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Hardware Test Study Guide

Study Guide- All
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To reduce the risk of ESD damage, use static-shielding _____.

mats
bags
clips
straps
Bags
The "brain" of the computer is called the _____. It is located on the main ______.
The "brain" of the computer is called the processor. It is located on the main logic board.
You need to replace the processor in a Power Mac G5 (June 2004) system. What tools do you need to do this? (Check both the Take Apart General Information and the Heatsink section of the Service Manual)
Long-handled Phillips screwdriver or long handled 2.5 mm hex screwdriver, stubby Phillips screwdriver
If the computer stops responding with the spinning gear visible, where is the computer in the startup sequence?

Boot ROM

POST

Open Firmware

Boot Variable

BootX

Kernel

Mach_Init
Kernel
Which of the following items should NOT be connected to a Power Mac G4 system while using Apple Hardware Test? (Choose all that apply)

SmartMedia reader
USB floppy drive
Apple Keyboard
External FireWire Drive
SmartMedia reader
USB floppy drive
External FireWire Drive
What are the seven general steps in the startup sequence?
Boot ROM
POST
Open Firmware
Boot Variable
BootX
Kernel
Mach_Init
You need to review the CIP procedures for an eMac system. Which of the following resources would be the BEST one to check?

A. Specifications
B. Knowledge Base
C. Featured Software
D. Discussions
B. Knowledge Base
Why is checking cables important?
A bad connection due to a defective cable will look just like a bad module.
What is Dynamic IP?
With dynamic addressing, a device can have a different IP address every time it connects to the network.
What does an error code of "mem_X/X" signify?
It signifies that memory should be replaced.
Which THREE general steps do you take to safely clean a monitor screen?

Disconnect the power cord.
Use untreated paper towels.
Turn the monitor off.
Use unscented acetone.
Use a mild, non-abrasive cleaner.
Place on a grounded mat.
Disconnect the power cord.
Turn the monitor off.
Use a mild, non-abrasive cleaner.
Describe a known issue regarding ASD tests of VRAM
When testing the Video RAM, the screen display may appear blank or appear to be turned off, for extended periods of time, depending on how much Video RAM is installed.
Which of the following are the three characteristics of a quick fix?

a. - can be performed quickly

b. - involves little or no risk of harm to the system

c. - has little or no cost

d. - uses Apple-approved third-party diagnostics
a. - can be performed quickly

b. - involves little or no risk of harm to the system

c. - has little or no cost
Here is an excerpt from a customer trouble report. Define the words or phrases in CAPS. Include, if necessary, the correct technical term.

Connected computer to an EXTERNAL MONITOR, everything works except the iMac DISPLAY.
Definition

external monitor
External display, whether CRT or LCD.

display
Display screen.
In which form of memory is information lost when the computer is turned off?
random-access memory (RAM)
What is the difference between Quick Test and Extended Test?
Quick Test-- An abbreviated test of the computer's major components. This test should be used when you don't have time to run the extended tests. The tests take one to three minutes to complete.

Extended Test--A thorough test of the computer's components. This is the recommended test for obtaining a complete evaluation of the computer's hardware. The tests take about four to eight minutes to complete, but could be longer. The length of the test mainly depends upon the amount of RAM installed in the computer.
Define PROCESSOR and explain why it is relevant to supporting and/or servicing Apple products.
Central processing unit. In current Power Mac, iMac, PowerBook, and iBook computers, the CPU is a PowerPC G3 or G4 chip.

A common metric of performance and source of customer questions.
What tool do you need to check the power supply?
Voltmeter.
What does "AirPort Ready" mean?
A Macintosh computer with AirPort antennae installed and a slot that accepts an AirPort Card.
A customer has brought in a Power Macintosh G4 with Mac OS 9 that is experiencing frequent freezing. You suspect that there is a problem with extension conflicts on the system. Which Apple software would assist you in troubleshooting this problem?

