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Nat Turner

A slave who led a bloody rebellion in Southampton County, VA in 1831. Before that, white Virginians had worried little about a slave rebellion

Upper South

VA, NC, TN, and AK

Lower (Deep) South

SC, GA, FL, AL, MS, LA, and TX

Old South


Cotton Kingdom

A broad swath territory that stretched from SC, GA, and northern FL in the east through AL, MS, central and western TN, and LA, and from there on to AK and TX

internal slave trade

Slave trade within the Upper and Lower South

Tredegar Iron Works

located in Richmond, it was the nation's fourth-largest producer of iron products

plantation agriculture

Characterized by a high degree of division of labor, it was virtually an agricultural equivalent of a factory village

pine barrens people

10% of southern whites, they usually squatted on the land, put up crude cabins, cleared some acreage on which they planted corn btwn tree stumps, and grazed hogs and cattle in the woods. They neither raised cash crops nor engaged in the daily routine of orderly work that characterized family farmers. With their ramshackle houses and handful of stump-strewn acres, they appeared lazy and shiftless

The Impending Crisis of the South

Written by Hinton R. Helper, it called upon non-slaveholders to abolish slavery in their own interest, revealed the persistence of a degree of white opposition to slavery

George Fitzhugh

Virginian who contrasted the plight of northern factory workers, "wage slaves" who were callously discarded by their bosses when they were too old or too sick to work, with the southern slaves, who were fed and clothed even when old and ill b/c they were the property of conscientious masters

Southern code of honor

An extraordinary sensitivity to one's reputation, a belief that one's self-esteem depends on the judgement of others

task system

Each slave had a daily or weekly quota of tasks to complete

Frederick Douglas

A former slave who was the leading black abolitionist during the antebellum period

free blacks

Blacks who were not slaves. Most of them lived in urban areas. The relatively specialized economies of the cities provided free people of color with opportunities to become carpenters, coopers (barrel makers), barbers, and even small traders

Denmark Vesey

SC slave who won $1500 in a lottery and bought his freedom

Harriet Tubman

Former slave and leading abolitionist who made repeated trips back to the South to help other slaves escape

Underground Railroad

Supposedly an organized network of safe houses owned by white abolitionists who spirited blacks to freedom in the North and Canada


Religious songs sang by blacks. Its is shrouded in obscurity, but it is clear that by 1820 blacks at camp meetings had improvised what one white described as "short scraps of disjointed affirmations, pledges, or prayers lengthened out with long repetition choruses."


A native Texan of Mexican descent

Stephen F. Austin

He exemplified the shifting allegiances of many Anglos on the American frontier. He was known as the "Mexicanized Anglo" who helped turn Texas into an agriculturally and ethnically rich province

German and Irish immigrants

They formed more than 60% of the pop. of St. Louis; nearly 1/2 the pop. of NYC, Chicago, Cincinnati, Milwaukee, Detroit, and San Francisco; & well over a third that of New Orleans, Baltimore, and Boston by 1860


Anti-immigrant policy

Commonwealth vs. Hunt

A court case in 1842 where the Massachusetts Supreme Judicial Court ruled that labor unions were not illegal monopolies that restrained trade

Oregon Country

The land north of the 42nd parallel (the northern boundary of Cali), south of 54'40 (the southern boundary of Alaska), and west of the Rocky Mountains


People born in Cali

Santa Fe Trail

Trading route from St. Louis to Santa Fe


An abandoned mission where 200 defenders of San Antonio retreated in 02/1836 after Santa Anna's army of 4,000 men defeated them

Sam Houston

Military leader and Prez of the Republic of Texas who defeated Santa Anna's men in 15 min.

John Tyler

Followed Harrison as the Prez of the U.S. after Harrison's untimely death

James K. Polk

The 1st "dark-horse" presidential nominee in American history and a supporter of immediate annexation

Manifest Destiny

Coined by journalist John L. O'Sullivan, it was the belief that it was the U.S. mission to expand to spread freedom

Zachary Taylor

Victorious military leader in the Mexican-Am war who became the Prez of the U.S. in 1848. He was a member of the Whig Party

Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo

Mexico ceded TX with the Rio Grande boundary, New Mexico, and Cali to the U.S. In return, the U.S. assumed the claims of American citizens against the Mexican govt. and paid Mexico million. It was signed on 2/2/1848

Wilmot Proviso

The amendment that stipulated that slavery be prohibited in any territory acquired by the negotiations

Free-Soil Party

A faction of the Democratic Party in NY that favored the Wilmot Proviso, called the Barnburners, they broke away from the party, linked up with former Liberty party abolitionists, and courted antislavery "Conscience" Whigs

California Gold Rush

After and American carpenter discovered gold in the foothills of Cali's Sierra Nevada range in 1848, many Americans moved to Cali to look for gold

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