Gov Part 3

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Which term refers to the general patterns of voters' party identification and their behavior on Election Day?
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Terms in this set (150)
In the 1960s, members of underrepresented groups like women and black Americans objected to the Democratic Party's use of the unit rule to nominate presidents—which stated that whoever won the majority of primary or state nominating convention votes won the entire state's delegates. What's another name for the this rule?
What did the Framers who favored ratification of the Constitution call themselves?FederalistsParty machines of the late nineteenth century were fueled by what group of individuals?ImmigrantsWhich issue ignited the formation of the Republican Party?SlaveryWhich system awards government programs and benefits based on political loyalty to a party?PatronageWhich piece of legislation was passed to reform the civil service by requiring that government jobs be filled based on qualifications rather than political connections?Pendleton ActWhich theory asserts that, in a two-party race, if voters select candidates on the basis of ideology and everyone participates equally, the party closer to the middle will win?Median voterStephanie is running for a seat on the House of Representatives. She beats her opponents in the election but does not get 50 percent or more of the votes. In a single-member plurality system, what does this mean?She wins because only a plurality of votes is neededTeddy Roosevelt ran for president under which third party label?ProgressiveWhich amendment allowed for the direct election of U.S. senators?SeventeenthWhy do candidates who are elected from third parties like Ross Perot and Ralph Nader have little influence in legislatures?They have no party organization to join in the legislatureA long-term shift in voter allegiance from one party to the other is called aparty realignmentWhich party established itself as the party for civil rights for African Americans in the 1960s?DemocratsAlthough Barack Obama won reelection in 2012 by a margin of 51 to 47 percent, due to a Republican majority in the House, the country experiencedlittle bipartisanship and divided governmentWhich Republican president attracted significant support from working-class, ethnic, northern voters, and southern white voters?Ronald ReaganIn 2016, voters gave the Republican party control of the White House and Congress. Now, voters have high expectations and will hold the Republican party accountable for policy outcomes in the next election. This demonstrates the concept ofthe responsible partyWhich political figure understood that democratic government must be responsive to the will of the people and once claimed, "Our government rests on public opinion"?Abraham LincolnWho is the only president to receive an approval rating higher than 90 percent?George W. Bush(T/F) Hard to measure and predict, efficacy is the aggregate of individual attitudes or beliefs about certain issues or officials, and it is the foundation of any democracy.FalseWhich term refers to the extent to which people believe their actions affect the course of government?EfficacyWhich phrase best defines political trust?The extent to which people believe the government acts in their best interestsOne U.S. president read daily newspaper clippings, another held public meetings at the White House, and still another rode his horse into the countryside to talk to the people. Each of these presidents is attempting to influencepublic opinionWhat was wrong with the 1936 Literary Digest poll conducted during the presidential campaign?The poll's sampling was biasedWhat polling technique enabled George Gallup to predict correctly the outcome of the 1936 election?Random sampleAfter Hwan picks up the phone, a computerized voice on the other end asks, "Regardless of how you are registered to vote, do you tend to think of yourself more as (1) a Republican, (2) a Democrat, or (3) an Independent voter?" Hwan answers the question by pressing #2 on his keypad. In which type of poll is Hwan participating?AutomatedWhich problem is most specific to Internet polling?It may be biased against older and poor Americans who are less likely to have Internet accessWhich type of poll is conducted as voters are leaving the voting booth?ExitAntonia lives in a predominately Polish suburb of Toledo, Ohio. She and her two brothers attend public school, and her parents work at GM's car manufacturing plant. Antonia's cousin Dominik, who is also Polish, lives in a diverse neighborhood in downtown Boston. He and his sister attend a private school, and his same-sex parents are renowned surgeons in their fields. Although their ancestry is the same, Antonia and Dominik will likely have vastly different ideas about family, community, and politics because of theirsocializationIf your parents are Democrats, what is the likelihood that you will also identify yourself as a Democrat?About 67 percentWhat have preliminary studies of twins suggested about the formation of political attitudes?Genetics may play a role in the formation of political attitudesThe terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, were a defining event that caused Americans to change their views on national security and express a willingness to give up some personal freedom to reduce the threat of terrorism. This is an example ofa generational effectMariella was a Democrat when she was young, but as she got older and began making more money, she became a Republican because she believed Republicans have pursued tax policies that protect individual wealth. In this case, Mariella