•Chess players - at the GM level, ratings decline beginning in the 30s
•Kemper (1990) studied diaries from a 70-year period in Kansas' history
-As settlers aged, writing became more ambiguous (unclear use of pronouns): writers became less likely to substitute pronouns for nouns, but were more ambiguous when they did(less coherent/interpretable)
•Reduced use of left-branching sentences in the elderly, associated with reduced forward and backward digit span (Kemper et al 1992)
--What are left-branching and right-branching sentences?
--In left-branching sentences, modifying words, phrases or clauses come before the subject of a sentence:
--"Stumbling, wheezing, trying to remember why she had come into the kitchen, the woman groped for the light switch."
--Right branching: "The woman groped for the light switch, stumbling, wheezing, trying to remember why she had come into the kitchen."
-Any loss of myelin, any reduction in retrieval frequency, any loosening of association, can contribute to slower speed of recall in the older individual.
politics of the united states 2nd Edition•ISBN: 9781464113079David G Myers 3rd Edition•ISBN: 9781319070502 (1 more)C. Nathan DeWall, David G Myers 13th Edition•ISBN: 9780135225691 (1 more)Michael R Solomon 7th Edition•ISBN: 9781111832773Paul Chance, Susan Welch