a. Extensions Manager
b. Apple System Profiler
c. Drive Setup
d. Disk Copy
a. Extensions Manager
How do you use Apple Hardware Test CD?
To use the Apple Hardware Test CD, restart your computer while holding down the C key until the "Loading..." icon appears, then you may release the C key. Loading will take approximately 45 seconds. The Apple Hardware Test main screen will appear. Follow the on-screen instructions and recommendations.
Do NOT wear a grounded wrist strap when you:

discharge a CRT
handle a logic board
open a computer case
work at a customer site
discharge a CRT
What are the ways that software can be obtained?
Software is released either standalone or when bundled with a computer. Standalone software can be distributed online (as a download) or in a box through retail channels. Bundled software is distributed with a computer and is usually pre-installed (installed at the factory).
What is Open Firmware?
Open Firmware, found within the BootROM, contains very basic instructions for starting up the computer. Open Firmware provides the environment for the Apple Hardware Test.
Where do you find Symptom Charts? (Choose the best answer)

A. GSX homepage
B. Service Source
C. Discussions
D. Service Manuals
D. Service Manuals
You are replacing the optical drive on a 12-inch iBook G4. What size Phillips screwdriver is required?
A #0 Phillips is required.
You need to replace an internal DVD drive in a G4 (Gigabit Ethernet) system. What needs to be removed before you can take out the drive?
The CD/DVD drive bezel need to be removed first.

Service Source/G4 (Gigabit Ethernet) Service Manual/Take Apart/CD/DVD Drive
Which one of the following four utilities from Apple does NOT report on or repair Apple hard drives.

a. Disk First Aid
b. Drive Setup
c. Apple System Profiler
d. Extensions Manager
d. Extensions Manager
While taking apart an eMac, you mix up the screws you removed. What is the best resource for determining where the screws are used?

A. Knowledge Base
B. Discussions
C. Specifications
D. Service Manual
D. Service Manual
Which of the following steps should you do before escalating an issue? (Choose all that apply.)

a. verify the problem

b. perform a split-half search

c. verify the repair

d. try quick fixes
a. verify the problem

b. perform a split-half search

d. try quick fixes
Define OS extension.
Short for system extension. Small bits of code used to enhance the operating system. Mac OS X does not use extensions, Mac OS 9 and earlier does.
What is a CPU?
Central Processing unit.
Which TWO methods can you use to optimize a hard disk?

use an antivirus utility
use a defragmenting utility
reinitialize and restore from backup
use a backup utility
delete unused files
use a defragmenting utility
reinitialize and restore from backup
What is the basic difference between System Software and Application Software?
System Software is used to start up the computer environment and provide the Graphical User Interface for the user. Application Software is used to start up a program environment and is most commonly associated with tasks a user wants to accomplish, such as making a DVD.
Which form of memory stores the instructions for initiating the boot sequence?
read-only memory (ROM)
You are servicing a PowerMac G4 running System Mac OS 9.2.1. You need to reformat the hard drive. Which Apple utility would you use?

a. Extensions Manager
b. Apple System Profiler
c. Drive Setup
d. Disk Copy
c. Drive Setup
Which of the following hardware components does Apple Hardware Test check?
AirPort card
memory
video
A customer calls you and states that he ran TechTool Deluxe and found that the logic board in his computer needs replacing. What do you need to do next?

a. Order the logic board.
b. Have the customer run MacTest Pro.
c. Verify how the customer used the diagnostic.
d. Tell the customer to call Apple Support.
c. Verify how the customer used the diagnostic.
Define BOOTROM and explain why it is relevant to supporting and/or servicing Apple products.
Read-only memory that contains system command sets.

Useful for troubleshooting startup problems
To reduce the risk of ESD damage, do not touch anyone who is working on:

a CRT
an expansion bay
a photoconductor assembly
an IC
an IC
Apple Hardware Test does not need the Mac OS because:

a. The Mac OS is included on the Apple Hardware Test CD.
b. Apple Hardware Test relies on code that resides in Boot ROM.
c. The Mac OS ROM file is on the Apple Hardware Test CD.
d. Apple Hardware Test is downloaded from the hard drive.
b. Apple Hardware Test relies on code that resides in Boot ROM.
What is Terminal?
A Mac OS X application that lets you use a command-line interface and BSD (a version of UNIX developed at UC Berkeley) utility programs.
What is a Kernal Panic?
A kernel panic is a type of error that occurs when the core (kernel) of an operating system receives an instruction in an unexpected format or that it fails to handle properly.
You cannot power up an iMac. What two things do you need to check first?

a. power supply and power board

b. internal cabling and board seating

c. power outlet and power cord

d. keyboard and mouse
c. power outlet and power cord
what does ESD stand for?
electrostatic discharge
While assisting a customer you give her the number of a Knowledge Base article you looked up after signing on to GSX. Later the customer calls and states that the article is not available when she looks for it. What has happened? (Choose the most likely answer)