is choosing a political ideology based uponself-interestWhich concept concerns the psychological attachment an individual has towards her political party?Party identification(T/F) Liberals tend to be Democrats, and conservatives tend to be RepublicansTrueHow did the Framers feel about the public's capacity to be politically informed and make good choices?They were concerned about the public's ability to make good political decisionsHow has party polarization in Congress changed from the 1970s to present?It has increased steadily over this periodWorking-class people who support the Republican party because they believe in a conservative social agenda and a decreased role for government welfare-based programs are known asReagan Democrats(T/F) Overall, Jews tend to be the most politically conservative religious group.FalseWhich term does the text use to describe the differences in political attitudes among men and women?Gender gapWhich statement accurately identifies party identification of Latinos and African Americans?African Americans are more likely to be Democrats than Republicans, and both parties compete for Latino supportHow do college graduates differ in their perspective about immigration reform when compared with those who have a high school education or less?They are more in favor of allowing illegal immigrants to become citizensA group of citizens with common interests who try to influence public policy to benefit its members is called a(n)interest group.What type of interest group is created in response to an opening or opportunity for social, political, or economic changes?ProactiveWhat type of interest group forms in response to a perceived threat?ReactiveWhat does the First Amendment state Americans have the right to do?Peaceably assembleWhat is the name for the small, divisive groups James Madison feared would divide the young nation?FactionsSince the 1980s, the makeup company Mary Kay Inc. has been committed to ending domestic violence against women. In 2005, six sales directors drove to Washington D.C. to persuade Congress to renew the Violence Against Women Act. What democratic and legitimate form of petitioning did the Mary Kay employees perform?LobbyingWhat type of briefs may interest groups submit as a "friend of the court"?Amicus curiaeWhat economic interest group aims to protect workers through safer working conditions and better wages?UnionsA group formed to advance the financial status of its members is called a(n)economic interest groupThe organization explains its purpose as "Over the past 20 years, [our members] have...worked together to play a leading role in ending the war in Iraq, passing landmark legislation such as healthcare reform, and advancing the cause of economic fairness." What type of interest group is interest groupThe National Association of Broadcasters (NAB) considers itself the voice for radio and TV broadcasters across the United States. Specifically, it "advances the interests of our members in federal government, industry and public affairs; improves the quality and profitability of broadcasting; encourages content and technology innovation; and spotlights the important and unique ways stations serve their communities." What type of interest group is the NAB?Trade associationWhich interest group is unaffiliated with government and works hard to preserve its neutrality so it can operate in as many parts of the world as possible?Nongovernmental organizationsAn interest group forms in order to tackle the environmental issue of fracking. The leaders decide to use social media sites and e-mail to ensure their members register and to provide updates on developments and legislation. What interest group activity does this represent?InformingWhat lobbying strategy keeps policy requests narrowly tailored to the group's needs and tries to influence legislators directly?Inside strategyEstablished in 1974, the Frank Lloyd Wright Trust "engages the public in educational and aesthetic experiences to foster an appreciation of architecture, design, and the legacy of Frank Lloyd Wright." Because it is a 501(c)(3) organization with tax-exempt status, the Frank Lloyd Wright Trust is forbidden fromcampaigning for a candidate or partyWhich Supreme Court decision that upheld limits on donations to congressional campaigns resulted in the expansion of political action committee (PACs)?Buckley v. Valeo(T/F) The Supreme Court ruled that if a campaign advertisement could be reasonably viewed as issue-based, it was protected under the guarantee of free speech.TrueWhat was the Supreme Court's ruling in McCutcheon et al. v. Federal Election Commission?It removed limits on the amount of money one individual could contribute to all federal elections.In what type of society do battles over public policy by varied interest groups produce a consensus that serves the public's common interest?PluralistCoined by Hugh Heclo, which term describes the fluid and open relationship between interest groups and government?Issue networksSenator Jim DeMint, a Republican from South Carolina, resigned from office in 2013 to become the head of a conservative think tank called the Heritage Foundation. This demonstrates the concept of a(n)revolving doorWhat theory suggests that leaders in any organization eventually behave in their own self-interest?Iron law of oligarchyOne way interest groups attract and keep members is by providing benefits exclusive to members, such as discounted travel or monthly magazines. This is otherwise known asselective benefitsIf a group lobbies for public goods or collective benefits that are so widespread that members and nonmembers alike receive them, incentives to join the group