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MIS 448 Final
Terms in this set (469)
By keeping all of the application on the server, the network can control access to the software and can reduce the amount of disk storage required on each user's workstation for this application.
A local area network cannot interface with other local area networks.
Most modern local area networks provide the capabilities of transferring video images and video streams.
One of the biggest advantages of local area networks is their ability to share resources in an economical and efficient manner.
The bus/tree topology was the first physical design used when local area networks became commercially available in the late 1970s.
Baseband signaling typically uses multiple digital signals to transmit data over the bus.
All bus networks share a major disadvantage: In general, it is difficult to add a new workstation if no tap currently exists.
Hubs (and switches) support only twisted pair cable for interhub connection.
With the CSMA/CD protocol, only one workstation at a time can transmit.
If the network is experiencing a high amount of traffic, the chances for collision are small.
The most popular example of a contention-based protocol is the token-passing protocol.
The hub, in most applications, has been replaced with the switch.
A hub is a simple device that requires virtually no overhead to operate.
Most switches are transparent, which means they learn by themselves.
Switches can significantly decrease interconnection traffic and increase the throughput of the interconnected networks or segments.
A hub is designed to perform much faster than a switch.
A cut-through switch does not store a data frame and then forward it.
In a shared segment network, each workstation then has a private or dedicated connection.
Switches can be used in combination with routers to further isolate traffic segments in a local area network.
The logical link control sublayer defines the layout or format of the data frame, simply called the frame.
Three of the most popular local area network systems are Ethernet, IBM Token Ring, and Wireless Ethernet.
The term "Base", such as in 100BaseT, is an abbreviation for baseband signals using a Manchester encoding.
Using coaxial cable to transmit analog signals, 10Broad36 can transmit data at 10 Mbps for a maximum segment distance of 3600 meters.
The Fast Ethernet standards are based on 1000-Mbps transmission speeds, or 1 gigabit (1 billion bits) per second.
1000BaseSX was the first Gigabit Ethernet standard.
1000BaseT is capable of using only the Category 7 cable specification.
The 802.11 specification defined six different types of physical layer connections.
Link aggregation allows you to combine two or more data paths, or links, into one higher-speed link.
The spanning tree algorithm allows you to run cable spans between two or more networks.
Early local area networks transmitted data at only ____ million bits per second.
A local area network performs file serving when it's connected to a workstation with a large storage disk drive that acts as a central storage repository, or ____ server.
The local area network software called a ____ server provides workstations with the authorization to access a particular printer, accepts and queues prints jobs, prints cover sheets, and allows users access to the job queue for routine administrative functions.
The ____ topology consists of a simple cable, or bus, to which all devices attach.
In a bus/tree topology, connecting to the cable requires a simple device called a(n) ____.
Two different signaling technologies can be used with a bus network: baseband signaling and ____signaling.
More complex bus topologies consisting of multiple interconnected cable segments are termed ____.
The most popular configuration for a local area network is the ____ topology.
The ____ design of a network determines how the data moves around the network from workstation to workstation.
____ cabling has become the preferred medium for star-wired bus topologies.
When two or more hubs are interconnected and a workstation transmits data, all the workstations connected to all the hubs receive the data. This is an example of a(n) ____.
A(n) ____ protocol is the software that allows a workstation to place data onto a local area network.
medium access control
The most popular contention-based protocol is ____.
carrier sense multiple access with collision detection (CSMA/CD)
The interval during which the signals propagate down the bus and back is the ____.
The ____ sublayer contains a header, computer (physical) addresses, error-detection codes, and control information.
medium access control (MAC)
The ____ sublayer is primarily responsible for logical addressing and providing error control and flow control information.
logical link control (LLC)
____ was the first commercially available local area network system and remains, without a doubt, the most popular local area network system today.
The ____ standard was one of the first Ethernet standards approved.
____ was a system designed for twisted pair wiring, but with only a 1-Mbps data transfer rate for 500 meters.
A ____ system transmits 10-Mbps baseband (digital) signals over twisted pair for a maximum of 100 meters per segment length.
IEEE created the 100-Mbps Ethernet 802.3u protocol also called ____ Ethernet.
____ was the standard created for fiber-optic systems.
The IEEE 802.3z standards are also known as ____ Ethernet.
With ____, you can send electrical power over the Ethernet connection.
power over Ethernet (PoE)
The ____ is used to connect local area networks to wide area networks.
A ____ is a device that interconnects two or more workstations in a star-wired bus local area network and immediately retransmits the data it receives from any workstation out to all other workstations connected.
A ____ is a device that interconnects two segments of local area networks and acts as a filter.
A transparent bridge creates the internal port table by using a form of ____.
In a ____ architecture, the data frame begins to exit the switch almost as soon as it begins to enter the switch.
One of the more interesting applications for a dedicated segment network and a switch is creating a ____.
________________ allows you to combine two ore more data paths, or links, into one higher-speed link.
The ______________________________ is an electronic device that performs the necessary signal conversions and protocol operations that allow the workstation to send and receive data on the network.
Network Interface Card
A ____________________ occurs when two or more workstations listen to the medium at the same moment, hear nothing, and then transmit their data at the same moment.
In IEEE 802.3 standard for CSMA/CD, frames shorter than 64 bytes are considered ____________________, or frame fragments.
Perhaps the strongest advantage of a local area network is its capability of allowing users to share hardware and software resources.