A. The customer does not know how to access Knowledge Base.
B. The article was removed after you first found it.
C. The article is intended for AASPs and not for the public.
D. There was a system failure at Apple.
C. The article is intended for AASPs and not for the public.
How is software released?
Software is released as a reference release - independent from previous versions; as an upgrade - which delivers new features; and as an update - which delivers software improvements and bug fixes. Most of the time, we can use version numbers to determine whether the software is significantly different than another version.
A customer has just brought in an iMac that is not working. Which of the following questions would be the most helpful to start with?

a. What is the serial number?

b. What seems to be the problem?

c. Have you had this problem before?

d. Where do you use this computer
b. What seems to be the problem?
ESD-preventive equipment reduces the risk of damage from ESD by:

eliminating electrostatic charge
storing electrostatic charge
dispersing electrostatic charge
increasing electrostatic charge
eliminating electrostatic charge
What are the six types of RAM? Define each.
RAM Type
Definition

DIMM
(Dual Inline Memory Module)
Larger capacity and faster than SIMMs (Single Inline Memory Module)

SODIMM
(Small Outline Dual Inline Memory Module)
More expensive because smaller packaging

SDRAM
(Synchronized Dynamic RAM)
Internal clock synchronized with processor clock for better performance

VRAM
(Video RAM)
Same as DIMMs, just dedicated to video output and processing

SGRAM
(Synchronized Graphics RAM)
Synchronizes with the graphics processor for better performance. Same as SDRAM.

DDR-SDRAM
(Double Data Rate- Synchronous DRAM)
Doubles the memory chip's data throughput. Consumes less power. Also called SDRAM II.
DIMM
(Dual Inline Memory Module)
Larger capacity and faster than SIMMs (Single Inline Memory Module)
SODIMM
SODIMM
(Small Outline Dual Inline Memory Module)
More expensive because smaller packaging
SDRAM
SDRAM
(Synchronized Dynamic RAM)
Internal clock synchronized with processor clock for better performance
VRAM
VRAM
(Video RAM)
Same as DIMMs, just dedicated to video output and processing
SGRAM
SGRAM
(Synchronized Graphics RAM)
Synchronizes with the graphics processor for better performance. Same as SDRAM.
DDR-SDRAM
DDR-SDRAM
(Double Data Rate- Synchronous DRAM)
Doubles the memory chip's data throughput. Consumes less power. Also called SDRAM II.
How do you determine the tools you need to take apart an iMac (Flat Panel)? (Choose the best answer)

A. You do a search on "tools" in Parts and Configs
B. You call Apple
C. You review the Service Manual
D. You search Knowledge Base
C. You review the Service Manual
Define BACKSIDE L2 CACHE and explain why it is relevant to supporting and/or servicing Apple products.
Fast random-access memory on separate chips located on the same board as the CPU and connected directly to the CPU through its own high-speed bus.

A common metric of performance and source of customer questions.
When you first boot your minimal system, you do not get any sound. What component should you check first?
Power Supply
Define Specs
Short for specification. A detailed description of the components, requirements, resolution, dimensions, materials, etc., of a product. Knowledge Base keyword specsht.
What part of Apple System Profiler will report the drives and peripherals attached to a system?

a. System Profile
b. Devices and Volumes
c. Control Panels
d. Extensions
b. Devices and Volumes
A customer calls you and states that they have run Apple Hardware Test on their PowerMac G4 (Gigabit) computer and want to know what error code "cpu_/26/-49909" means and how they can fix the system themselves. What should you tell them?


a. You should inform the customer that the system needs its PRAM reset.
b. You should inform the customer that they need to bring the unit in for a possible power supply replacement.
c. You should inform the customer that they need to bring the unit in for a possible processor module replacement .
d. You should inform the customer that they need to bring the unit in for a possible RAM replacement.
c. You should inform the customer that they need to bring the unit in for a possible processor module replacement
Define MHz and explain why it is relevant to supporting and/or servicing Apple products.
Abbreviation for megahertz. The speed of microprocessors.

A common metric of performance and source of customer questions.
Define STARTUP DEVICE and explain why IT is relevant to supporting and/or servicing Apple products.
The device, typically a hard disk, that contains the valid OS.

