1. specify the communication tools within the channel more precisely
2. focusing tactics within a specific channel, you ensure that members of the key public will receive the message at least once, but likely more than once. 3. overlap makes it more certain the message will be selected to be perceived, retained, and acted upon.
always need to be approached in the context of your research and the problem/opportunity you're tackling.
4. developing tactics only after your objectives, publics, messages, and strategies have been determined will ensure they are aligned to help you accomplish your goal
5. creativity required of good tactics must be carefully channeled to ensure the strategic alignment of your campaign.
6. the tools — the hammer, nails, lumber, and paint — you need to build a successful campaign
8. activities you undertake to implement your campaign
9. everything that costs money, aside from research and measurement
10. calendar and in your budget
11. the success of your campaign will ultimately rest on the implementation of them
12. fail when they do not support strategies or are poorly executed
13. diversity is key increases creativity and results
14. the more the better
15. detail the creative tools designed to convey your messages and solicit action from your key publics
16. specific tasks that are the implementation of the campaign
By 2014, research showed that business held the trust advantage over governmentandwas expected to lead thewayin helping government establish and maintain an appropriate regulatory environment (Edelman, 2018). By 2016, trust in all four institutions measured — business, government, nongovern-mental organizations (NGOs) and media — reached its highest level since the Great Recession of 2008. Trust in business had the largest jump in trust, putting it in a prime position to lead in cementing public trust in society's institutions. But by 2018, trust in the four institutions did not just erode, it imploded, partic-ularly in the U.S., which garnered the lowest trust level among the 28 international markets measured. According to CEO Richard Edelman, we are now in "an unprece-dented crisis oftrust" in the U.S., and in many other global markets. Edelman, one of the world's largest public relations firms, has conducted an annual global survey ofpublic trust in institutions. In 2018, overall trust among the informed public in the U.S. plunged 23 points to 45 percent, led by a decline in trust in government of 30 points to 33 percent — the largest trust decline in the history of the Edelman Trust Barometer (see Figure 1.1). Respondents said that government is the most broken institution in the U.S. (59 per-cent). Trust in business, media and NGOs in the U.S. also had significant decreases. At the same time, trust in China soared, led by an increase oftrust in government to 89 percent of the informed public. The strengthened trust level in China puts it at the top of the global trust index, accompanied by India, Indonesia, United Arab Emirates and Singapore. South Korea also scored higher trust levels underscoring the trend of strengthened Asian markets. The 2018 survey also shows a reversal in the declining credibility of CEOs. CEO credibility rose seven points to 44 percent. Business is now expected to be a change agent, as publics say building trust is now the primary responsibility of CEOs, even more important than producing high-quality products and services. A broad group of individuals that has a vested interest, or "stake," in an organization.
evaluate in forming their per-ceptions of reputation and relationship
• Stakeholders affected by the problem, issue, challenge or opportunity.
• Current attitudes, opinions and values of stakeholders pertaining to the problem, issue, challenge or opportunity.
• Active or aware publics that may have formed in response to the problem, issue, challenge or opportunity.
• Demographic and psychographic data (beliefs, values, attitudes, lifestyles and decision-making process).
• Relationship quality between stakeholders, publics and the organization.
• Social media conversations about the issue, challenge or opportunity, including hashtags, search terms, key words, volume, sentiment, trends, engagement, macro and micro influencers, content authors and publishers.
• Motivating self-interests.
• Intervening publics and opinion leaders.
• Information sources and preferred media channel
Enabling stakeholders have some degree of authority or control over your organization. They restrict organizations from or enable them to acquire resources and pursue their goals. Examples include shareholders, lawmakers and government regulators.
Functionalstakeholders are essential to make your organization function prop-erly. Theyprovide the labor (employees or subcontractors)andresources (e.g., suppliers) your organization needs to produce and deliver products and ser-vices. They are also consumers ofyour organization's products and services.
Normative stakeholders share a common interest, have similar values, seek relatedgoalsandexperience similarproblemsasyourorganization.Examples include competitors and industry associations.
Diffused stakeholders have infrequent interactions with your organization. Usually, these interactions are caused by your organization's actions or deci-sions. They often get involved during a crisis. Examples include the mediaand activist groups.
The global community is in a crisis of trust. The crisis was precipitated by societal institutions — business, government, NGOs and media — neglecting the relationships that are key to our success. A staggering decline in trust of government has affected trust in the other three institutions leaving business and CEOs to act as change agents to regain public trust across the board. Strong, trust-based relationships are crucial to long-term survival. In the past 25 to 30 years, public relations scholars and communication professionals have been struggling to return the practice of the organization's communication to its strategic role and function. Recognizing that we evolved away from, rather than toward, the strategic counseling role we should be serving, we have examined our roots in communication as well as current trends in business, society and technology. Essentially, we are now in a better position than ever in terms of driving relationship building within organizations. We must systematically track the status of those relationships to ensure appropriate allocation of resources over the long term. Within the context of those relationships, we can more effectively use traditional analytical and strategic planning to solve organizational problems. The Strategic Communications Matrix provides one of the best tools available to approach all communications challenges and opportunities within the trust-based relationship framework of today's successful organizations Events or conditions inside an organization that influence how it operates. Factors that influence internal environment can be categorized as strengths or weaknesses.
• Purpose: Mission, values, character, history. • Management and leadership: Scope of business, corporate governance, senior leaders, size, growth, financial performance, social responsibility, environmental responsibility, ethical standards.
• Workplace environment: Personnel, structure, culture, employee engagement, diversity and inclusion. • Reputation: Visibility, distinctiveness, authenticity, transparency, consistency, responsiveness. • Impact of the problem, issue, challenge or opportunity on the organization
Organizations, companies, sales, distribution patterns, control and regulation, promotional activity, geographic characteristics, profit patterns, strengths, challenges.
• Industry growth patterns, primary demand curve, per capita consumption, potential. • History, technological advances, trends. • Impact of the problem, issue, challenge or opportunity on the industry.
• Product or service development, quality, design, packaging, pricing policies and structure, sales and profit history, market share, demand, trends, distribution.
• Product or service sales features (exclusive, nonexclusive, differentiating qualities, competitive position in pub-lic's mind).
• Sales force or service providers (size, scope, ability, cost/sale). • Product or service research and planned improvement
Promotions • Successes and failures of past policy, sales force, advertising, publicity. • Expenditures, budget emphasis, relation to trends. • Ad/PR/marketing strategies, themes, campaigns. • Promotions of competitors and like organizations.
8. Resources • Intervening publics and opinion leaders. • Attitudes and opinions toward product, issue or organization. • Physical facilities, budgets, personnel, client support
2nd EditionLawrence Scanlon, Renee H. Shea, Robin Dissin Aufses 3rd EditionDarlene Smith-Worthington, Sue Jefferson David W. Moore, Deborah Short, Michael W. Smith 1st EditionCarol Jago, Lawrence Scanlon, Renee H. Shea, Robin Dissin Aufses