____ software is used to block unwanted e-mail and is available at many levels.
The NetWare ____________________ in version 3 was a structure (similar to a database) that contains the usernames and passwords of network users and groups of users authorized to log in to that server.
What are some of the features offered by Windows 2003/2008?
-Better active directory tools
-Able to connect up to 8 windows servers
-Support for IPv6
-New and improved file and print support services
____________________ objects are not composed of any objects and are usually entities such as the users, peripherals, servers, printers, queues, and other network resources.
____ software works with the user to locate and remove applications that are no longer desired.
Microsoft Windows 7 is an example of a desktop operating system.
Network servers only include mainframe computers.
The NT ____________________ was a container object that contained users, servers, printers, and other network resources.
Linux software cannot support e-mail servers, Web servers, FTP servers, file/print servers, firewalls, proxy servers, and Domain Name System (DNS) servers.
As in Windows NT, the main object in Windows Server 2000 is the ____________________.
____________________ software allows network administrators to back up data files currently stored on the network server's hard disk drive.
The first version of NetWare to gain widespread popularity was ____.
A network operating system does not perform network support functions.
NDS is based on a well-known standard for directory services called ____.
NetWare ____________________ (NDS) is a database that maintains information on and access to every resource on the network, including users, groups of users, printers, data sets, and servers.
Recently, business and home computer users have been victims of another type of intrusion from unscrupulous outsiders—spyware.
One of the fastest growing segments of the software market is ____________________ software, the tool set to support Internet-related services.
A modern operating system must provide various levels of operating system ____, including directory and file security, memory security, and resource security.
A(n) ____________________ is the wireless LAN component that communicates with the wireless user device.
____ is a popular operating system that can be found on single-user workstations but primarily functions well on mainframe computers and network servers.
The ____________________ that accompanies a software product is a legal contract and describes a number of conditions that must be upheld for proper use of the software package.
A(n) ____________________ is a single unit or box that supports many networking functions.
In reality, a multitasking operating system runs only one program at a time.
The ____ is essentially the interface device between the wireless user device and the wired local area network.
A ____ license allows a software package to be installed anywhere within a corporation, even if installation involves multiple sites.
A(n) ____ sends messages to applications, an interactive user, or a system operator about the status of the current operation.
Windows ____, released in the year 2000, was the next generation of the Windows NT operating system and represented a significant improvement over the earlier versions of NT.
NetWare ____ server gives any authorized client anywhere on the Internet the ability to print and use storage services.
Network operating systems are essential if the network is going to allow multiple users to share resources.
When peer-to-peer networks first appeared roughly 30 years ago, they were serverless networks.
____________________ are software programs that operate in the background and support one or more functions to keep the network running at optimal performance.
Mac OS X Server is based on the Unix concept.
The primary goal of ____ software is to perform crash stalling, or to try to keep the operating system running long enough to perform a graceful exit.
Windows Server is a network operating system designed to run over a network of microcomputer workstations and provide file sharing and peripheral sharing.
_____________________________________________ is a collection of techniques for interfacing multiple hard disk drives to a computer.
When a software package is installed on a multiuser system, it is not possible for multiple users to execute multiple copies of the single program
On most network operating systems, the client workstation must be loaded with a substantial set of software. With ____, all a user needs on his or her client workstation is a Web browser.
A(n) ____ is a valuable device in the event of a power failure.
uninterruptible power supply (UPS)
What are the four steps for creating a good and appropriate tree design?
-lay out wide area network design and break into departments
-start with one or more root trees with at least one (root) domain
-add parent and child domains
The ____ of NetWare version 3 holds information about other services provided by the server to the client, such as printer, modem, and switch/router access information.
NetWare 6 was the last version of Novell's network operating system.
NetWare 5 dropped the NDS distributed database of network resources
________________________________________ is a technology in which both the mobile device and
Many of the higher-power network servers support not one but multiple processors.
Browsers allow users to download and view World Wide Web pages.
The ____ server is usually a high-powered workstation that maintains a large file system of data sets, user profiles, and access information about all the network peripherals.
____ is an intelligent system that authenticates users and includes a distributed database of information about every application, user, server, and resource on a network.
NetWare Directory Services (NDS)
First released in August 1996, Windows ____ contained a number of significant features that quickly made it a serious competitor in the network operating system market.
NT Version 4
____ was founded in 1983 and was one of the first developers of network operating systems.
Active Directory is built around the ____.
Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP)
A network operating system needs a host machine from which to operate.
A(n) ____________________ may not have any servers but allows communications between workstations, as if the workstations were all equals.
Briefly explain the evolution of the wireless LAN protocols.
802.11 with ~2mbps --> 802.11b with ~11mbps --> 802.11a ~54 mbps and 5GHz compatibility --> 802.11g ~54 mbps on 2.4GHz --> 802.11n with ~100mbps and MIMO --> 802.11ac what we have today, improved throughput and MIMO capability over 802.11n.
____________________, or unsolicited commercial bulk e-mail, has become a major nuisance to corporate users as well as individuals.
____________________ can "listen" to traffic on a network and determine if invalid messages are being transmitted, report network problems such as malfunctioning NICs, and detect traffic congestion problems.
It is not possible to create a Windows Server network with multiple domains.
Even after an application starts and is being executed, the application makes use of the operating system by making service requests through a defined ___________________________________.
NetWare ____ introduced NetWare Directory Services (NDS).
Windows Server 2000 incorporated Microsoft's answer to the highly popular NetWare NDS directory system: ____.