You must be able to identify the startup device to troubleshoot OS-related problems
How do you boot into ASD?
Place the ASD CD into the optical drive and start up while depressing the C key.
What is "Monitor Spanning"?
Not a Macintosh term. Probably refers to extended desktop (a feature whereby you connect two displays to the computer and use both displays at the same time, using the second display to extend the size of the Mac OS desktop) or to video mirroring (the act or feature of connecting two displays to the computer and using both displays at the same time, showing the same image both displays).
To reduce the risk of ESD damage,

a. ground yourself
b. make sure the equipment is on
c. keep the equipment on a metal surface
d. touch the equipment to plastic
a.ground yourself
What do we mean when we say a computer is booting?
When we use the word "boot" what we are attempting to do is describe a process used by the computer to get ready for use.
What controls the power in an iMac system?
Power in an iMac is controlled by a power supply board.

Service Source/iMac Service Manual/Troubleshooting/Power Flow or Power Supply Board
To remove the locking rivet in the heat sink cover of a Power Mac G5 (June 2004), what two tools are required?
Xacto knife and a cup hook. You may also want to use a small wooden stick to leverage the cup hook.
Which of the following is most likely a symptom of a fragmented hard disk?

a. download errors
b. insufficient memory errors
c. unusual disk drive noises
d. slow disk access
d. slow disk access
Here is an excerpt from an Apple System Profiler report. What is the name of the main hard disk?
---------------------------------------------------
System Profile
---------------------------------------------------
Software Overview:
+----------------------------------------------------------------------+
| |
| System version : Mac OS X 10.2.6 (6L60) |
| Boot volume : Macintosh HD |
| Kernel version : Darwin Kernel Version 6.6: Thu May 1 21:48:54 PDT 2003; root:xnu/xnu-344.34.obj~1/RELEASE_PPC |
| User name : Elizabeth Gharity (elgy) |
| |
+----------------------------------------------------------------------+
Hardware Overview:
+----------------------------------------------------------------------+
| |
| Machine speed : 800 MHz |
| Bus speed : 100 MHz |
| Number of processors : 1 |
| L2 cache size : 256K |
| Machine model : PowerMac4,5 (version = 2.1) |
| Boot ROM info : 4.4.5f3 |
| Customer serial number : QT23493E-N0S-ff12 |
| Sales order number : Not available |
| |
+----------------------------------------------------------------------+
Memory Overview:
Location Type Size
DIMM0/J22 empty
DIMM1/J20 SDRAM 256 MB
Macintosh HD
An iMac (Flat Panel) customer is concerned that her non-air-conditioned worksite may be too warm for her iMacs to operate properly. She needs to know the temperature range in which the iMac (Flat Panel) can operate. What can you tell her? Could she have found the information herself?
Environmental requirements
Operating temperature: 50° F to 95° F (10° C to 35° C)
Relative humidity: 5% to 90% noncondensing
Maximum altitude: 10,000 feet (3,048 m)
Storage temperature: -40° F to 185° F (-40° C to 85° C)

KBase Article #88297 is in the public version of the Knowledge Base. Your customer could have found it via the Internet.
what is a Video Card?
A printed circuit board that, when inserted into a logic board slot, adds display capacity to a computer.
What is Ethernet?
A protocol for communication and file transfer across a network.
Which THREE of the following should you keep away from an ESD-safe workbench?

plastics
polyester clothing
foam rubber
Styrofoam
ion generator
alligator clips
plastics
polyester clothing
Styrofoam
You need to replace the foot and socket on a 12-inch iBook G4. What tools are required to do this?
Soft cloth, Needlenose pliers, #0 Phillips jeweler's screwdriver
When can you release the C key and still have the Macintosh start up from a CD?

after the black screen

after the gray screen or Apple logo

after the gray screen with Apple logo and spinning gear

after the Mac OS X panel activity

after the login window

after the Desktop and Dock
after the gray screen or Apple logo
Define RAM and explain why it is relevant to supporting and/or servicing Apple products.
Random-access memory, sometimes referred to as main memory

A common source of poor performance or other troubleshooting issues.
Which of the following statements correctly describes TechTool Deluxe? TechTool Deluxe is

a. the only diagnostic tool that a technician needs
b. designed to find and fix most problems that can occur to a Macintosh system
c. is the only diagnostic tool available to AASPs
d. is one of several useful diagnostic tools for the Macintosh platform
d. is one of several useful diagnostic tools for the Macintosh platform
You are attempting to determine if a PowerBook G4 (12-inch) is working correctly after performing a logic board replacement. Which of the following diagnostics is the best one to use for looping tests?

a. MacTest Pro
b. Apple System Profiler
c. Apple Service Diagnostic
d. Disk Utility
e. Apple Hardware Test
c. Apple Service Diagnostic
What two steps does Apple recommend you take before starting up from the ASD CD?
Turn the computer off and on
Check cables, peripherals, and user controls
Which THREE of the following constitute a basic computer system?

