups based on similar characteristics.
A classification skill in which a child can infer the relationship between two objects by understanding each object's relationship to a third object.
A type of classification that involves ordering objects in a series according to a physical dimension such as height, weight, or color.
Involves understanding hierarchical relationships among items.
An aspect of metacognition that refers to the understanding of memory and how to use strategies to enhance memory.
A mnemonic strategy that involves systematically repeating information to retain it in working memory.
Memory strategy in which items to remember are categorized or grouped by theme or type.
A memory strategy in which one imagines a scene or story to link the material to be remembered.
Intelligence Tests (IQ Tests)
A test designed to measure the aptitude to learn at school, intellectual aptitude.
The rise in IQ scores over generations in many nations.
Multiple Intelligence Theory
Gardner's proposition that human intelligence is composed of a varied set of abilities.
Triarchic Theory of Intelligence
Sternberg's theory positing three independent forms of intelligence: analytical, creative, and applied.
Piaget's second stage of morality in which children have a more flexible view of rules as they begin to value fairness and equality and account for factors like act, intent, and situation.
Conventional Moral Reasoning
The second level of Kohlberg's theory in which moral decisions are based on conforming to social rules.
The practical application of language for everyday communication.
An approach to reading instruction that emphasizes teaching children to sound out words and connect sounds to written symbols.
A strategy in which all instruction occurs in the majority language; children learn a second language, such as English, and course content simultaneously.
Also known as two-way immersion; an approach in which children are taught and develop skills in two languages.
Characterized by deficits in cognitive functioning and age-appropriate adaptive behavior, such as social, communication, and self-care skills that begin before 18 years of age; formerly known as mental retardation.
Autistic Spectrum Disorder
Refers to a family of disorders that range in severity and are marked by social and communication deficits, often accompanied by restrictive and repetitive behaviors.
A condition characterized by persistent difficulties with attention and/or impulsivity that interfere with performance and behavior in school and daily life.
The most commonly diagnosed learning disability characterized by unusual difficulty in matching letters to sounds and difficulty with word recognition and spelling despite adequate instruction and intelligence and intact sensory abilities.
Mathematics disability; difficulty learning and understanding mathematical concepts such as counting, addition, and subtraction.
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