A bindery contains the data that pertains only to the server it resides in.
A(n) ____ license is designed for the user who might have a desktop machine at work and a laptop machine for remote sites, or another desktop machine at home.
A network server requires at least three connections to the network in the form of a network interface card.
A(n) _________________________ is the program initially loaded into computer memory when the computer is turned on.
____________________ is software that a user unknowingly downloads from the Internet; and when this software is executed on the user's machine, it begins spying on the user.
One of NetWare Version 3's main features is the ____.
Unix is often found with a text-based interface, although graphical user interfaces are available.
To protect the server from catastrophic disk failure, the disk drives on most network servers support one of the ____ techniques.
redundant array of independent disks (RAID)
In the wireless LAN ad hoc layout configuration, each user device communicates directly with the other user devices.
____ software allows a user to access all of the possible functions of a personal computer workstation from a mobile or remote location.
In a(n) ____________________ operating system, multiple programs can be running at the same time.
Microsoft's ____________________ stores information about all the objects and resources in a network and makes this information available to users, network administrators, and application programs.
A(n) _________________________ is an object that is further composed of additional objects (examples of which include servers, printers, users, or groups of users).
In CSMA/CA, the amount of time a device is made to wait before it can transmit is called the ____.
interframe space (IFS)
Wireless sniffers cannot detect how far wireless signals reach.
A(n) ______________________________ is a large, complex program that can manage the common resources on most local area networks.
With a system-based or ____ license, there is rarely a software counter controlling the current number of users.
A(n) ____________________ license, operating system user license, and controlled number of concurrent users license all refer to essentially the same situation.
A ____ is a server that has no cabinet or box, but resides on a single printed circuit card.
____________________ software is designed to scan an IP address or range of IP addresses for any type of security weakness.
What are the functions performed by a network operating system?
To name a few:
-Basic operating system features like protocol support, processor support, etc.
-Features for file, web service, printing and replication
-Security features like authentication, authorization, etc.
-Directory and name services management
-remote access and system management
____ software can locate and clean the spyware programs found in a computer's memory and hard disk drive.
What are some of the more common RAID techniques?
RAID 0 - striping
RAID 1 - Mirroring
RAID 5- striping with parity
RAID 6- striping with dual parity
RAID 10- combining mirroring and striping
Under the terms of the ____ license, the software package may be installed on a single machine, and then only a single user at one time may be using that machine.
In the ____ layout configuration, multiple cells are supported by multiple access points, as in a cellular telephone network.
extended service set
"Wireless Ethernet" is a local area network that is not based primarily on physical wiring but uses wireless transmissions between workstations.
A(n) ____________________ is the computer that stores software resources such as the network operating system, computer applications, programs, data sets, and databases, and either allows or denies workstations connected to the network access to these resources.
Every software company may create its own brand of user licenses and may name them something unique.
A local area network that is not based primarily on physical wiring but uses wireless transmissions between workstations is a(n) ____.
____ technique is also known as disk mirroring.
The ____ manages all the other programs (applications) and resources (such as disk drives, memory, and peripheral devices) in a computer.
Unlike NetWare's NDS, Active Directory creates a hierarchical structure of resources.
____ software incorporates a fairly large number of network support tools.
Users cannot interact directly with the operating system through a shell.
____ software is designed to detect and remove viruses that have infected your memory, disks, or operating system.
Unix runs on the widest variety of hardware of any network operating system.
A ____ operating system should be capable of supporting the applications and tools necessary to support Internet operations.
How does the NetWare Directory Services (NDS) work?
NDS is a database that maintains information on, and access to, every resource on the network. A network admin creates a hierarchical tree structure that represents the layout of the organization. The tree is composed of organizational units which are composed of further objects, and leaf objects, which are not composed of further objects
An interesting feature shared by all versions of NetWare is that the ____ is virtually invisible to the user.
The wireless LAN standards call a single-cell wireless LAN a(n) _________________________.
basic service set
The wireless LAN term for a collection of multiple Basic Service Sets is ____.
Extended Service Set (ESS)
The resources that a network operating system must manage typically include one or more network servers.
A ____ license allows a software package to be installed on any and all workstations and servers at a given site.
Wireless local area networks are typically found in seven basic configurations.
____ software is the application or set of programs that stores Web pages and allows browsers from anywhere in the world to access those Web pages.
In the ____, or ad hoc, layouts configuration, there is no access point at the center of a cell.
The ____ network operating systems were the first to perform redirection on a local area network.
Linux shares many of the same advantages and disadvantages of Unix.
The type of algorithm that tries to avoid collisions is called_____________________________________________.
The most recent version of the Windows network operating system is Windows ____.
2012 (2019 if an option)
The design of a tree should ideally be similar to a pyramid.
Shortly after its introduction, the Unix software was rewritten in the popular C++ programming language.
Popular operating systems for microcomputers include Mac OS X, ____, Linux, and the various forms of Windows XP/Vista/7.
A ____ area network is typically confined to a single building or a couple floors within one building.
With ____, when a frame relay router experiences congestion, it sends a congestion signal forward to the destination station, which in turn tells the originating station to slow down the transfer of data.
forward explicit congestion notification (FECN)
With ____ routing, routing tables are created once, typically when the network is installed, and then never updated again.
A wide area network's sub-network, or cloud, may be categorized by the way it transfers information from one end of the sub-network to the other.