A. a USB printer

B. a monitor

C. a CPU

D. a FireWire Hard Drive

E. slots

F. a keyboard and mouse or trackpad
B. a monitor

C. a CPU

F. a keyboard and mouse or trackpad
ESD can damage a computer by:

a. decalibrating the CRT
b. damaging sensitive chips
c. starting a fire in the enclosure
d. damaging the laser in the optical drive
b. damaging sensitive chips
What is Firewire?
FireWire is Apple's cross-platform implementation of a high-speed serial data bus (defined by IEEE Standard 1394-1995) that is able to transfer large amounts of data between computers and peripheral devices.
What are the three pieces of equipment needed for a basic computer system?
A monitor, keyboard, and a "box" that houses the computer's central processing unit (CPU), memory (RAM), disk drives, external ports, and video circuitry.
What is Open firmware?
Open Firmware is a cross-platform firmware standard for controlling hardware and is used by all PCI-based Mac OS computers.
Define APPLICATIONS.
Software packages, such as Text processors or disk utilities.
What is the first resource used when a computer is powered on?
When a computer is first powered on, it accesses the BootROM.
You need to reinstall the Mac OS X system on an iMac (Slot Loading). The customer has very important files on the system. Can you use Software Restore CD?

Yes
No
No, you will completely erase what is on the drive and restore it to its original factory software configuration with Apple Software Restore. You need to use Apple Install CD and make sure to back up the data.
Define FRAMEWORKS and explain why it is relevant to supporting and/or servicing Apple products.
A framework is a type of bundle that packages a dynamic shared library with the resources that the library requires, including header files and reference documentation. Mac OS X uses frameworks.

An integral part of Mac OS X that is very different than Mac OS 9 and earlier
What keyboard command toggles looping mode on and off?
Control-L
There are four basic pieces of equipment needed to reduce the risk of damage from ESD. Which one of the following is NOT one of the four?

grounded mat
wrist strap
plastic storage bags
ground cord with alligator clips
ground polarity tester
Plastic storage Bags
What is visible when a Macintosh has started up successfully?

a black screen

a gray screen or Apple logo

a gray screen with Apple logo and spinning gear

the Mac OS X panel activity

login window

the Desktop and Dock
the Desktop and Dock
To reduce the risk of ESD damage, handle all ICs by the _________________.

pins
edge connectors
body
exposed circuitry
Edges
What families of products are compatible with Apple Hardware Test?
iBook
iMac/eMac
PowerBook
Power Mac G4
Power Mac G5
Xserve
Power Mac G4 Cube
Boot ROM

POST

Open Firmware

Boot Variable

BootX

Kernel

Mach_Init
POST
What is a boot variable?
A boot variable is a setting that contains the location of the software used to boot the computer using a particular operating system, such as Mac OS 9 or Mac OS X.
Computer information is stored in what three forms of memory?
storage memory, random-access memory (RAM), and read-only memory (ROM)
What is a processor?

a. the brain of the computer

b. storage for all the information you process

c. an interconnect technology

d. an expansion slot

an execution unit
a. the brain of the computer
What is Fragmentation?
The breaking up of a file into many separate locations in memory or on a disk.
Here is an excerpt from a customer trouble report. Define the words or phrases in CAPS. Include, if necessary, the correct technical term.

BOOTED FROM CD and tried to select STARTUP DISK. System does not see the HARD DRIVE.
Customer Term
Definition

Booted from CD
Started up from a CD-ROM disc.

startup disk
The hard disk that contains the valid OS.

hard drive
Large-capacity, permanent storage for the computer (used for storing applications and files), made of multiple disks housed in a rigid case.
You are using AHT to check an iMac (17-inch 1GHz) and get a test error code of "2GMC/a/b/xxxx". What is the first step Apple recommends you take?
Make sure that there is no Ethernet cable connected.