disappear. What is this collective action dilemma called?Free rider problemAARP is a powerful political interest group that also maintains a lucrative business providing health and life insurance to its members. What does AARP's strategy suggest about an interest group's ability to secure financial stability?It is worthwhile for an interest group to create a not-for-profit businessWhich newspaper, headed by Benjamin Franklin and often considered the foundation for modern American news coverage, included sensationalist stories?Philadelphia GazetteWhen the George W. Bush administration waged war in Afghanistan, the media emphasized the issue of fighting terrorism and presented war in a favorable light. This is an example offramingThe press concealed the health of which president, thereby preserving his public image?Franklin Delano RooseveltWhich federal agency oversees the regulation of electronic media?Federal Communications CommissionThe series of articles written by Alexander Hamilton, James Madison, and John Jay to support the ratification of the Constitution are known asthe Federalist Papers(T/F) Selective exposure is the process whereby people secure information from sources that agree with them, reinforcing their beliefs.True"Fireside chats" were most associated with which president?Franklin RooseveltWhich was a result of the Pentagon Papers Supreme Court decision?The government had not met and would have needed to meet an extraordinary burden of proof for prior restraintJake, a freshman in college, gets most of his news online from sources such as the Huffington Post and Daily Kos while his grandfather Joe reads a print version of the Wall Street Journal from cover to cover. Some would argue that because he's reading a traditional printed newspaper, Joe is exposed to morehard newsFacebook is an example of a(n)social networking siteWhich Supreme Court case limited the government's ability to suppress a news story?Near v. MinnesotaWho uncovered the Watergate scandal?Bob Woodward and Carl BernsteinAccording to journalist David Broder, what is the main factor that contributes to bias in the media?The speed with which journalists must act(T/F) The popularity of Americans who listen to the radio has remained unchanged in the past decade as a medium of communication.TrueBoing Boing, Techcrunch, Talking Points Memo, and Engadget: what do we call these forms of media that provide forums for commentary, video postings, and general conversation, and allow average citizens to express their opinions to a wider audience?BlogsIn which Supreme Court case did the court require proof of actual malice in order to convict of libel?New York Times v. SullivanSince the 1990s, what has happened to newspaper readership?It has declined for both younger and older age groupsWhich assessment of the 1960 debate between Richard Nixon and John F. Kennedy is considered correct?Most television watchers thought Kennedy won, and most radio listeners thought Nixon wonIn the mid-1990s, virtually every form of media—TV news, magazines, newspapers, radio—covered O.J. Simpson's murder trial, a criminal court case involving the former football player and the suspicious deaths of his ex-wife and her friend. The O.J. trial captivated the nation for years. What is this effect called when the news covers an item so frequently that the audience begins to see the issue as immensely important?Agenda settingWhich model for interpreting public opinion asserts that the news media does not have a lot of influence on the public's thinking about politics?Minimal effects(T/F) The mass media help ensure government accountability and responsiveness by performing three important tasks: informing, investigating, and modifying the news.FasleWhich president started his own newspaper to get his message out regarding issues of the day?James K. PolkWhich three major networks aired evening news broadcasts in the early 1960s?ABC, NBC, CBSWhich amendment governs freedom of press?FirstWhich factor poses the biggest threat to the television evening news?An aging audienceWhich state has the most electoral votes?CaliforniaThe number of electoral votes a state receives corresponds to what?The number of senators and members of the House of Representatives for the stateWhich two U.S. states can split their electoral votes, as opposed to winner-take-all?Nebraska and MaineWhat does a candidate need to win the presidency?A majority of electoral votesIn the earliest presidential elections, how did electors vote for president and vice president?They cast ballots for their top two choices; the winner became president, and the second-place finisher became vice president.How many times in history has an individual NOT gained the popular vote and still become president?FiveU.S. senators serve a staggered term ofsix yearsHow many terms do members of the House of Representatives serve?TwoWhen state legislatures redraw district lines to try to keep districts equal in terms of population, it is calledredistrictingIn 1991, a redistricting in North Carolina was designed to create a district with African Americans in the majority. Later, federal courts ruled that the state had to revise those district lines so that the congressional district was more compact. What is this politicization of drawing district boundaries called?GerrymanderingThe November presidential election is coming up and the current president is running for re-election. Elise is a concerned citizen who believes that the current president is spending too much time working toward reelection and not enough time governing. This change in the president's focus demonstrates the concept of thepermanent campaignThe period before the