CSMA/CD is the only network technology that successfully supports connection admission control and quality of service.
____ is advantageous when a copy of a packet needs to get to all nodes.
Provide and explain an example of a circuit-switched network.
An example would be an analog telephone network. In this network, an operator would connect each end user's node to the person he/she is trying to reach.
A network limit, called the ____, can be placed on how many times any packet is copied.
The SONET network topology is a ____.
In ____, before one node sends a series of n packets to another node, the sending node inquires in advance whether the receiving node has enough buffer space for the n packets.
One disadvantage of distributed routing is related to the problems that arise if the routing tables need to be updated.
MANs are almost exclusively ____ networks, and thus capable of supporting data rates into the tens of millions and hundreds of millions of bits per second.
When all the routing information is in one place, it is difficult to make updates to the routing information.
Briefly explain the most important aspects of a Metro Ethernet.
It can be easily scaled up or down. Meaning user can go from a few mbps to Gbps.
To distinguish between a piece of data processed at the data link layer and a piece of data processed at the network layer, the term "____" is used at the data link layer, and the term "packet" is used at the network layer.
A wide area network would not exist without a sub-network.
The type and number of interconnections between nodes and the way network data is passed from node to node are the responsibility of the ____.
A network that expands into a metropolitan area and exhibits high data rates, high reliability, and low data loss is called a(n) ___________________________________.
metropolitan area network (MAN)
All wide area networks are collections of at least two basic types of equipment: a station and a ____.
A common example of a connection-oriented network application is DNS.
A virtual circuit breaks a large amount of data into n packets.
A(n) ____________________ network is a sub-network in which a dedicated circuit is established between sender and receiver, and all data passes over this circuit.
When a user stores data in "the cloud", the data is stored on the user's premise in what is called a "cloud server".
SONET rings typically have a failover time of ____ milliseconds.
A ____ network is the only network that offers a dedicated path.
A classic algorithm that calculates a least-cost path through a network is ____ algorithm.
How is routing through a wide area network accomplished?
Interior and exterior switches that forward packets and need routing tables. They must have universal routing, meaning a hop to each destination is possible, and optimal routes (shortest path).
A(n) _________________________ is a collection of computers and computer-related equipment interconnected to perform a given function or functions and typically using local and long-distance telecommunications systems.
wide area network
A wide area network's underlying sub-network consists of multiple nodes, each with multiple possible connections to other nodes within the sub-network.
Any network is as strong as its strongest link.
When a node on a wide area network ____ network transmits its data, the data is received by all the other nodes.
______________________________ protocol is a link state algorithm and is still used today by many Internet routers.
Open Shortest Path First
A ____ is a legally binding, written document, that can include service parameters offered in the service, various types of service/support options, incentives if the service levels are exceeded, and penalties if service levels are not met.
service level agreement
A(n) ____________________ is a large surge of data that's transmitted for a short period of time.
The ability to reroute in the event of a failure is called ____________________.
A(n) ____________________ is a device that allows one or more stations to access the physical network and is a transfer point for passing information through the network.
In a network graph, the edge between each pair of nodes can be assigned a weight or associated cost to form a structure called a(n) _________________________.
weighted network graph
____ area networks can cover large geographic distances, including the entire Earth.
Ciccuit-switched networks will someday replace packet-switched networks.
How does a virtual circuit packet-switched network work?
Path is established between the source and final destination, but parts of the path may be used for other transmissions (not a dedicated physical circuit). Source and destination identify a suitable path for the virtual circuit.
The ____-switched network is most often found in networks designed to transfer computer data (such as the Internet).
Almost all MANs are based on one of two basic forms of supporting technology: ____ or Ethernet.
____ avoids congestion by requiring users to negotiate with the network regarding how much traffic they will be sending, or what resources the network must provide to satisfy the user's needs before the user sends any data.
Connection admission control
Some congestion control methods are based on simple techniques such as the flow control methods.
LANs cover much greater distances than MANs do.
The underlying sub-network of a connectionless application cannot be a circuit-switched network.
With _____________________________________________, the frame relay router experiencing congestion sends a signal back to the originating station, which then slows down its transmission.
backward explicit congestion notification (BECN)
A ____ profile describes various characteristics about the connection, such as basic data transfer rates, basic burst rates, excess data transfer rates, and excess burst rates.
The sub-network of a wide area network is the logical infrastructure and thus consists of nodes and various types of interconnecting media.
Wide area networks carry both data and voice.
Most MANs are supported by Ethernet ring technology.
One of the primary advantages of ____ routing is the fact that no single node is responsible for maintaining all routing information.
Broadcast networks are as common as circuit-switched and packet-switched networks.
The major disadvantage of flooding is the large number of copied packets distributed throughout the network.
A(n) ____________________ network application provides some guarantee that information traveling through the network will not be lost.
SONET was designed to support multiple streams of voice channels.
____________________ is a data transfer service that can connect your business to another business (or businesses) using a standard Ethernet connection.
A(n) ____________________ is a collection of nodes and interconnecting telecommunications links.
sub-network, or cloud
In a(n) ____________________ network, all data messages are transmitted using fixed-sized packages, called packets, and no unique, dedicated physical path is established to transmit the data packets across the subnetwork.
When routing tables adapt to network changes, the routing system is called ____.
The first routing algorithm used within the Internet was called a distance vector routing algorithm.
A(n) ____________________ is a device that a user interacts with to access a network, and it contains the software application that allows someone to use the network for a particular purpose.
____ and distributed routing are methods for controlling routing information.
The three basic types of subnetworks are ____, packet-switched, and broadcast.
Wide area networks share a few characteristics with local area networks.
A local area network works as a ____ network in that clusters of workstations are connected to a central point (hub or switch) through which workstations can transmit messages to one another.
____________________ routing is a technique that uses a routing algorithm to generate routing information and dictates that this information be stored at distributed locations within the network.
A wide area network connects its workstations through the use of a ____ design and requires routing to transfer data across the network.
The path in a circuit-switched network exists only in the software.
____ and virtual circuit networks require path setup time and cannot dynamically reroute packets should a network problem occur.
A company that has a connection with Metro Ethernet can create a(n) ____________________ for that connection.
A feature that is fairly common in ____ is the ability of a user to dynamically allocate more bandwidth on demand.
A(n) ____________________ network application does not require a logical connection to be made before the transfer of data.
The speed at which a failover is performed is the ____________________.
____________________ is a synchronous time division multiplexing technique that is capable of sending data at hundreds of millions of bits per second.
____ applications do not negotiate a connection, and the transfer of data is rarely, if ever, acknowledged.
Many of the same technologies and communications protocols found in local area networks are used to create metropolitan area networks.
The two types of packet-switched networks are the datagram and the ____.
A ____ network application provides some guarantee that information traveling through the network will be delivered to the intended receiver in the same order in which it was transmitted.
Circuit-switched networks were designed primarily for voice signals.
You can assign many meanings to the weights in a weighted network graph.
Most wide area networks use some form of Dijkstra's algorithm to determine a least-cost route through a network.
What are the problems associated with network congestion?
The main problem is slow-down (lag): the time between a request sent and obtained results gets longer the more congested a network is.
Each time a packet is copied, a counter associated with the packet increases by one. This counter is called the ____.
When an application is simply observing its own throughput and not relying on any special types of signals coming from the network, this is called ____ congestion control.
When a network or a part of a network becomes so saturated with data packets that packet transfer is noticeably impeded, ____ occurs.
____ are advertised as networks with very low error rates and extremely high throughput.
____________________ states that each node takes the incoming packet and retransmits it onto every outgoing link.
A connection-oriented network application provides what is called a(n) ___________ service.
____ routing involves storing all the routing information at one central location.
Some MAN topologies are based on a ring.
A ____ application does not guarantee the delivery of any information or data.
In a(n) ____________________ packet-switched network, all packets that belong to a logical connection can follow the same path through the network.
A network that is connected in a ____ is one in which neighbors are connected only to neighbors.
Compared to Dijkstra's least-cost routing algorithm, the flooding technique seems more complex.
To provide a reliable service, the network requires that a logical connection be established between the two endpoints.
When the network signals the transmitting station to slow down, this is called _________________________.
Explicit Congestion Control
Local area network Ethernet allows users to set their own data transfer rates.
____________________ routing is a dynamic technique in which routing tables react to network fluctuations, such as congestion and node/link failure.
In a(n) ____________________ packet-switched network, each data packet can follow its own, possibly unique, course through the sub-network.
A network that expands beyond a metropolitan area is a ____ area network.
__________ involves the continuous download of a compressed audio or video file, which can then be heard or viewed on the user's workstation.
Streaming audio and video
The TCP header ____ field contains a 32-bit value that counts bytes and indicates a packet's data position within the connection.
_________ lets a router represent an entire local area network to the Internet as a single IP address.
The IPv4 ________ field enables the network to discard a datagram that has been traveling the Internet for too long.
Time to Live
Real-Time Streaming Protocol (RTSP) is a(n) _________ layer protocol.
During the 1960s, a branch of the U.S. government titled the ____ created one of the country's first wide area packet-switched networks.
Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA)
__________ is the capability of a network server to transmit a data stream to more than one host at a time.
________ is the electronic selling and buying of merchandise using the Web.
The Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol (PPTP) is an extension of the Internet's __________.
Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP)
_________ is actually a set of protocols named packet-based multimedia protocols, and it was designed for a wide range of applications (audio and video).
A ____ is data created by a Web server that is stored on the hard drive of a user's workstation.
Given the IPv4 address 18.104.22.168/24, how many addresses are available for the hosts?
To make IPv4 addresses a little easier for human beings to understand, the 32-bit binary addresses are represented by dotted decimal notation.
Instant messaging (IM) allows a user to see if people are currently logged in on the network and, if they are, to send them short messages in real time.
One of the biggest changes to affect the Internet will be the continuing adoption of a new version of the Internet Protocol, version ____.
A socket is a precise identification of a particular application on a particular device, created by combing an ________and _________ number.
________ takes an IP address in an IP datagram and translates it into the appropriate medium access control layer address for delivery on a local area network.
Address Resolution Protocol (ARP)
To transfer Web pages, the Internet uses the ____.
Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP)
The Time to Live (TTL) field indicates how long a particular datagram is allowed to live.
____ is a terminal emulation program for TCP/IP networks, such as the Internet, that allows users to log in to a remote computer.
_____________ is a protocol that converts telephone numbers to fully qualified domain name addresses.
IMAP is the software that allows the user to save e-mail messages in a server mailbox and download them when desired from the server.
The ICMP or Internet Control Message Protocol, which is used by routers and nodes, performs error reporting for the Internet Protocol.