primaries during which candidates attempt to capture party support and media coverage is calledthe invisible primaryDuring which event does the party name their presidential and vice presidential candidates and lay out the party's plan for government?The national conventionWho participated in the first televised presidential debate?John F. Kennedy and Richard NixonWhat groups can raise and give an unlimited amount of money to political candidates?Super PACsWhich statement describes spending on presidential elections from 2000 to 2016?It has risen sharplySeveral Midwest states—Ohio, Pennsylvania, Iowa, Wisconsin, and Michigan—are not considered strictly pro-Republican (like Tennessee) or pro-Democrat (like Massachusetts). What are these states, which are usually of vital interest to presidential candidates, called?SwingNoncontroversial issues that are not likely to differ between candidates—such as "keeping America safe" and "providing good education for children"—are calledvalence issuesControversial and divisive topics like gun control, abortion, and race that are often used in campaigns to break up an opponent's coalitions are referred to aswedge issuesIndividuals who currently hold the contested office but who run again are called what?IncumbentsWhat are elections called that occur in between the four-year presidential election cycles?MidtermWhat usually happens to total seats in the House of Representatives at the midterm elections?The president's party usually loses seatsSince the 1960s, competitiveness in congressional elections has been declining. This trend is referred to asvanishing marginalsWhat is it called when a popular president running for reelection brings additional party candidates into office?The presidential coattails effectIn December 2013, with President Barack Obama's popularity sagging and a struggling economy, many quality Democratic candidates decided not to run in the 2014 elections. This demonstratesthe strategic politician hypothesisFranco believes that equality and citizen participation are important political values. He believes that the more people are allowed to vote, the better the government can respond to people's interests. Franco believes in which model of voting?Jeffersonian modelWhich statement accurately describes the aim of the Constitution and the states in regard to elections?The Constitution is silent on the rules about voting in elections, leaving such choices to statesWhich amendment extended voting rights to African American males?FifteenthWhich women's suffrage advocate was arrested after her attempt to vote in 1872?Susan B. AnthonyIronically, which state elected Joseph Rainey, the first African American member of the House of Representatives?South CarolinaTo assess their educational skills, potential voters in 1960s Alabama were required to answer questions like these: Whose duty is it to keep Congress informed of the state of the union? In which document or writing is the "Bill of Rights" found? How many states were required to approve the original Constitution in order for it to be in effect? In what type of assessment are these potential votes participating?Literacy testsWhich Supreme Court case outlawed the practice of the white primary?Smith v. AllwrightWhich amendment set the voting age at 18?Twenty-SixthAround what age does voter turnout peak in the United States?60Which statement describes the relationship between income and voting?The higher one's income, the more likely one is to voteNearly three-fourths of which group of people vote in elections?College-educatedIn which model do citizens consider the costs and benefits of voting—i.e., when the benefits exceed the costs, they turn out to vote?EconomicLeroy grew up in a household with parents who voted in every election, national and local. Now as an adult, Leroy votes similarly, and when people ask him about his loyalty to the process, he simply tells them, "It is my duty to vote." Which model of voting does Leroy exemplify?PsychologicalIn which model of voting is the voting process shaped by the rules of the system, political party behavior, the ways candidates run their campaigns, and the context of the election?PrimaryHow does the average rate of voter turnout in the U.S. compare to that of other democracies?It is lowerIn which type of voting system (like Australia's) are citizens required by law to vote?Compulsory votingA trend in which older voters who die are replaced in the electorate by less reliable young voters is known asgenerational replacementThe voting-age population measure has been in error because it has not considered increases in the number of immigrants and convicted felons who are ineligible to vote. What new measure corrects for these trends?Voting-eligible populationThe National Voter Registration Act requires states toallow voters to register when they apply for or renew their driver's licensesWhy has Oregon recently had such a high rate of voting (i.e., 70 percent in 2008 and 68 percent in 2016)?Voting by mailWhat is the most common form of political participation in the U.S.?VotingWhich historical protest involved the dumping of tea in opposition to the British government-backed monopoly?Boston Tea PartyWhich political movement began with protests against the nearly $800 billion stimulus package, which Congress passed in 2009 in the hopes of ending the financial crisis that began in 2008?Tea PartyIn recent years, what has been the most common nonvoting form of political participation in the United States?Trying to influence others' votesWhich form of political participation continues to rise dramatically, especially in the last decade?Communicating directly with members of Congress