Convert this IPv4 address 1000 0001 1000 1101 0000 1100 1100 1111, to dotted decimal notation?
Electronic data interchange (EDI) is the electronic commercial transaction between two or more companies.
A tunneling protocol is the command set that allows an organization to create secure connections using public resources such as the Internet.
The primary functions of ___________ are to allow a user to download a file from a remote site to the user's computer and to upload a file from the user's computer to a remote site.
File Transfer Protocol (FTP)
IP is the protocol used by most networks and network applications to create an error-free, end-to-end network connection.
HTML pages are static text documents that browsers read, interpret, and display on the screen.
Given the IPv6 address 6A3E:BA91::877B:FFEF/104, how many bits identify the host ID?
Multiprotocol Label Switching (MPLS) is a technique that enables a router to switch data quickly from one path onto another path.
The most popular protocol that handles dynamic assignment of IP addresses is ______________.
Every device that has a connection to the Internet is assigned an IP address.
________ is a set of codes inserted into a document that is intended for display on a Web browser.
Hypertext Markup Language (HTML)
Private local area networks often use NAT to conserve IP addresses.
The protocol that resides at the __________ layer in the TCP/IP protocol suite is called Internet Protocol (IP).
IP is a connection-oriented protocol.
__________ is a client/server protocol in which e-mail is received and held for you at your Internet server.
Internet Message Access Protocol (IMAP)
IP multicasting suffers from a lack of security.
____ is the computerized version of writing a letter and mailing it at the local post office.
A ____ is a data network connection that makes use of the public telecommunications infrastructure but maintains privacy through the use of a tunneling protocol and security procedures.
virtual private network (VPN)
____ is a common application layer protocols that servers and the Internet use to deliver streaming audio and video data to a user's browser.
Real-Time Protocol (RTP)
The National Science Foundation funded the creation of a new high-speed, cross-country network backbone called the ____.
The ________ is a large, distributed database of Internet addresses and domain names.
Domain Name System (DNS)
The _________ provides a connectionless data transfer service over heterogeneous networks by passing and routing IP datagrams.
________ is a no-frills transport protocol that does not establish connections, does not attempt to keep data packets in sequence, and does not watch for datagrams that have existed for too long.
User Datagram Protocol (UDP)
There are six classes of IPv4 addresses: Class A, B, C, D, E, and F.
The primary function of ___________________________________ is to turn an unreliable network into a reliable network that is free from lost and duplicate packets.
The practice of making telephone calls over the Internet has had a number of different names, including packet voice, voice over packet, voice over the Internet, Internet telephony, and ____.
The Hypertext Transfer Protocol, or HTTP, is a transport layer protocol.
____ is the gathering and use of the browsing habits of potential and current customers, which is important data for many companies.
Since we've run out of IPv4 addresses, organizations are implementing IPv6.
In 1983, the Department of Defense broke the ARPANET into two similar networks: the original ARPANET and ____.
When an intranet is extended outside the corporate walls to include suppliers, customers, or other external agents, it becomes a(n) extranet.
____ is a set of protocols developed by the Internet Engineering Task Force to support the secure exchange of data packets at the IP layer.
The IPv6 address 6A3E:BA99:0:0:0:87BA:0123:FFEF can be abbreviated as:
A 16-bit address uniquely defines a connection to the Internet.
The ____________________ is a vast collection of electronic documents that are located on many different Web servers and contain text and images that can be accessed by simply clicking links within a browser's Web page.
IP datagram is essentially another name for a data packet.
Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) was introduced in 1998 by the Internet Engineering Task Force specifically for supporting the transfer of voice over the Internet.
The basic idea behind ____________________ is to take the host ID portion of an IP address and further divide it into a subnet ID and a host ID.
A ____________________ is a high-speed communications service that allows high-speed access to wide area networks such as the Internet via a cable television connection.
A ____ service is an all-digital connection that can transfer either voice or data at speeds up to 1.544 Mbps.
A(n) __________________ handles all in-house calls and places calls onto outside telephone lines.
private branch exchange (PBXs)
MPLS and VPNs continue to replace which long-distance data services?
frame relay and ATM
Because DSL is an always-on connection, it uses a ____ circuit instead of a switched circuit.
DSL and cable modems are more expensive than frame relay systems at comparable speeds.
The frame relay service can only be a long-distance service.
Frame relay was originally designed and used to transfer packets of data between two sites more cost effectively than leased lines could.
The basic telephone system, or __________________, has been in existence since the early 1900s.
After the 1984's Modified Final Judgment, the long-distance telephone companies became known as ______________.
interexchange carriers (IECs or IXCs)
The Telecommunications Act of 1996 mandated that the existing local telephone companies, now called ____, must give CLECs access to their telephone lines.
incumbent local exchange carriers (ILECs)
The permanent connection in a frame relay network that is necessary to transfer data between two endpoints is called a(n) _____________.
permanent virtual circuit PVC
Quarter-T-1 and half-T-1 lines are called fractional T-1 services.
_______________ are permanent direct connections between two specified points.
A(n) ________________________________ is a service from local telephone companies in which up-to-date telephone facilities at the telephone company's central (local) office are offered to business users, so that they don't need to purchase their own facilities.
central office exchange service
A cable modem is a physical device that separates the computer data from the cable television video signal.
____________________, like frame relay, is a very high-speed, packet-switched service that is offered by the telephone companies.
Asynchronous Transfer Mode
A ___________ is a bundle of VCCs that have the same endpoints.
virtual path connection (VPC)
When no splitter is used to separate the DSL signal from the POTS signal, then the service is called ____________.
As long as a telephone call remains within a LATA (an _____________ call), the telephone call is local and is handled by a local telephone company.
A company that wishes to have its own in-house telephone system will often buy or lease a PBX.
______________________ means that users can specify telephone numbers that are allowed to get through.
If the telephone call passes out of one LATA and into another (an ___________ call), the telephone call is long distance and must be handled by a long-distance telephone company.
Only two wires are required to complete a telephone circuit.
Prior to 1984, AT&T (American Telephone and Telegraph) owned all the long-distance telephone lines in the United States.
A(n) ____ connection has a faster downstream transmission speed than its upstream speed.
________ means that a user calling into a company telephone system provides some form of data by speaking into the telephone, and a database query is performed using this spoken information.
Integrated voice recognition and response
_______________ is the term for the convergence of real-time and non-real-time communications services such as telephony, instant messaging, video conferencing, speech recognition, voice mail, and email into a single interface.
The _______________ contains the equipment that generates a dial tone, interprets the telephone number dialed, checks for special services, and connects the incoming call to the next point.
central office CO
Text-to-speech and speech-to-text conversion means that as a person speaks into a telephone, the system can digitize the voice and store it on a hard disk drive as computer data.
Before ATM can transfer any data, you must first create a logical connection called a ____.
virtual channel connection (VCC)
The most popular example of a leased line service is the T-1.
_______ is a technology that allows existing twisted pair telephone lines to transmit multimedia materials and high-speed data.
Digital subscriber line
____ is a packet-switched network that was designed for transmitting data over fixed lines.
____ is a popular format that transmits the downstream data at a faster rate than the upstream rate.
Asymmetric digital subscriber line (ADSL)
An asymmetric service is useful for an Internet connection in which the bulk of the traffic comes down from the Internet to the workstation.
The __________________ paved the way for anybody to offer a local telephone service to homes and businesses.
Telecommunications Act of 1996
The telephone network consists of two basic types of telephone lines: a subscriber loop, or standard telephone line, and a __________.
A ___________________________ is a large, computerized, self-contained telephone system that sits in a telephone room on a company's premises.
PBX - private branch exchange
A(n) ___________ connection is one in which the transfer speeds in both directions are equal.
The ___________ allows the customer to exceed the committed information rate by a fixed amount for brief moments of time.
The Internet can transfer conventional data and voice data.
Digital subscriber line comes in a variety of formats. Often collectively referred to as ____.
Immediately after the breakup of AT&T there were seven (7) Regional Bell Operating Companies (RBOCs). As of year-end 2009, there are three (3) RBOCs.
It wasn't until the 1950s that POTS began carrying computer data signals as well as voice signals.
The ______________ is the telephone line that leaves your house or business.
After the 1984's Modified Final Judgment, the local telephone companies became known as ______________________.
local exchange carriers (LECs)
Cable modem connections are typically symmetric.
Typically, frame relay is a replacement for the leased lines that connect a business to other businesses or connect multiple offices of the same business.
A real-time interactive application is one of the most demanding with respect to data transmission rate and network throughput.
A ____ virus is a common type of virus that is programmed into an attached macro file.
A ____ virus is a virus that infects a piece of executable code such as an .exe or .com file.
Controlling access to a computer network involves deciding and then limiting who can use the system and when the system can be used.
All system attacks need a user to open an e-mail or Web page.
A firewall cannot limit users on the Internet from accessing certain portions of a corporate network.
Some common types of denial of service include e-mail bombing, ____, and ping storm.
Perhaps the most common form of protection from unauthorized use of a computer system is the ____.
IEEE ____ addresses both weaknesses of WEP by allowing the keys, encryption algorithms, and negotiation to be dynamically assigned, and by adopting the AES encryption based on the Rijndael algorithm with 128-, 192-, or 256-bit keys.
____ technology essentially takes the data to be transmitted and rather than transmitting it in a fixed bandwidth spreads it over a wider bandwidth.
SSL's successor is ____, which is based upon SSL version 3 and contains a few technical improvements over SSL.
Transport Layer Security (TLS)
A popular attack method is to abuse or take advantage of valid user accounts and the permissions associated with those accounts.
____ is a set of protocols created to support the secure transfer of data at the IP layer.
IPsec (IP security)
____ scanning works by recognizing the unique pattern of a virus.
A ____ substitution-based cipher replaces a character or group of characters with a different character or group of characters.
Possibly the earliest example of a polyalphabetic cipher is the ____ cipher.
____ is data before any encryption has been performed.
The first security protocol for wireless LANs was ____.
Wired Equivalency Protocol (WEP)
To authenticate electronic documents as yours, you need to create a digital signature.
____ is high-quality encryption software that has become quite popular for creating secure e-mail messages and encrypting other types of data files for average users.
The opposite of asymmetric encryption is ____ encryption, in which one key is used to encrypt and decrypt.
A ____ cipher is different from a substitution-based cipher in that the order of the plaintext is not preserved.
A ____ virus is usually stored on some form of removable media. When the removable media (such as a flash drive) is connected to a new machine and is used to boot the machine, the virus moves from the media into the host system.
A packet filter firewall is a computer running proxy server software, whose function is much like that of a librarian who controls access to books in a library's rare books room.
A ____ is a list of certificates that have been revoked before their originally scheduled expiration date.
certificate revocation list (CRL)
A ____ virus mutates with every infection, thus making them difficult to locate.
All certificates are issued by a certificate authority.
False (BUT marked true as correct. If she doesn't change it, mark TRUE)
In ____, a Web user seeking to visit a particular company's Web site is unknowingly redirected to a bogus Web site that looks exactly like that company's official Web site.
A ____ is a security procedure that uses public key cryptography to assign to a document a code for which you alone have the key.
____ involves electronically monitoring data flow and system requests into and out of their systems.
One of the most common ways to control access to a system is to require user IDs and passwords.
Auditing a computer system is a necessary step to ensuring policies and procedures are being following and implemented correctly.
A worm is a form of computer virus.
false (Again, she marked True as correct...so mark true if she doesn't correct)
____ may be considered a form of physical protection.
A(n) ____ is the computer program that converts plaintext into an enciphered form.
Many certificates conform to the ____ standard.
____ is the name of a particularly nasty automated program that attacks a network by exploiting Internet Protocol (IP) broadcast addressing and other aspects of Internet operation.
The National Institute of Standards and Technology selected the algorithm Lucifer in October 2000 as the basis for AES.
A ____ is a common Internet tool used to verify if a particular IP address of a host exists and to see if the particular host is currently available.
An antivirus technique that is used in conjunction with signature-based scanning and terminate-and-stay-resident monitoring is ____.
One popular application of IPsec is in the support of virtual private networks.
A(n) ____ is the unique piece of information that is used to create ciphertext and then decrypt the ciphertext back into plaintext.
The concept of two keys, public and private, is called ____ cryptography.
One of the inherent problems with protecting a single key is that it means that only one key is used to both encode and decode the message.
____ usually involves having a software program that monitors every transaction within a system.
____ is an authentication protocol designed to work on client/server networks that use secret or symmetric cryptography.
If e-mail messages have a return address of someone other than the person actually sending the e-mail, then the sender is ____.
The ____ firewall is essentially a router that has been programmed to filter out certain IP addresses or TCP port numbers.
Early cryptography algorithms used the same key for both encryption and decryption.
One of the primary functions of Kerberos is to authenticate users.
____ is the combination of encryption techniques, software, and services that involves all the necessary pieces to support digital certificates, certificate authorities, and public key generation, storage, and management.
Public key infrastructure (PKI)
Some computer systems generate random passwords that are very difficult to guess, but are also hard to remember.
Both SSL and IPsec may eventually give way to S-HTTP, the newer security standard created by the Internet Engineering Task Force.
The two leading attack methods for the last few years have been socially engineered attacks and exploited known vulnerabilities in operating systems and in application software.
WAP has been replaced by a new standard, Wired Equivalency Protocol (WEP).
____ spread spectrum spreads the transmission of a signal over a wide range of frequencies using mathematical values.
The distribution layer of a campus network is responsible for
Providing administrative and support services to the network
Rules that ensure inter-operability among devices
In class, you hook your laptop to a network port on the room wall or via a WiFi router. The port is part of the ______ of the campus network
A network that connects multiple buildings located near each other is commonly called a
To ensure availability in a campus network, redundancy is usually provided at the
The US Department of Defense (DoD) funded the development of TCP/ IP with the goal of
Developing a robust communication system that would be functional even if large parts of the system were destroyed in war
The core layer of a campus network is responsible for
Fast and reliable transportation of data across different parts of the network
The logical network design includes all of the following except
Specific technologies used to implement the network
The simple network management protocol is used to
Manage and control IP devices
The goal of network design is to
Meet end user needs within budget
The management information base of a device manageable by SNMP contains
Only information essential for fault or configuration management
A design is a
Detailed description of a product or service
An organization's geographically scattered network is called a(n)
The process of standardization provides all the following advantages except
Rapid introduction of a technology
In a small office network where the hosts are within 100 meters of each other, the most suitable technology to connect the devices is usually
In the TCP/ IP stack, standards at the network and transport layers are mainly developed by
The Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF)
Standards for Ethernet and wireless LANs (802.11) are developed and maintained by
The Institute for Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
The access layer of a campus network is responsible for
Providing network ports to end users
The physical network design updates the logical design by including the
Specific technologies used to implement the network
During the requirements analysis phase, the goal is to
Identify the categories and locations of users and applications
Subnets can be created in the network using
A network that connects devices located within a single building is commonly called a
In the modular approach to network design
the network is built by reusing a standard design that has been refined from experience
All of the following are advantages of standardizing on one vendor except
Access to the best technologies for every network component
Network costs include
Setup costs, maintenance costs and downtime costs
____________________ allows all future print requests to be automatically forwarded to the network printer in an operation that is transparent to both you and the application.
Sets with similar terms
Chapter 4 Go! All in One
CS chapter 7
Other sets by this creator
MIS 448 Midterm
Vocab 4 Q3
Vocab 3 (Q3)
Other Quizlet sets
PSCI 3500 Midterm Part 2
Healthy Body Composition
OB exam II
Write a recursive definition of i*j (integer multiplication), where i>0. Define the multiplication process in terms of integer addition. For example, $4 \times 7$ is equal to 7 added to itself 4 times.
True/False: A sentinel loop should not actually process the sentinel value.
The Python print function supports other keyword parameters besides end. One of these other keyword parameters is sep. What do you think the sep parameter does?
What header file must you include in a program using the character conversion functions toupper and tolower?